Christkindl or an earlier "Santa Claus"

Christkindl or an earlier "Santa Claus"
Evidence for Christ going to other nations found in later legends about wandering Christ-child, or Christkind going around the earth during Christmas times. Click on picture for historical documentary auto playlist of evidences for Christ's world wide treks!

Legends of Christ's Appearing In Different Guises

Legends of Christ's Appearing In Different Guises
Numerous legends, traditions, art works & early Christian writings tell how Christ went to other nations. In time, these became later stories about Christkind's = Christ-child's wanderings during Christmas seasons during the 10th to 21st centuries. See on You Tube: Christ As Cosmic Cruiser by clicking on this picture.

Sunday, March 13, 2011

Evidences That "Historic Biblical Earlier Christianity" Had Temple Type "Mysteries"

A Study of Ritualistic Realm Travel in "Historic Biblical Christianity"*
 Earlier Bibles, Mysteries, Writings, Art Works, , Traditions & Legends
Tracing them through the centuries in order to understand what happened to each aspect during
"the apostasy," & their eventual legendization in later Christendom
DT 2001, Revised 2011
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Revised 2011 difficulties:  A copy of an earlier draft for this article was in Adobe Reader format. In the process of attempting to bring it into this blog, it lost some of the different language letterings. Thus, I've had to get as close to them as possible with English letters, which aren't exact.
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One of the many charges that many anti-Mormon "Christians" make is that members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, (also commonly called Mormons), can't be "Christians" because they have strange doctrines and "occult" "secret ceremonies" in their Temples.(1) What modern anti-Mormon"Christians" continue to do, however, is not accept the fact that "historic biblical Christianity,"* which they claim to be part of; is filled with evidences that testifies that early to later Christians had, at one time, their own different versions of Temple type endowments, called "mysteries"! We see evidences of such things in their mysteries, liturgical rites, wood, ivory & stone carvings & illumination manuscripts. Plus, in historic Christian wedding ceremonies, weddings-love & engagement rings, icons, symbols, writings, illustrated old Bibles & customs. Plus, in the way different Monks would greet each other & in Christian Knight Orders' ceremonies, and later legends.(2)

Though this is an extensive study of such evidences, it's not going to be an official Church sponsored one, or one that compares The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints' Temple Endowment and those of historic Christianity. Furthermore, the purpose of this sample of evidences, for there's much, much more I could have included, isn't to attempt to convince any of these critics that they have to believe in the restored versions. But rather, it is to show to them and others, the reasons why this writer believes that the endowment was restored by the prophet Joseph Smith. The reader, as far as I am concerned, can continue to believe what ever they want to believe. If they are a critic, as far as I'm concerned, they can even continue to close their eyes to this evidence, for this presentation is really for honest investigators who may have asked, as I have: "If the endowment was restored, what happened to it, during the Great Apostasy?"

Dr. Huge Nibley wrote that members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, believe that their temple mysteries, (ordinances), go way back into primitive history, and that they are as old as the human family. Furthermore, they represent "a primordial revealed religion that has passed through alternate phases of apostasy and restoration which have left the world littered with the fragments of the original structure..."(3) Nibley says this of these fragments of the mysteries, some of them "are more and some less recognizable, but all badly damaged and out of proper context."(4) Nibley also notes some of the explanations mentioned that early Christian fathers gave when confronted with striking parallels, plus the disturbingly close resemblances between Christianity and others, notably Egyptian, beliefs and practices.(5)

During the 20th century, an army of scholars collecting thousands of scattered pieces of earlier customs and folk-tales, then tried to put them together like pieces to a big jig-saw puzzles, in order to see whether they all come from a few basic systems or even go back to a single all-embracing pattern. "Whatever the end result may be, it is perfectly clear by now that the same sort of thing has been going on for a very long time and in virtually all parts of the world."(6)

Critics use of Parallels:
Critics often point out the numerous parallels that there are between masonic mysteries, and the Mormon Temple endowments in order to make the charge that Joseph Smith "borrowed" from the Masons because he became one. One of the points behind this extensive research sample of evidences is to demonstrate, beyond all shadow of doubt, that the greater resemblances are not between the Mormon Temple endowment and Masonry, but between historic Christian mysteries and the Mormon Temple endowment. A parallel which many learned critics continue to reject and ignore as they continue to "expose" the "secret" Mormon Temple ceremonies.

It should be noted, however, that the best kept "secret" among the more learned anti-Mormon "Christians" seems to be the fact that historic Christian art works, writings, and rituals are full of the greater resemblances with the Mormon Temple, than they are with Freemasonry. For how could they not know, especially after reading through the earlier works of Dr. Huge Nibley and other Scholars from The Foundation For Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, in order to find "flaws" in their research?(7)

The reason why Freemasonry has some parallels with the Mormon Temple, is because of how the stone masons, from which Freemasonry gets its name from, preserved many aspects of the earlier Christian mysteries, plus other aspects of mystery religions too. The masons, after all, were the ones who carved such symbolism in stone for the many different Christian religious leaders' cathedrals, etc. Hence, that's why they knew these symbols so well. Eventually, they fraternalized them in their Orders.

Similarities between ancient & modern critics

Early Christianity, with its rituals, teachings, splinter groups, apostates, rivals, and other problems, and goodness; caught the attention of many non-Christians of their times. How the Romans, Greeks, Jews, and others saw the Christians and interpreted their motives is one of the reasons why they persecuted, hunted them down and killed them.(8)

Inasmuch as "Christian" anti-Mormons use parallel hunting tactics to charge that Joseph Smith borrowed from the masons, couldn't the same charged be made against them, especially after we note the resemblances between their charges and early anti-Christians. Couldn't it then be argued that they borrowed from the early anti-Christians? Many of us, who discern a negative spirit of hate that is felt when exposed to a lot of anti-Mormon propaganda, might even conclude that the same spirit that inspired the early anti-Christians, must also be inspiring modern "Christian" anti-Mormons.

Did anti-Mormon "Christians" borrow from early anti-Christian charges?
Early anti-Christians charged that: The early Christians met in secret to perform secret rites.(9) They bound each other to conspiratorial oaths in plotting against the Roman Empire.(10) They perform magical spells,(11) borrowed from other occult societies.(12)

Critics often wondered what devious things took place at early Christian meetings. Why they did things in secret and shunned the light of day. Could a non-Christian man trust his Christian wife, or visa versa, when they went to these secret meetings? Where they taking part in sexual acts, ritual murders,(13) & cannibalism?(14) Early anti-Christians also knew that some aspects of the early Christian mysteries included hand grips, secret pass words, rite of passage, gestural signs, and oaths.(15)

170-180, Celsus charged that: "There is nothing new or impressive about their ethical teaching; indeed, when one compares it to other philosophies, their simplemindedness becomes apparent."(16)

During the time of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 19th century, the endowment had become so fragmented that it was very far away from what it must have originally been. Hence, Joseph Smith, upon noting fragments of the endowment, as they were deposited in freemasonry, calls the later masonic versions "apostate" endowments.

Temple Evidences in art works of Christ's descent into Limbo, Hades, Purgatory, Hell &
Ritualistic Types of Descents: Baptism, & Baptism for the Dead

All throughout the centuries, different Christian artists had to decide which moment of the descent of Christ into the underworld, hades, limbo, etc., that they were going to depict. The most common moment of the whole drama was to show different types of hand(17) and wrist grips,(18) or wrist grasps.(19) Some of which show the nail mark wound in Christ's right hand being felt by the gripper's right hand thumb.(20) Others decided to depict the moment when Christ began to turn, while still holding the hand or wrist, others of him turned(21) to act as a hand or wrist grasping guide.(22)

For many early to later Christians, baptism was a type of Christ's descent into the spirit prison, for after having been anointed, they became an anointed one, or in a symbolical way, a "Christ". After which they descended down into the baptismal waters as a type of how Christ had descended into the spirit prison, thus, in some cases, they were baptized as if they were in the spirit prison (1 Peter 3:15-22, 4:5-6; Eph.4:7-10, Isa.42:6-7; 1 Cor. 15; Shepherd of Hermas, Book 3, Similitude 9, chapter 16).

In the Epistle of Barnabas, the hand clasp is mentioned in connection with Christ's descent to redeems the spirit prisoners out of darkness, (citing Isa.42:6-7): "I, the Lord Thy God, have called Thee in righteousness, and will hold Thy hand, and will strengthen Thee; and I have given Thee for a covenant to the people, for a light to the nations, to open the eyes of the blind, & to bring forth from fetters them that are bound, and those that sit in darkness out of the prison-house."(23)

About A.D. 170, the descent of Christ into hades, and the hand clasp was mentioned towards the end of a sermon ascribed to Melito, [A.D. 160-170-177], bishop of Sardis. He said that Christ arose from the dead and cries to us saying, among other things: "I lead you up to the heights of heaven, I will show you the Father who is from the ages, I will raise you up by my right hand."(24)

Gregory of Nyssa, A.D. 330-386, mentions several temple types, washing, anointing, apron covering, robes, and how Christ had opened the prison, and did release the condemned so that they would be able to enter into paradise.(25)

In The Gospel of Nicodemus, (6th century?), Christ shows Adam the sign of the cross, and a hand grip by which he may enter into paradise when he and the others ascend up to the angel who guards the door leading to paradise.(26)

A worked showing the descent, dates back to the 7th to 8th centuries A.D., and shows Christ clasping the right hand wrist of a man.(27)

8TH CENTURY, The Iconoclast period, among the frescoes of the Greek pope John VII (705-7), & in Sta
Maria Antiqua, Rome, a depiction of the descent shows Christ striding forward over the body of Satan and
stretching out a hand to ADAM AND EVE.(28) Hence, some art works show Christ and Adam reaching with their hands towards each other, depicting the moment just before the hand clasp. Others show souls riding up on a garment. And then of them being clothed in a garment. In some cases the garment seems to act as a protective covering against the demons who are depicted as attempting to reclaim, or stop the person in their ascension into paradise.(29) In another work, it is with his right hand, that Christ grasps a person's left wrist.(30)

975 A.D., a depiction of the descent shows a person, (Eve) with up-lifted hands (in prayer?), as she watches the naked Adam as he is being raised up out of the pit by Christ who is grasping his left wrist with his right hand.(31) Another depiction of Christ's descent, is the Pala d'Oro, retable in St Mark's Basilica, it was created in Constantinople in 976 and was brought to Venice in 1105. The hand clasp is also depicted in this one too. Another depiction of Christ's descent is seen with other art works. Christ goes down to a cave like cavern and clasps the hand of Adam while a number of souls wait in the background to greet their deliverer. (32)  980 A.D., a portion of an ivory bucket has Christ raising Adam(?) up out of limbo.(33) 981 & 987, Christ into limbo, is also in a mandorla, the symbol often seen behind a person or persons making other realm pilgrimages. Christ has also turned and is striding up-ward as he pulls Adam up out of the flames of hell by grasping, with his right hand, the left wrist of Adam.(34)

10th-11th centuries A.D., the descent, or the Anastasis (resurrection) as one of the 12 feasts. Christ clasps, with his right hand, the right hand of a person. During the same time, another depicts right hands being used to make the hand grip.(35)  10th-- 11th century, on an Altar cross, "c. 1024/39; in the centre a Fatimid crystal, tenth century." We see, in the lower portion of the cross, angels descending toward a soul with up lifted hands. One of the angels is reaching out towards those hands, hence it is the moment before the clasp.(36) 1020, a mosaic shows Christ coming up out of hell grasping, with his left hand, the right hand wrist of Adam.(37) A Byzantine work, a 11th century mosaic of the Torcello Cathedral depicts, Christ who has "just passed through death and seems to have increased in stature on emerging from the tomb; he seizes Adam by the hand  and leads him, along with Eve, towards the light."(38) Peter Damiani, A.D. 1006 or 1007, died at Faenza on Feb. 22, 1072, in a speech entitled: The Glory of the Cross of Christ, he said mentions how Christ penetrates the dungeons of hell: "I," said the Lord, "if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto Me."(39) The way Christ is often depicted as drawing people to him, or raising them up is by different types of hand and wrist grips. 1018--1045, on the book-cover of Archbishop Aribert, Christ descent into hell is seen below the crucifixion. Hence, it may be that this work is derived from the traditional tomb of Adam, said to be below the cross. In this case, Christ's left hand grasps the right wrist of Adam.(40) In another, Christ is clasping, with his left hand, the right wrist of Adam.(41) Another mosaic shows Christ grasps the right wrist of a man (Adam?) with his own left hand.(42) Christ stands on the broken down and crossed doors of hades, he has turned, & with his right hand, Christ has pulled a clothed man up by grasping the man's right wrist. Below, a number of people in graves, stand with up-lifted hands in praise and prayer.(43) 11th century, Byzantine work, a Lectionary of the Gospels, in Greek, shows, Christ gripping, with his right hand, the right wrist of Adam, to lift him up out of his grave.(44) In the middle of the 11th century A.D., another mosaic, Christ's descent into limbo, Christ clasps the wrist of a person with his right.(45) 11th and 12th century A.D., descent into limbo, Christ grasps Adam's left wrist with his right hand.(46) 11th century through the early 12th century, Christ's left hand grasps the right wrist of the person. The other souls behind the first also reach out their hands, as if waiting to be grasped by Christ too.(47) A Byzantine work, dated 11th--12th centuries, shows no hand grasps, instead Christ spreads out his hands toward Adam and Eve, rising from their tombs.(48)

12TH CENTURY A.D., a mosaic of purgatory, Christ grasps, with his right hand, the right wrist of a person (Adam?) to raise him up out of his tomb. A number of people stand near by with up-lifted hands.(49) 12th century wall painting at the Church at Tavant, Christ, with his right hand, grips both wrists of Adam. Christ is also assisted by the hand of God, which extends out of heaven to help battle, with a lance, the monstrous demons attempting to stop Christ.(50) Another work shows, on the west wall of Torcello Cathedral (12th c.), Christ's left hand raises Adam up his left wrist.(51) The Miniatures of the Life of Christ, France, c. 1200, shows Christ drawing the just out of the mouth of hell with a left hand clasp on both hands of a naked soul. Some of the others have their hands raise up together as if in prayer and praise of Christ.(52) Another 12th century work shows the descent into limbo in which Christ is about to turn while holding on to the left hand wrist of a person, with his own right hand.(53) Matthew 12:29 may have been seen as a type of Christ's descent, for Christ binds Satan, the strong man's hands and feet, and enters into his prison house in order to spoil his house. A 12th century Winchester Bible illustration of the letter B shows Christ, with his right hand, grasping the right wrist of the naked Adam, while other naked souls, with up-lifted hands, begin to ascend up out of the jaws of hell.(54) A 12th century window in the cathedral of Le Mans shows the descent, said to be based on other works at Venice and Torcello. Christ turns toward the left to seize Adam's hand and draw him along.(55) 12 century book cover shows the descent in which Adam is being raised up out of the grave by his left hand by Christ who has grasps his wrist with his right hand.(56) 12th century, Anastasis, Christ, turned, grasping, with his left hand, the right wrist of a person being raised up out of the grave.(57) The descent in part of a panel from the 12 century that depicts the 12 feasts of the Church, Toledo. While standing on the fallen crossed doors, Christ has turned, and, with his right hand he grasps the left hand wrist of a person being raised up.(58) 12th century Gospel book. Christ's right hand grasps the left wrist of a clothed person (Adam?).(59) An English manuscript, A.D. 1150, shows Christ's left hand grasping the right wrist of a person. While at the same time that person extends behind him his left hand and grasps the right wrist of a woman.(60) 1150, in the Alton Towers triptych is an enamel work, it shows Christ turned, while gripping the right hand of Adam, the first in many to be raised from hell.(61) 1150--1160, on an altar frontal from Olst, Christ grasps with left.(62) 1175's, Christ, with his right hand, clasping the right hand wrist.(63) Christian artists, during this century, continued to depict different types of hand grips in works on the descent.(64) Neophytus caused that art works depicting the Crucifixion and the Anastasis to be painted in the niche over his tomb, thus the "Enkleistra" was painted in 1183 A.D. With his right hand, Christ grasps Adam's left wrist.(65) A late 12th century, Christ bends forward while grasping, with his right hand, the hands of a person being raised up out of a grave.(66) Late twelfth-century, French miniature shows, Christ's left hand, grasps "Adams's hand."(67) In another, the hand grip is done with left to right.(68) 1196, Eve stands behind Adam, as Christ grips with his right hand, the right wrist of Adam. (69) 1213, naked souls exiting out of the jaws of hell make gestures with up-lifted hands, as Christ grips Adam's hand.(70) 1220, Christ grasps with the hand of Adam to raise him up out of hades.(71) 1222, Christ turning, holds Adam's right wrist with his right hand, while others near by make gestures with their hands.(72) 1230, Christ raising souls up by their hands.(73) French work, left to right wrist.(74)

13th century icon, in the Church of St. Clement, Macedonia, shows right hand to left wrist.(75) 1250--75, a Venetian artist, Christ's right to left, while an older woman, rests her left hand thumb on the wrist of that same hand being clasped, she is extending her right hand as if before being grasped by Christ too.(76) 1250-1285, Christ's left to left wrist, with the jaws of hell opened, souls exit it with up-lifted hands, clasped together in prayer.(77) Christ turned, grips left to left wrist, while the person's right is raised in an oath or vow position.(78)

A panel, from the Monastery of Vatopedi, Mount Athos, 13th--14th centuries, the 12 feasts includes the descent. Christ turned grips right to right wrist.(79) 1305, right to left wrist.(80) 14th century, right to right hand.(81) 1308--11, in Siena Cathedral, Duccio di Buoninsegna, Christ grasps with his right.(82) An early 14th century Russian icon, hand shake is with the right hand. Others are greeted by a person who is reaching out a hand as if about to clasp their hands. Other art works show hand clasps taking place in the door way to paradise, hence the moments before the grips.(83) 1320--30, Christ bends forward to grasp the hand of the first soul in many souls to be rescued from hell.(84) 1330, a Spanish work, Christ grasps the hand of the first in many to be set free from hell.(85) Christ's right to right wrist.(86) In another 14th century work, Christ's left grips left wrist of Adam.(87) In an icon, Christ grip is right to right wrist. Christ, in the mandorla, suggests that he is in the act of passing from one realm into another. The mandorla and different kinds of hand grips are often seen in depictions that show other realm pilgrimages, such as the descent down in and ascension up out of hell, and the ascension up into heaven.(88) Christ bends forward to raise up a person out of the grave by clasping, with his right hand, the left wrist.(89) During the 1st half of the 14th century, a number of art works in Christian churches show among other subjects, Christ's descent with the traditional hand clasp, followed by another portion which shows Christ's exit out of the tomb. In another, the rescue is made by Christ's helping hand. In another Christ clasps the hand of the first one to be rescued.(90) A 14th century(?) Steatite plaque, Byzantine, Christ in a mandorla extends his hand to a group. The clasp is done with Christ's right to right to lift a person out of a grave.(91) 14th century, the Master of Westphalia, Christ in Purgatory, Adam's hands are raised and clasped together in the traditional prayer gesture with the fingers pointing up, hence, Christ is clasping both of Adam's hands.(92) 14th century, a late Byzantine fresco in the apse of the parecclesion of Kariyeh Djami, Constantinople. Christ grips right to left wrist, while clasping the right wrist of a female, with his left.(93) 1375's, altarpiece, Christ grips right to right hand of the first person to come forth from a cave.(94) Late 14th century, Christ's right to left wrist.(95) Late 14th -- early 15th, Christ's left to left wrist A.D.(96) 15th century, many depictions of the descent still show hand clasping rite of passage, as Adam clasps the hand of Christ.(97)

14th or 15th cent., Christ shake hands of the first in many to be rescued from hell, part of the Passion Scenes. Florence, Santa Maria Novella, Spanish Chapel, north wall. Another shows Christ standing inside the door way as an elderly man reaches out with both hands to clasp Christ's right hand. Christ in the mandorla, again suggests that he is about to take the rescued on a journey to other after life realms,(98) by guiding them by the hand, as in another, showing right to left wrist.(99) 15th century, right to left.(100) In another, left to right, in this rendering in alabaster made in Nottingham.(101) Another shows a grip right to left wrist.(102) 1425-30, Christ's left hand thumb rests on the knuckle of the middle finger of Adam's left hand.(103) 1430, Christ is about to put his left hand into the right hand of Adam.(104) 1430--1460, Flemish work, hand clasp.(105) The Venetian painters, Bellini and sons knew about the descent. The father, Jacopo Bellini [A.D. 1395-1471] had studied with Gentile de Fabriano. Jacaopo had great success as a pageant painter and one of his works shows the descent of Christ into limbo where Adam, on his knees, grasps and kisses the right hand of Christ.(106)  Towards the end of the 15th century A.D., a work by Bermejo. The hand clasp, is in the form of a clasp that includes the kissing of the hand. Royal and religious leaders were often greeted in this way, as seen in other depictions of the traditional rites of passage hand clasps before Christian kings' thrones. Christ and others stand on the doors of hell, as many souls exit hell naked, except some have a thin cloth that covers their lower parts. Upon entering in through the doors of paradise, many of them are still naked, and so it may be that they had not yet been clothed in robes and garments yet, as in other art works.(107) With his left hand, Christ clasps the right hand of a naked soul ascending up out of the jaws of hell.(108) 15th century, the moment just before the hand clasp, for Christ is about to take a hold of Adam's hands with his left hand. The jaws of hell open wide to allow the souls to come forth to greet Christ.(109) An old man, representing Adam, clasps Christ's right hand with both of his hands.(110) At the end of the 15th century, icons, depicting the descent, shows grips right to right hands.(111)

Beginning of the 16th century, among the Icons in Czechoslovakia, Russoan, Christ grasps, with his hands the wrists of both Adam and Eve to raise them up out of their graves.(112) In a work showing the harrowing of hell, Christ stands on the doors of hell and helps Adam up by clasping his hand. Though Adam and the others are often depicted naked, it is because it's only a moment in their after life realm journey, which if it could be shown in sequences of events, like in a movie, it would show them being eventually clothed in robes or garments as in the art works' ritualistic counterpart, baptism and baptism for the dead. Hence, eventually they will be clothed in garments and robes upon their ascension into paradise.(113) 16th century, Adam's grave under the cross, shows a hand clasp.(114)  1512, a later moment in the descent, for near the broken down doors of hell stand Adam and Eve who have already been lifted up by the hand of Christ. With his right hand, Christ clasps the left wrist of a man as he begins to lift him up.(115) Another one shows the traditional rites of passage hand clasp again, as souls exit out of hell naked to be clothed in garments during their ascension. At least this is what numerous other art works show, when we consider the whole drama.(116) Another shows right to right.(117) While in another, the hand clasp isn't depicted, but rather, Christ makes a gesture of blessing.(118) 1520, in a publication at Burgos in 1520, similar to the account of Villena, as in other sources, it's during Christ's post-resurrection world wide trek that he takes the rescued to visit his mother Mary. During these visitations, Christ is often depicted displaying his wounds by making different types of arm gestures, as he explains the symbolical meanings and types behind the mysteries or ordinances by expounding on prophecies. Many early to later Christians understood these mysteries to included prayer & other sacramental gestures, baptism, anointings, garments, robes, coronations, & rites of passage hand grips,
etc., all of which were types of that which was to come when it was their time to die and ascend into heaven to be glorified & deified.(119) 1531--38, Christ reaches down low to grasp the hand of a person being set free from hell. Others may have already been rescued, for they stand watching in the back ground.(120) 1552, a statement of belief was presented by the Church of England, which mentions Christ's spirit preaching to spirits in prison. However, in the 1562 version, the reference to the preaching and the verses about it were removed.(121) 1572--73, Christ grasps right to right.(122)

17-19TH CENTURIES

1700, Russia, Christ clasps the hand of a person ascending out of the jaws of hell.(123)

THE MASSIVE SILVER BINDING OF THE GOSPELS, IN THE CATHEDRAL OF ST. GEORGE, Christ clasping the hand. Another work shows a hand clasp involved in the descent. "FUNERARY TAPESTRY OF 1600 FROM THE THREE HIERARCHS, JASSY. THIS PALL IS OF BLACK GENOSES VELVET EMBROIDERED WITH GOLD AND PEARLS". While another depicts Christ clasping the hand of an old man. The mouth of the cave is jagged as if to remind us of the other art works that depict the jaws of hell. This work is of "Christ in Limbo, by Sassetta, in the Fogg Museum, Cambridge."(124) Another, 16th-- 17th the grip is left to left wrist.(125) 1763, right to right.(126) 1772, right to right.(127) 1868--70, Christ in limbo, shows him reaching down towards the souls held there.(128)

Baptism and Baptism for the Dead
as Ritualistic types of Christ's descent into Hell:
Hand & Wrist Grips in Historic Christian Baptismal Ceremonies

The ritualistic journey of the soul through the different realms took place in different levels and rooms of some of the Churches. Some fonts had steps on both sides, as if to suggest that the person was on a journey through the different realms. When they descended down into the font, this was thought of as a type of Christ's descent into hades, limbo, the grave, etc. When they ascended up the steps on the other side, it was a type of Christ's ascension up out of hades, etc.(129)

Paul saw baptism as a double assimilation, the first being a type of Christ death, the second of his resurrection and victory over death. In the "earliest form of Christianity there is a connection between baptism and Christ's descent into hell immediately after his death.... In the liturgical and doctrinal texts of the patristic era, numerous indices can be found of this conjunction of baptism with the descensus ad inferos..." Paul and Peter are said to have seen in baptism a type of Christ's descent into the spirit prison.(130)

In the Latin west, the baptismal creed of the Italian see of Aquileia (Rufinus, Symb. 18;28) made reference to the descent. Richard Temple suggested that "the Harrowing of Hell, is the psychological prison into which... [humanity] is expelled from Paradise. Or we may say it is the dark place in ourselves where God has not yet entered.... In order to understand man as he actually is, we need to study the icon of the Harrowing of Hell, the Easter icon. Here man, represented by Adam and Eve, is in that psychologically low place signified as a tomb."(131) During the 4th century A.D., S. Cyril of Jerusalem said that the three immersions in the baptismal waters were a type of Christ's burial, for they "descended three times into the water, and ascended again; here also covertly pointing by a figure at the three-days burial of Christ."(132)

John P. Lundy wrote that Ciampini explains an ancient mosaic on the right of the altar, in the chapel of St. Pudentiana, in Rome, as representing nude trine immersion and Confirmation together. "The legend is significant enough. "Here in the living font the dead are born again." Alcuin, who, in the eighth century, says this of it: "Baptism is performed in the name of the most Holy Trinity by trine immersion (submersione), and rightly so, because man, being made in the image of the Holy Trinity, is restored to the same image, and because he fell into death by a three-fold gradation of sin, he thrice rises from the font to life through grace."(133)

In some cases, during the early Christian baptismal mystery the catechumens would receive a new name, take a baptismal vow or oath, strip their old garments to receive new ones, and would be guided by the hand. They must have also received a number of hand grips similar to the ones depicted in the art works that show Christ's descent in to the underworld, etc., and his ascension into heaven, etc. They also received the imposition of hands--(laying on of hands on their heads), and would pass through a veil or curtain that was hung across the font. This was all part of their ritualistic journey through the different realms on towards the higher realms.(134)

Both the art works and early Christian writings, show that the way people are "drawn" in unto Christ, is by hand and wrist grasps, for Christ reaches out with his hands and grasps hold of their hands or wrists and pulls them to him. Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria, A.D. 298 to 373, and other early Church Father,(135) must have had these types of hand and wrist grasp in mind, as noted in the word of Athanasius, in his De Incarnatione Verbi Dei (Incarnation of the Word), when he wrote: "Whence it was fitting for the Lord to bear this also and to spread out His hands, that with the one He might draw the ancient people, and with the other those from the Gentiles, and unite both in Himself. For this is what He Himself has said, signifying by what manner of death He was to ransom all: "I, when I am lifted up," He saith, "shall draw all men unto Me." He also wrote how Christ clears the air of the demonic forces attempting to stop their ascension, and thus prepares "the way for us up into heaven, as said the Apostle: "Through the veil, that is to say, His flesh"---and this must needs be by death... [on the cross]."(136)

Washings and Anointings in Historic Christianity

During part of the ritualistic journey through the afterlife realms, before going down into the font, which again was a type of Christ's descent into hell, they were anointed which symbolically made them "Christs". Hence, in connection with the rites of baptism and anointing, Cyril said: "Being therefore made partakers of Christ, ye are properly called Christs, and of you God said, Touch not My Christs, or anointed (Heb. 3:14; Ps. 105:15). Now ye were made Christs, by receiving the emblem of the Holy Ghost; and all things were in a figure wrought in you, because ye are figures of Christ." He goes on to say that the anointing was made on the forehead, ears, nostrils, and breast. "Then on your breast; that having put on the breastplate of righteousness, ye may stand against the wiles of the devil. For as Christ after His baptism, and the descent of the Holy Ghost, went forth and vanquished the adversary, so likewise, having, after Holy Baptism and the Mystical Chrism, put on the whole armour of the Holy Ghost, do ye stand against the power of the enemy, and vanquish it, saying, I can do all things through Christ which strengtheneth me." (Phil. 4:13)."(137)

Perhaps some Christians during these later centuries may have also thought of last rites as a sort of protection against the devil and his demons, just as in the earlier rite of anointing before baptism, they were anointed before descending down into the font, or waters of baptism, as if, in a symbolical and ritualistic way, they were about to die and descend into hades, limbo, etc., just as Christ did to do battle with the devil and his demons.

Russell points out that baptism was considered, in some branches of Christendom, to be a type of the descent of Christ into the under world, & that the anointing was a seal against the further assaults by the Prince of Darkness. Hence, they were "anointed with holy oil as a seal against further assaults by the Prince of Darkness. In the central act of baptism, the descent into water symbolized descent into the underworld of death, and emergence from the water symbolized rebirth and resurrection. Baptism, the culmination of the individual's freedom from Satan, had powers to cure illness of body and mind as well as corruption of soul."(138)

Clara Erskine Clement points out that during the Romanesque period, "the spiritual life of the Christian was seen as a struggle with the monstrous powers of evil. It was necessary for the soul to be armed by baptism; to enlist the power of Christ and his warrior Saint Michael in the unending struggle with the Devil."(139) Christ, the angels, etc., during the descent were sometimes depicted as being armed with weapons (sometimes the cross was used as a weapon), when doing battle with the devil and his demons. Squires who longed to be dubbed knights may have thought about these things, or they may have been reminded of them when they passed through different kinds of rites to knighthood. The rites to knighthood included different things, depending on the time, and place. These rites might include, among other things, prayers with up-lifted hands, oaths, ceremonial baths, being clothed in new garments, receiving a shield, sword and banner, & the cross as one of their symbols too.(140) Thus, as "Christs" they descended down into the font, just as Christ had descended into the lower regions. And, as anointed "Christs," they could also defeat the demons of the underworld, just as Christ had, during his descent.

E. Baldwin Smith notes how that in many Christian baptisteries' art works, there were numerous imageries & symbolical architectural designs that related to death, martyrdom, the descent into hell or the anastasis (the resurrection), plus, the ascension into paradise. This "artistic symbolism was given deeper content by the Church Fathers who had established a mystic equation which made baptism a reexperience of the death and resurrection of Christ."(141)

Upon being baptized they became a proxies for those of their friends or kindred who needed the seal of baptism in order to escape out of the spirit prison. And like Christ, they too would also bring out spirits who had been held in captivity. As the proxy ascended up out of the font, in some cases the proxy may have been raised up with different types of ritualistic rites of passage hand grips. This was a similitude and type of how God the Father had raised Christ up in the resurrection and ascension into heaven with different types of hand grasps. And in turn, how Christ, or his angels lift up the dead from the underworld, limbo, hades, the pit, from the fall, or the grave during the resurrection and ascension into paradise or heaven.(142)

The hand clasp to raise the newly baptized out of the baptismal waters is seen in a 3rd century crypt, again, perhaps connecting the resurrection out of the underworld, or the grave, with its ritualistic counterpart, baptism, if not even baptism for the dead. Hence, in a wall painting fragment in Rome, in the crypt of Lucina, the baptismal scene shows a person grasping right to right, as the person is being raised up out of the water.(143) Another shows this same type of symbolical imagery, a person is being raised out of a baptismal bowl, as if also coming up out of the grave. The font was symbolic of the underworld, the grave, etc., in many cases in early to later Christianity, & thus the artist may have wanted to present a type of Christ's descent, & the  and clasp that is depicted there also. For Christ clasps, with his left hand, the right wrist of the person in the baptismal bowl, while His right hand has been placed on the head of the person. The depiction above this one show the ascension into heaven.(144) In a Gothic manuscript, a possible baptismal scene, or type of one, shows a naked soul in a barrel, with both hands raised up towards the hand of God extending down from above. Hence, it may be the moment before the clasp.(145)

In the act of Christ reaching down towards Adam's hand to clasp it, in order to raise him up from the grave, the pit, hades, limbo, etc., (as that realm has been called in early to later Christendom.) And as Adam reaches up towards Christ's hand. (Again we see the hand clasping "rites of passage" or ritualistic symbols in such hand clasps, see: Isa. 42:6-7; Eph.4:7-10; 1 Pet. 3:15-22, 4:5-6; etc.) Adam's "reentry to paradise has already begun & his deification (along with the deification of mankind) is already under way in this miracle of re-creation, as the Anastasis came to be known."(146)

John of Damascus mentions the descent of the proxy as a type of Christ's descent into hades: "The soul when it was deified descended into Hades, in order that, just as the Sun of Righteousness rose for those upon the earth, so likewise He might bring light to those who sit under the earth in darkness and shadow of death: in order that just as He brought the message of peace to those upon the earth, and of release to the prisoners,... so He [too] might become the same to those in Hades: That every knee should bow to Him, of things in heaven, and things in earth and things under the earth. [citing Phil 2:10], And thus after He had freed those who had been bound for ages, straightway He rose again from the dead, shewing us the way of resurrection."(147) In many cases the hand clasp or helping hand is seen in how Christ takes a hold of their hand. Perhaps as in also in the symbolical "rite of passage hand clasps" mentioned & seen so many times in the early to later Christian art works & writings concerning the descent & ascension of Christ, in & out of the under-world, hades, limbo, the pit, grave, etc. In thus taking a hold of their hand, they are raised up from their fallen state or  conditions. And supported, so as to never fall away again. Christ had thus sealed them His, with this hand clasp.

Later Christian art works show tug of wars, between angels of God & demons. The demons attempt to cause the "fall" of those who are on their way towards the heavenly realms, & moral perfection. Angels clasp a hold of the ascending souls,' arms, hands, or wrists, in order to pull them up towards the heavens. While demons attempt to hold them back, or pull them down, thus helping in their fall.

Earlier, Clement of Alexandria seems to suggest that the garment is a symbol of Christ. "And I will be" He [Christ] says, "their Shepherd," and will be near them, as the garment to their skin. He wishes to save my flesh by enveloping it in the robe of immortality, and He hath anointed my body."(148)

Clement then seems to hint to the symbolical journey of the soul on it way towards immortality. In the mysteries, upon coming out of the font & being clothed in a garment, it was a type of the newly resurrected soul's journey or passage towards the realms of the divine in immortality. For he also wrote: "They shall call Me," [Perhaps making reference to those in the spirit prison who call unto the Lord for help.](149) "He" [Christ] "says, "and I will say, Here am I." Thou didst hear sooner than I expect, Master. "And if they pass over, they shall not slip," saith the Lord. For we who are passing over to immortality shall not fall into corruption, for He shall sustain us. For so He has said, & so He has willed...."(150) Clement goes on to hint to the symbols & types in the mysteries. The garment & anointing is a type of that deification to come. The anointed are deified, their bodies are clothed in a body which shines forth with immortality & that same type of divine light as Christ's glorious body does. The garment of light being a type of this.

Clement of Alex.: "Boast not of the clothing of your garment, & be not elated on account of any glory, as it is unlawful." [Speaking of those who cloth themselves after the luxurious garments of this earthly world. For God   has in mind a better and more luxurious garment to cloth them in.] For "those that wait at the court of heaven around the King of all, are sanctified in the immortal vesture of the Spirit, that is, the flesh, and so put on incorruptibility."(151)

Clement also wrote that the priestly robes of the Jews in the Old Testament times, in their laws & ordinances, these were a prophetic type of Christ's ministry in the flesh. The point here being, that one of the symbolical meanings behind robes & garments was that it was a symbol & similitude of the body, the flesh. And in some cases the deified glorified resurrected body. The Christian was also to take upon themselves the same type of glorified body as Christ's resurrected body. Thus, the garments & robes of the mysteries were a type of this. Clement of Alex., wrote: "Truly, then are we the children of God, who have put aside the old man, & stripped off the garment of wickedness, & put on the immortality of Christ; that we may become a new, holy people by regeneration, & may keep the man undefiled."(152)

Clement of Alex., also wrote that in "our regeneration, we attained that perfection after which we aspired". And in having followed Christ's example in "being baptized, we are illuminated; illuminated, we become sons, being made sons, we are made perfect; being made perfect, we are made immortal. "I," says He, "have said that ye are gods, & all sons of the Highest." [Citing from Psa. 82:6.] "This work is variously called grace, & illumination, & perfection, & washing: washing, by which we cleanse our sins; grace, by which the penalties accruing to transgressions are remitted; & illumination, by which that holy light of salvation is beheld, that is by which we see God clearly."(153)

In coming up out of the font, again, the font was a type of the spirit prison, grave, limbo, hades, the pit., etc., the Lord reaches down to clasp their hand. Clement seems to hint to this, when he wrote concerning the descent of Christ into hades. "For some the Lord exhorts, and to those who have already made the attempt he stretches forth His hand, & draws them up."(154) This is what we see many times in the art works(155) of the harrowing of hell, the descent, etc.,(156) and so it seem reasonable & logical to suppose that the early to later Christians saw in their art works of the descent and resurrection of Christ, a type of that which happened in their mysteries and sacraments.

 Basil, A.D. 329-379, likened baptism unto the grave. "How can we be placed in a condition of likeness to His" [Christ's] "death? By being `buried with Him in baptism.' How are we to go down with Him into the grave? By imitating the `burial' of Christ in baptism; for the bodies of the baptized are in a sense buried in water." (De Baptismo). Notice here that Basil seems to hint of the descent into the grave or realms of the dead, in that he asked: "How are we to go down with Him" [Christ] "into the grave?" Upon ascending up stairs into higher parts of the church, this must have been considered as types of Christ's ascension up out of the grave, the spirit world, the pit, limbo, hades, etc., as Christ & the newly resurrected saints ascended into paradise. Thus, the proxy, upon having followed Christ's example, brings souls out of the spirit prison house over into paradise.

In some cases, 2nd anointings take place, & garments are put upon them after they had ascended out of the font. The anointing, the putting on of garments, and the ascension were types of how the angels in the other realms had taken the spirits by the hand to guide them over into paradise.

Clement of Alexandria, on the connection between the descent and its ritualistic type in baptism, wrote how Abraham was "in the realms of generation," or baptism.(157) The Jews "once taught that when Michael and Gabriel lead all the sinners up out of the lower world, "they will wash and anoint them of their wounds of hell, and clothed them with beautiful pure garments and bring them into the presence of God."(158) In other sources, Michael the archangel guides souls out of hell to heaven.(159) In many art works, the way angels guide souls is by grasping their hands or wrists.(160) On some stone works, a number of angel "hold the hands of the little persons whom they cover with their mantels. These are symbols of the souls tenderly borne to paradise."(161)

A Christian mosaic, on the cupola of the Baptistery of S. Giovanni, Florence, 13th century A.D., shows an angel conducting the souls of the virtuous to the door of paradise. Another angel is standing inside the half-open door and welcomes a soul by clasping, right to right hand.(162)

ANOINTING
2000 B.C., the use of a ram's horn filled with oil, dates back into ancient times.(163) Like in the Old World, in the ancient Americas, during the days of the Jaredites, Emer was anointed king.(164) Powel Mills Dawley wrote that candidates for baptism in the early Church would be anointed before they went down into the font. Thus, they "received the first anointing with oil." Then, after stepping down into the font, they were asked three questions & immersed into the water or the water of Baptism was poured upon them. Upon coming up from the water they were anointed again.(165)

Tertullian, A.D. 145--220, wrote about washings and anointings, and the laying on of hands to receive the Holy Ghost: "The flesh indeed is washed that the soul may be cleansed; the flesh is anointed that the soul may be consecrated; the flesh is signed [with the cross] that the soul too may be fortified; the flesh is shadowed by the imposition of hands that the soul also may be enlightened by the Spirit. . ."(166) C. 610--630, on a Byzantine silver dish, excavated on the island of Cyprus, there is a depiction of the anointing of David by Samuel, who holds a horn filled with oil over David's head. Thus, David becomes an anointed King.(167)

787, Offa son, Ecgfrith was anointed king, a rite of royal unction-imitated from the Franks.(168) 920-30, in the Bible of Leo the Patrician, made at Constantinople, is a depiction of The Anointing of David, for over his head is held a horn filled with anointing substance.(169) 962, Duke Otto of Saxony was anointed imperator et augustus by the pope.(170) 936--1075, like other Christian kings, such as in France and Anglo-Saxon England, the early Germans, considered their "ecclesiastical anointment with holy oil upon coronation,"(171) to have acquired a sacral or sacred nature. Hence, their acts of anointment raises the king above other laymen, making him the vicar of Christ on earth, anointed of God. Such acts were portrayed in Ottonian and Salian art, architecture and liturgical dramas and ceremonies.(172)

These anointing rituals of the Christian kings, preserved in part, the anointing rituals of the mystery dramas. The anointing of the kings was also called "The coronation" rite, or the "Unction with a special holy chrism".(173) This is often depicted in early to later Christian art works. One example of this is of Charles V.(174)
"The Byzantine emperor was referred to as 'anointed of the Lord' and 'living icon of Christ'. While the coronation ritual acclaimed him as 'crowned by God' and 'crowned by Christ'."(175)

1250--1285, in Gothic manuscripts, coronation ceremonies are depicted in which the head of kings are anointed.(176) Niccolo Alunno, 1430--1502, an Italian painter, also known as Niccolo di Liberatore, and as Niccolo da Foligno, depicted the Coronation of the Virgin, with Saints in 1466, and the Virgin and Child Enthroned, 1482.

1972, after the Catholic liturgy was modified, extreme unction was renamed the anointing of the sick, or the "onction des malades.(177)

Robes and Garments in Historic Christianity

Furthermore, in the early Christian mysteries' symbolical types, it was as if they were clothed in a resurrected bodies. Hence, the garment was a type of this, as well as a protective shield against the demonic forces which might attempt to stop the souls ascension into paradise or heaven.(178) Josephus, the Jewish Historian of the 1st century A.D., wrote that when the Essense would assemble, they would "put on linen aprons, and bath in cold water." This he suggests, was part of their "rite of purification." Their rites also included "white sacred garments" too.(179)

Powel Mills Dawley, wrote that the initiation for baptism took on a "ceremony full of drama and symbol" by the year 200 A.D. The service included "the laying-on-of-hands that we know as Confirmation." They would be anointed with oil and then would be immersed 3 times, or had water poured on them. The "Apostles' Creed", Dawley wrote was "from the second century" A.D. It was used as a declaration of faith by those baptized. "Coming up from the water, the new-made Christian was anointed with the symbolic oil of thanksgiving, clothed in white garments, and brought before the bishop to receive the laying-on-of-hands and the gift of the Holy Spirit."(180)

In writings which are highly questionable & possibly spurious. Called by scholars "Pseudepigrapha" because they are writings erroneously, unhistorically, and yet sincerely, ascribed to heroic figures of the past.(181) In one account of the creation drama in which Adam and Eve are visited and instructed by angels and the pre-incarnate Christ who promises to one day rescue them from hell and guide them back to their former state of glory from which they came from. The make covenants, are taught different aspects of the mysteries, including anointing, garments, prayer gestures, and way back to heaven.(182) A Swede by the name of Widengren is said to have written a book about the "Sent One", Nibley tells us.

"...We meet with the "sent one" most frequently and most dramatically in the story of Adam. "After the physical Adam was created, a messenger was sent to the head of all generations (that is, Adam), and at his call, Adam awoke and said, `How the precious, beautiful life has been planted in this place. But it's hard for me down here.'" The "sent one" then reminded Adam, "But your beautiful throne still awaits you, Adam...." [Adam is asked why he sits there complaining when all this was for his good, then the messenger says], "...I have been sent down to teach you, Adam, and to free you from this world. Listen and return to the light."... "The Ginza (488) tells how when Adam stood praying for light and knowledge, a helper came to him and gave him a garment and said to him," "Those men who gave you the garment will assist you throughout your life until you are ready to leave the earth."(183)

A 17th century A.D. woodcut depicts an angel coming down out of heaven to visit Adam & Eve and give a garment to each of them. The angel's right hand is raised up as if to bless them, or perhaps, to teach them a sign-gesture, as part of an oath.(184) Adam & Eve play an important part in early to later Christian mystery dramas, which included baptism. In such an ordinance, a garment is given to those who pass through the mysteries (= ordinances.(185)

"It may not be surprising to see the frequency with which Adam figures in baptismal texts since baptism was regarded as the necessary act for removal of the effects of the fall. Adam was a type of Christ and Christ was a new Adam (Rom. 5:16). What is significant, however, are the numerous allusions to his nakedness and shame and the garment placed upon him at the time of his expulsion. The garment that will be placed upon him  at the time of his expulsion. The garment that will be placed upon the catechumen at baptism is equated to the garment of skins placed upon Adam at the time of the fall. A parallel is made between the situation of Adam in  the garden and that of the catechumen in the baptistery, and the candidate is to think of himself as if he were Adam in the garden."(186)

"For we know that if our earthly house of this tabernacle were dissolved, we have a building of God, an house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. For in this we groan, earnestly desiring to be clothed upon with our house which is from heaven: If so be that being clothed we shall not be found naked. For we that are in this tabernacle do groan, being burdened: not for that we would be unclothed, but clothed upon, that mortality might be swallowed up of life. Now he that hath wrought us for the selfsame thing is God, who also hath given unto us the earnest of the Spirit. Therefore we are always confident, knowing that, whilst we are at home in the body, we are absent from the Lord: (For we walk by faith, not by sight:) We are confident, I say, and willing rather to be absent from the body, and to be present with the Lord. Wherefore we labour, that, whether present or absent, we may be accepted of him. For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad." (2 Cor.5:1-10, King James Version).(187)

Holy Garments were also used in Old & New Testament rituals by the Prophets, & the New Testament saints & there after. There is plenty of evidences from scripture, early to later Christian writings, art works, monuments, & in some cases ancient preserved clothing, that shows us that sacred clothing or garments were worn for religious purposes & symbolic reasons.(188)

In early Christian symbolism, the descent in, & ascension out of the grave, limbo, hades, the pit, etc., (which the baptismal font was a type of, in many cases), many art works show naked souls, just before they are clothed in garments. "Cardinal Colonna writes `The Catechumens without clothing, descended into the water of the baptistery, and were there immersed 3 times; then priest accompanying the act with his hand, & invoking at each immersion the name of 1 of the persons of the Holy Trinity.' "And De Rossi warns us that `We ought not to confound the imposition of the right hand with which the ministrant accompanies the immersion of the candidate with what the bishop in the case of the neophyte as he emerges from the water, & is clothed in white at the confirmation.'(189)

From the earliest years of the church, Easter was the favorite time for baptism."Those who were baptized always wore white garments for the ceremony. . . In those days, those who were baptized were anointed with  holy oil. Then they donned their white robes."(190) In: The Gospel Of Philip, we read of garments that were used as part of the baptismal ordinances. They were symbolical types of what happens to the spiritual & mortal bodies. Thus, in some cases the garment in many Gnostic & even anti-Gnostic sources, is symbolic of the body.(191)

Gregory of Nyssa wrote that baptism was for purification from sins, & a remission of trespasses & regeneration. In a symbolical way, the old man was to put on the new man. Gregory also wrote of 3 immersions, & he compared these as being a type of Christ's descent into the grave. Gregory also wrote that in the mysteries there is "the clean and fair apparel; teaching us the figurative illustration that verily in the Baptism of Jesus all we, putting off our sins like some poor & patched garment, are clothed in the holy & most fair garment of regeneration." He also wrote about the removing the fig leave apron and putting on a garment: "Thou didst strip off the fig-tree leaves, an unseemly covering, and put upon us a costly garment". Gregory mentions the descent in to the spirit prison and how souls were rescued out of it: For Christ opens "the prison, and didst release the condemned". He also mentions washings & anointings: "Thou didst sprinkle us with clean water, and cleanse us from our filthiness". Consequently, a lot of elements of the early Christian mysteries were mentioned here. He also wrote that "Paradise, yea, heaven itself may be trodden by man; and the creation".(192)

St. Gregory the Great mentions the "white vestment (birrum)" in which a person "had been clothed when the rose from the font".(193) He also wrote how they: "Receive the white and immaculate garment, which thou mayest bring forth without spot before the tribunal of our Lord Jesus Christ, that thou mayest have eternal life."(194)

St. Ambrose calls the garments of the mysteries "the chaste veil of innocence".(195)

S. Cyril of Jerusalem, in his lectures on the mysteries, calls it "the garment of salvation," and, he wrote that it is a type of the cloth that Christ's body was covered in while his body was in the tomb.(196) Many early to later  Christian art works, depict angels with garments in their arms at baptismal scenes. These art works might have reminded the early to later Christians of the garments of which they had worn as part of the mysteries or ordinances.(197)

Roger Adam also wrote that "after baptism it was customary to wear white garments in token of the innocence of the soul which through remission of sins the converts had acquired. These garments were commonly worn for 8 days and were metaphorically called the garments of Christ or the mystical garments."(198) "The Sunday following was called Dominica in albis depositis, because those who had been baptized took off their white robes, which were laid by in the church as evidence against them if they broke their baptismal vows. Whitsunday (White Sunday), the English name for Pentecost, is suppose to have been so called from the white garments worn by the newly baptized catechumens when it was the custom to administer that ordinance on the Vigil of Pentecost." Jerome also wrote concerning washings & anointings in connection with putting on a garment.(199) Roger Adam also wrote of an inscriptions on a sepulchral slabs that tells how persons had died during the time that the white robes were worn.(200)

One of the symbolism that we see as a type of the resurrection & deification, is how the newly baptized person is clothed in a garment. Some art work suggest different colors & patterns, depending on what area of Christianity, and what time frame that is considered. In some cases the wearing of garment, or robes were types & symbols of the type of body that the spirit would be clothed in when it is resurrected from the under world, grave, limbo, hades, the pit, etc. Some art works show angels clothing the newly resurrected soul in a garment as they come out of the grave. In such cases, these art works may have preserved these types of mystery traditions, types & symbolisms.(201)

Marion P. Ireland wrote that: "White was the robe for newly baptized Christians in the primitive church".(202) Other sources suggest other colors were also used in some cases.(203) Different scholars & writers have conflicting interpretations as to the meanings of the garments of baptism, of course, but there seems to be enough evidences to support the fact that many of the early to later Christian were clothed in ritualistic & symbolical garments & holy robes as part of the different ordinances or mysteries.(204)

Some of garments are said to have marks or symbols on them, & it is possible that a Coptic Christian tunic (shirt) may have markings very similar to other markings found on garments found in other parts of the world. There is a tunic-shirt that has been dated "4th to 5th cent." AD. A navel mark can be seen ( - ). But also over the left breast area, is a faded ( V ) mark, or possible symbol. On the side of the right breast area is what just might be a reverse ( L ) mark or symbol, but this one has faded out, & is hard to discern, & therefore it could also be just folds in this ancient garment. The Coptic Christians believed that "The dead" are "dressed in the clothes they had worn in life, . . . Women often had their heads covered with a veil or kerchief; men wore a cap."(205)

Roger Adam also mentions a few marks or symbols that are in the knee area of some early Christian robes & notes that some symbols, angles, & "undeciphered letters" are depicted in some of the baptisteries at "Ravenna & the Baptistery of Naples."(206)

Paul wrote "for I bear in my body the marks of the Lord Jesus." (Gal.6:17) And: "Always bearing about in the body the dying of the Lord Jesus, that the life also of Jesus might be made manifest in our body. For we which live are always delivered unto death for Jesus's sake, that the life also of Jesus might be made manifest in our mortal flesh." (2 Cor.4:10-11). Paul also likens the veil, as a type of Christ's flesh, "the veil, that is to say, his flesh." He then goes on to hint to washing & anointing ordinances, (Heb.10:16-22).(207) Some early Christian Fathers also saw the garment with it's markings & symbols as types of the veil.(208)

As time went by, the concepts & ritualistic practices & symbolical meanings behind garments & veils, & the symbolical markings, etc., all these things were fragmented & almost lost during the great apostasy. We see possible hints of the veil in the traditional cloths or curtains that depict the face of Christ on them.(209) In many early to later Christian art works. The soul is depicted as being clothed in a garment, or it rides up into heaven on a garment. The baptismal garment was also a type of this. For in ascending up out of the font, it was like unto how the spirit ascends up out of the grave. In being clothed in a garment, it was a type of that which was to come in the resurrection. Or when the soul had ascended up towards the heavenly realms on a garment. Or in having been clothed in a garment, the soul enters back into the heavenly realms (paradise, & or the heavenly city), thus, being restored unto God who gave it. In many depictions in early to later Christian art works that show different martyred saints. We often see angels descending with garments in their arms to cloth the martyred saints in. According to some art works, their (the martyrs') souls are lifted up into heaven upon a garment.(210)

THE RETURN TO GLORY ON A GARMENT
The soul's return back into the place of origin, or the return home to God, & the ascension of the soul back into heaven, is were the soul is often clothed in a garment or robe. Or rides up on a garment, in some cases. In the Pearl, from early Christian Syriac writings, the hero returns home to his heavenly house, his mission accomplished. He's met at the gate of greeting & honor by his entire family. He worships Christ & the Father "who has sent me the garments and given me the orders while I was on the earth." He embraces the princes who have gathered at the gate with joy.(211)

One of the things that we notice when we start to consider the ancient documents is that the pre-existence and the "Rites of Passage" sometimes blend together. In other words, we see them both together in many cases. Even in the later Christian art works. "Rites of passage" are those rituals that prepare the person for other-realm journeys. Where the mortal greets the Divine with rites of passage hand grips. And where the Divine greets the mortal who is passing over into the realms of the immortal to eventually become immortal too. The soul, upon his or her return back to their heavenly home, is being "restored" back to their former state of glory which they had had during their pre-existence.(212)

In the Pistis Sophia, we read of a garment that belonged to a certain "hero" "It is the garment which belonged to you in the pre-existence, from the beginning, and when your time is come on earth, you will put it on and return home to us." This garment is also said to have five symbolical marks on it.(213) In the First Jeu 86: "If you want to go to the Father, you must pass through the Veil." The Pistis Sophia speak of ordinances that the worthy who are on the "right hand" path receive, "...for it is by their faithfulness in these very things that they show that they are worthy to return and inherit the kingdom." Without the ordinances there would be no foothold or foundation or anything in this life.(214) In order for them to "return" back into the heavenly realm, they would have had to have first been there, for the word "return" hints to the pre-existence, for they could not have returned unless they had been there before.

Some of the symbols for deification in early to later Christianity, seem to be certain "rites of passage" hand clasp, robes or garments, & crowns, in some cases. A number of art works show different saints, &, or martyrs obtaining crowns of glory, or robes & garments, for having suffered for the cause of Christ. "In the symbolical language of the earlier mystical literature the `garment of glory' or `garment of light' represents the higher celestial, angelic-spiritual nature. The garment of glory in these writings [Enoch-Metatron,] is attributed as well to angels as to the righteous spirits ascending into heaven. The difference between men and angels in such connections is only one of degree of perfection."(215)

In some cases in early Christianity, Adam's grave was said to have been below the cross. "To bring out the idea of the redemptive work of Christ, the Judaeo-Christians felt it needful to create the legend around Calvary that Adam had been buried in the grotto below. The parallel, Adam-Christ, which is quite basic in St. Paul's theology of the redemption also, lies behind these narratives concerning Adam which evolved fully around Calvary. The second Adam was to make good all the damage brought about by the first..." [Adam]. "...The first to be rescued was, naturally, Adam. By his liberation, that of all humanity could well be expressed.... According to their" [Judaeo-Christians] "special ideas, the redemption by Christ was to have particular meaning for Adam: a kind of anticipated glorification of his body also. In this connection, we read in The Conflict of Adam & Eve that Melchizedek" "saw on the body of the first man a great light, while in the grotto under Calvary he could see angels going up & coming down to help the just souls scale the "cosmic ladder" between the grotto & paradise."(216)

The deification of Adam begins, when Christ reaching down towards Adam's hand to clasp it, for Adam's "reentry to paradise has already begun and his deification (along with the deification of mankind) is already under way in this miracle of re-creation, as the Anastasis came to be known."(217) 1230, from the school of Pisa, smaller works on a panel shows angels descending out of heaven with robes, as Mary and others lament over the dead body of Christ. Perhaps this is symbolic of how Christ, the very first martyr, is about to be clothed in robes.(218) Early 14th century, Angels descending out of heaven with robes for forty martyrs.(219) In many cases, in historic Christendom, such as the many art works of The Last Judgment, the virgin Mary acts as a guide and intercessor, pleading the cases to her Son, the great heavenly Judge. Hence, for souls devoted to her, "she represents a prime source of hope for individuals since she is indicative of the possibility of their ascending to bliss where, clothed with white radiant robes, they might walk among the angels."(220)

Protective Garment & Robe Traditions: Souls ascending to heaven on blankets or napkins

Some of the traditions that seem to have kept alive being clothed in robes and garments, especially during the early Christian mysteries, and the later liturgical dramas, are the ways in which Christian artists show what happened to the soul in the after life. And inasmuch as these mysteries and liturgical dramas where ritualistic types of what to expect at the moments of death and during the after life journey. It is not surprising to see depictions of the moments after death, also depicting fragmental reminders of the same types of things that took place in their ritualistic counterparts. 10th century, an angel descends with a robe or cloth to wrap the soul of Mary who has just passed away into the hands of Christ, who in turn has passed her on into the arms of an angel, who takes her into heaven.(221)

1160, in the Winchester Psalter, Christ and the apostles are at Mary's death bed. Christ passes her soul into the hands of an angel who is about to cloth her soul in a robe, while another angel also descends with another garment too. Up above, the hand of God extends out of heaven to bless this moment.(222) 12th century, in an art work of Lucy, the foundress and first prioress of Castle Hedingham, it shows Lucy's soul being carried to heaven, riding up on a large cloth or vestment. The two angels are grasping, with both their hands, each side of the vestment.(223) Middle of the 12th century, in a miniature in the Shaftesbury Psalter, showing the ascension of souls into heaven, "the archangel Michael with his feet on a cloud holds up a napkin containing several souls" some of which are nude.(224) 12th century, the life of Guthlac, A.D. 667--714, the hermit saint of Crowland, is illustrated in ink drawings, one of which shows angels greeting his soul, at the moment of his death. One angel is his hand clasping guide to heaven, while the other hold the robe he is to be clothed in during his ascension into heaven.(225) 1280, another depiction shows two angels lifting up a soul on a garment toward heaven.(226) In another one, the souls are safely taken into heaven to Abraham's bosom, in other cases, it is the Father to which the souls are taken, for some works show the Father holding one or more souls in the napkin in his lap.(227)

Hence: "As the soul leaves the body--in later depictions in the arts, as in the wall painting at Vra, Denmark, the soul is shown as a doll-like figure coming out of the mouth of the person --the guardian angels receive it and promise to carry it to "a place which thou never knewest." Thereafter the soul will be taken to the presence of God where, among St. Michael and all the host of heaven, he is judged worthy and welcomed with music and rejoicing into the heavenly court."(228) "The soul being taken off to heaven immediately after death is often depicted as a nude of diminutive stature within a napkin being carried up by an angel.(229)

1320, the arms of God extend out of heaven over a wedding ceremony, in which the person, perhaps Christ, is grasping the wrist of the bride to bring the hands of the couple together to make the traditional hand grips of marriage. Above this, an angel holds what could be a vest or garment too.(230) 1332, in a miniature, by Michiel van der Borch, Christ stands in the river Jordan that flows up to almost his hip level, to our right is an angelic being extending out of heaven with the baptismal robe.(231) In another part of this source, numerous souls are depicted riding in a shroud into heaven.(232) In addition to this, another depiction of Christ being baptized shows just one angel holding the baptismal robe, instead of the usual two or three angels.(233) Furthermore, in one showing different events, one of them is the death of a woman whose soul is riding up into heaven on a cloth.(234)

1470, in a carving in the central roof of the choir of All Saints, North Street, in York, an angel is lifting up a soul on a napkin, while a similar scene in the north choir aisle depicts an unidentified soul being raised up in same type of way.(235) The Martyrdom of San Cugat, painted by Alfonso de Baena, now in the Museum of Barcelona, about 15th century?, shows the martyr's soul riding a blanket to heaven, while ascending with the two angels holding each end of it.(236) In a wall painting at Starston, Norfolk, it shows "a pair of angels lifting the upright and nude soul, who is standing in a napkin, up to the clouds."(237) Another depiction of a saint being martyr dates back to the 15th century A.D. On a box said to contain the mortal remains of a martyred saint, or on "...A reliquary" [which] "is a small box, casket, or shrine in which relics are kept. They are sometimes covered in paintings illustrating the miracles and martyrdom of the saint. (Reliquary of St. Laurent, fifteenth century, Musee des Beaux-Arts, Moulins.)" On this box, art works depict the martyrdom of the saint. Portions of which show an angel anointing the wounds of the body of the saint. Also, the spirit of the saint is depicted in the very act of ascending with an angel, the saint's spirit rides up on a garment.(238) Early 16th century, on a label stop at St. Helen's Church in York, God the Father and the Son receives a soul in a napkin.(239)

WHIT-SUNDAY REVERSED TO BLACK SABBATH
In: The Forgotten Books of Eden, Christ (who was then a spirit), says to Adam & Eve that satan wants to take away and destroy their earthly garment which God had clothed them. This garment helps protect Adam & Eve against the powers of the devil & his fallen angels. Christ asks them: What is satan's beauty that you should listen to him? The narrative says how Adam & Eve made fig-leaves and covered themselves because they realized that they were stripped of their "bright nature".(240)

Russell points out that baptism was considered, in some branches of Christendom, to be a type of the descent of Christ into the under world, & that the anointing was a seal against the further assaults by the Prince of Darkness. The would anoint them with holy oil as a seal against further assaults by the Prince of Darkness. The very central act of baptism, was a type of descent into the underworld. For "the descent into water symbolized descent into the underworld of death, and emergence from the water symbolized rebirth & resurrection."(241)

The Jews once taught that when the arch-angel Michael & Gabriel guide all the sinners up out of the lower world, they wash & anoint them of their wounds of hell. Then, they clothed them with beautiful pure garments. After this, these clothed souls are brought into the presence of God.(242) 15th century, another depiction of a saint being martyred is on a box said to contain the mortal remains St. Laurent, Musee des Beaux-Arts, Moulins. A portion shows an angel anointing the wounds of the body of the saint. Also, the spirit of the saint is in the very act of ascending with an angel while riding up on a garment.(243) Later Christian art works show tug of wars between angels of God & demons. The demons attempt to cause the "fall" of those who are on their way towards the heavenly realms, & moral perfection. Angels clasp their arms, hands, or wrists, in order to help them and to pull them up towards the heavens. While demons attempt to hold them back, or pull them down, thus helping in their fall.(244) In some cases, early to later Christian artists(245) depict those who make it all the way up the right hand path. For St. Peter is there to greet them with a hand clasp at the door to paradise.(246)

DEMONIFICATION: THE REVERSAL OF DEIFICATION
Some anti-Mormon "Christians" in attempting to claim that Mormonism symbols, rituals and white garments are derived from satanic symbolism, perhaps don't realize that Satanists had, centuries earlier, had borrowed, then reversed the color symbolism of white garments of early to later Christianity, to clothing themselves in black, especially black hooded robes. Hence, when modern anti-Mormon "Christians" have noted that both Satanists and Mormons wear garments, they fail to understand that its not because Mormons have borrowed from Satanism, or have Satanic symbols. But rather it is because Satanism had borrowed, centuries earlier, from Christianity, and then reversed the white garment symbolism of the early to later Christians, to black.
Consequently, to understand the reversal process in the occult symbolism, we have to consider the symbolism that is being reversed, and that is the symbolism in early to later Christianity.(247)

30-100, Clement of Rome, "they who with confidence endured [these things] are now heirs of glory and honour, and have been exalted and made illustrious."(248) If this was reversed what would we have? Instead of being exalted and made illustrious, we would have unexalted and darkened.(249)

65-100-155, Polycarp says that martyrs were already on their way towards godhood, as it was now, they "were no longer men, but had already become angels."(250) The same sort of thing would happen to those who also became martyrs for the cause of Christ.(251) The reversal of this would be to become like the fallen  angels.

The early Christian writer, Theophilus of Antioch [A.D. 155-168-181], in response to the early anti-Christian Autolycus, wrote that Adam had become a god. Thus, by "giving him means of advancement, in order that, maturing and becoming perfect, and being even declared a god, he might thus ascend into heaven in possession of immortality."(252)

A.D. 160, The Shepherd of Hermas, symbolically presents garments, and color symbolism to suggest the degree of sins, or the degree of righteousness of those who are clothed in different colors of garments.(253) Isaiah, John & Hermas present the colors of garments as a symbolical type of the degrees of the righteousness or wickedness of a person.(254) In Revelations 19:7--9, the wife (or church) is made ready for the marriage to the Lamb (Christ). "She" is to be arrayed in fine linen, and cleaned white, for "the fine linen is the righteousness of saints" (Revelation 19:8). A portion from another version read: "Now the fine linen signifies the righteous deeds of God's people" (New English Bible).(255)

In The Gospel Of Philip, we read of garments which were used as part of the baptismal ordinances, & which were symbolic types of what happens to spiritual & mortal bodies. Thus, in some cases the garment in many Gnostic & even anti-Gnostic sources, is symbolic of the body.(256) Clement of Alexandria, A.D. 153-193-217, seems to suggest that the garment is a symbol of Christ. "And I will be" He [Christ] says, "their  Shepherd," and will be near them, as the garment to their skin. He wishes to save my flesh by enveloping it in the robe of immortality, and He hath anointed my body."(257)

Clement also mentions: How those who pass through the mysteries are likened unto those who pass over into immortality. Christ is there to help them not fall, or slip.(258) Garments and anointing is symbolic in the mysteries of the deification in the after life realms.(259) The anointed are deified, their bodies are clothed in bodies which shines forth with immortality, & that same type of divine light as Christ's glorious body does. Thus, the garment is a type of this.(260)

The garment in the resurrection is so much more glorious than even the most earthly luxurious garments. For "...those that wait at the court of heaven around the King of all, are sanctified in the immortal vesture of the Spirit, that is, the flesh, and so put on incorruptibility."(261) Clement also wrote that the priestly robes of the Jews in the Old Testament times, in their laws & ordinances, these were a prophetic type of Christ's ministry in the flesh. The point in all these sources is to show that numerous early Christians saw symbolical meanings behind robes & garments. One of which is that they were types & similitude of the body, or the flesh. And in some cases the deified glorified resurrected body. These ancient Christians also believed that in the resurrection, they would take upon themselves the same type of glorified body as Christ did in the resurrection  of his body. Thus, the garments & robes of the mysteries were a types of that which was to come in the after-mortal life resurrection. An old garment is likened unto wickedness, a new undefiled garment to holiness, the immortality of Christ; regeneration, holiness, & an undefiled person.(262) For other sources about garment in early Christianity, see endnote:(263) In The Forgotten Books of Eden, Satan seeks to pull down Adam & Eve further towards degradation. For rather than bringing them towards deification, as he claimed that he would, he really wanted to drag them down towards demonification so that they would become like unto him & his demons. This narrative later goes on to say how that the Word--the pre-existing Christ, then a spirit-- came down to have Adam & Eve cloth themselves in a garments made out of the skins of sheep.(264) He then taught them a type & similitude of how Satan caused them to lose their garments of light & glory. He points out how Satan had promised them majesty and divinity. He asks them where Satan's beauty, divinity, light, and glory that rested on him? He has them note Satan's fallen conditions, his hideous figure, and how he
has become abominable among angels; and thus is called Satan.(265) Other angels were sent down to Adam and Eve.(266) Adam speaks of his former pre-mortal bright nature, which, if he had, he would have been able to see the angels. Thus, Adam was a bright angelic spirit before he came down to earth.(267) In some cases, garments(268) seems to be a type of mortals' former state of glory; which their spirits were in, before coming down to earth.(269) (270)

A stone carving depicting Christ's baptism shows Christ in neck high water. The hand of God extends down from above, as the dove descends. John the Baptist's right hand has been placed on Christ's head. Also depicted here too are 2 angles with garments, the dove, & Christ's nakedness in this case.(271) There are, of course, versions of Christ's baptism where he stand in water almost up to his knees,(272) while John is pouring water on his head. This, represents a later version of baptism, that of pouring.(273) However, even in these later versions, the baptismal robes are still depicted, in this case, in the arms of just one angel.(274) As time passed, art works continued to showed the river-god under the water, but also, "the river became more and more shallow, until in the typical picture of the Italian Renaissance it covers only the Saviour's feet." And yet, angels bearing the old garments of Christ, and the new ones he'll be ritualistically clothed in were still being depicted in many works, such as in the ivory bas-relief from the throne of Bishop Maximian. It shows the two garment bearing angels witnessing the baptism of Christ in water up to his mid section.(275)

Other versions, still show the angels holding garments, except the water is chest high.(276) Others, show Christ in neck high water, with the angels descending out of heaven with the garments. While still others show a different types of baptismal modes, water levels, the hand of God extending down, angels with garments, plus more.(277)

817--824, on an enamelled reliquary cross from the Sancta Sanctorum Chapel of the Lateran, in the bottom half of the cross, an angel holds the garments of baptism, while Christ is being baptized.(278) 980, in The Baptism of Christ, from the Benediction of St. Ethelwold, the river Jordan flows up to Christ's mid section. John has his right hand on Christ's head, while his left is raise up. On each side of them are angels with garments in their arms, as well as two descending out of heaven with robes in their arms too. The one on the left, which would be Christ's right hand, has a white garment. The traditional color of baptismal robes which candidates would be clothed in, after their old robes have been taken off. Hence, Christ's old garments might be in the arms of the other angel.(279)

12th century, in a copy of the Homilies of St. Gregory Nazianzen, made at Constantinople, is a depiction of angels holding the robes of Christ, and others, holding the traditional baptismal garments, as they are seen above the baptism of Christ.(280) 1170, on an illuminated page of the Gospel Book of Kruszwica, two angels hold the robes of Christ, or the traditional baptismal robes.(281)

1460-70, in later Garment traditions, the soul rides up to paradise, or heaven on a garment, sheet or robe. Hence, a work dated 1460-70 shows "Souls Borne to Heaven."(282) 1790, September 30th, Leopold II Emperor elect of the Romans, wore the traditional coronation garments, "THE GARMENTS USED FOR THE CONSECRATION AND CORONATION OF THE KING OF THE ROMANS." These relics seem to have been passed down, and were reserved for coronation ceremonies of their kings. The cloak was embroidered in Palermo for Roger II, king of Sicily, A.D. 1153.(283)

One of the traditions that preserved the ritualistic symbolism of the use of baptismal garments, or white baptismal robes,(284) in which the newly baptized was clothed in, after baptism, is this: In later centuries, festivals commemorating garments were called Whitsuntide(285) "...because the catechumens who had received the rite of Baptism on the previous day were clothed in white while attending Mass during Pentecost."(286) Thus, Whit Sunday(287) is really a corruption of White Sunday.(288) Whitsun, is special in England, for at the times of baptism "the candidates always wore white robes. Candidate means 'robed in white.'"(289)

If Whitesuntide is reversed we would have Black Sabbath!

In AC/DC's rock song Back in Black, they sing about being back in black. Could this be in reference to the dark clothing, or black robes worn during the Black Mass? If the occult has reversed the symbols, rituals, doctrines, morals, and mysteries of early to later Christianity. And if one of those doctrines which is reversed is deification, an early Christian doctrine ritualistically depicted in the early Christian mysteries, in which the Christian believed that they would eventually reach perfection and even godhood.(290) If this is reversed in Satanism, and other earlier secret societies, then, instead of becoming more like Christ, they believe that they will become more like the Satan.

The symbolical types and meanings behind the garments; how they represent the glorious type of resurrected body the saints will be raised up with, this also seems to have been reversed. Thus, the black robes in satanic rites may be symbolic of the type of demonified bodies the Satanist believe that they will retrogress towards. For if the white garment is a symbol of purity, righteousness, glory, and the deified body, the reversal of that in Satanism would be filthy, wickedness, and ungodliness. One of the reasons why Satan fell from heaven was because of his pride, & because he attempted to take over the Father's position & wanted all the glory for himself. Having become a fallen being of darkness and hate, he continues to tempt mortals and spirits in his wanderings by offering to them a counterfeit form of deification. He often promises that if the person will follow him, & join with him, & his ways, they will become "gods." However, his form of deification is not the same as Christ's glorious version, because Satan version is a reversal of Christ's. For rather than progressing in Christ's light towards becoming like God the Father. Satan version is one of retrogression towards a negative extreme into outer darkness away from the light.

In later Christendom, some stories of Adam & Eve speak of how Satan comes to Adam & Eve, by counterfeiting the bright nature of angels. Satan had once been one of the bright angels before his fall, & so had Adam & Eve been bright beings before their fall in the Garden. And so, Satan promised them something which he would not have been able to give them, for it was only for God to give to the faithful. He (Satan) promises Adam & Eve that he would restore them back to the bright beings they were before. He attempts to teach an opposite form & counterfeit doctrine. The early to later Christian writers often warn their fellow Christians of the dangers of the left hand path, & of Satanic counterfeits. They point out how that Satan will attempt to use the treasures & lusts of this world for evil purposes. To try and get people to focus their minds or "hearts" on the things of this world and the worldly treasures there in. Knowing full well that the person will not be able to take such things with them when they die. Thus, the early to later Christian writers seek to have their fellow Christians to focus in on the endless wonders & treasures of heaven that await the faithful who endure to the end. For the kingdom of heaven is far more richer & glorious than anything that this world has to offer. Another element to the idea of deification is to endure to the end. To remain faithful, to "fight the good fight" against evil. For in so doing this, the righteous is able to "obtain the crown", or "the prize". The eternal "reward" of endless glory through fellowship with Christ in the eternal world to come.

Many early Christians understood that upon being "saved" they would not be demonified,(291) or damned in hell with the wicked. However, upon being "saved" they not only believed that they were being "saved" from the devil & hell, but they also believed that in being "saved" they would be deified. Thus the ultimate "salvation" in early Christian thought was to become a god, or goddess. To be deified.(292)

An English Protestant, Thomas Cooper, A .D. 1617, that the witches who had renounced God had also copied an evangelical ritual. Their covenant making with the devil, he charged, is done in the house of God in order to show that they were serious about their willingness to renounce their former faith and be in subjection to the Devil. During this rite, they believed they were reversing the effects of their Christian baptism, and the protection of Christian saints and deity.(293) However, some modern witches have claimed that no one has to repudiate their previous religion, at least this is not required. Also, there is no goat's buttocks to be kissed; or crosses to spit and trample under foot.(294) Stories of pacts with the devil go back into ancient times, for example, the 5th century story of the pact is in story of Saint Basil. Another dates back to the 6th century in the story about Theophilus of Cilicia.(295) Theophilus performs an oath to be loyal to Lucifer, signs a contract to live wickedly, but later repents and calls upon the Virgin Mary for help. She descends into hell, snatches the contract and takes it back to Theophilus, who destroys it.(296) A 12th century art work depicts Theophilus making a pact with the devil. Theophilus has "his hands between Satan's in the sign of feudal homage."(297) Thus, it may be that Satan, has counterfeited Christ's hand clasping greetings and mysteries. At any rate, the same types of feudal homage hand grasping; and the kiss of peace, which includes a hand clasp,(298) as it is seen in depictions of Christ's descent into hell.(299) Plus, the hand grips which were carried over into the wandering Christ traditions,(300) in which monks would greet, with a hand clasping kiss of peace:(301)wanders, pilgrims, and others, whom they believed were Christ in different guises.(302) These
same types of hand grips, found so often in historic Christendom, must have also been counterfeited and blended into the traditional pacts with Satan.(303)

Now, under "Christian" anti-Mormon logic, these same critics' own roots, historic Christendom, which they claim to be a part of, would then have to be considered as having "Satanic elements," derived and "borrowed from Satanism"! Hence they would then have to declare themselves as being cultic! A charge which the early anti-Christians made against the earlier Christians too, and for the same types of reasons! Hence, if their own roots couldn't be Christians, as they claim Mormonism isn't, how could they be Christians?

Christ a Godmaker
One of the reasons why Christ was rejected by many of the Jews of his time, and after that time, was this: He was seen as a man who sought to make himself a God, thus, he was rejected for being a "GOD MAKER!" Some of the Jews acknowledged Christ good works, but rejected Christ's claims: "For a good work we stone thee not; but for blasphemy; and because that thou, being a man, maketh thyself God." Jesus reminded them of their own law that said "ye are Gods" (Psalms 82:6). This scriptures was used by a number of early to later Christians as proof texts for their own particular versions of the doctrine of deification.(304)

The Jews rejected Christ, because of their monotheistic beliefs in the one God only concept, perhaps then a tradition passed down to them as a results of the Yahwists during the Deuteromomic Reform (620-400 B.C.), which enforced a monotheistic interpretation of the Laws & even took out any hints to the earlier polytheistic period.(305) By the time of Christ, this monotheistic belief must have been a strong traditional belief, & so many of the Jews considered it "blasphemy" for any one to claim divine honors for themselves.(306) It was because the concept of a man becoming a god was not new,(307) that Celsus called it an old worn out myth.(308) The early anti-Christian writer, Celsus must have also been aware that the different Jews had problems with this "man" Christ, claiming to be a God. And thus, Celsus had attacked the story of Christ's birth, His eating habits, the fact that He had a body, & needed nourishment. He wrote: "I think, Jesus, that the High God would not have chosen a body such as yours; nor would the body of a god have been born as you were born. We even hear of your eating habits. What! Does the body of a god need such nourishment?"(309) Different ones who had heard of the Christian beliefs, that this very same man, (Christ), had pre-existed, & had created the universe, again, for many of them, these ideas & beliefs were strange. They asked why the early Christians could say that Christ created the universe and then came down into the world to work with wood. Why he would pick a low rank life as the wood-working man's son. Why should this god travel about like a man, was it to see what was happening among men in the world?(310)

Yet for others, like the Romans & some of the Egyptians sects, there was a belief amongst them, that their rulers were deified.(311) Some of the early Christian Fathers would point this very thing out to the Romans, etc., in order to reason with them that the concept, as believed by the Christian concerning this deified man, (Christ), wasn't a strange belief. Because it was similar to how the Romans thought of their Emperors.(312)

Justin Martyr explained to anti-Christian jews how Satan had counterfeited the prophecies about Christ's birth,(313) death, resurrection, mysteries, and that Satan had performed these counterfeits among the Greeks; the Magi in Egypt, & through the false prophets in Elijah's days. He says that the Greeks tell of how Hercules was strong, and traveled over all the world. This, to Justin was Satan among the Greeks counterfeiting the prophecies about Christ. The devil "brings forward AEsculapius as the raiser of the dead and healer of all diseases, may I not say that in this matter likewise he has imitated the prophecies about Christ?"(314) "Like Justin and his near contemporary, Tertullian,[(315)] Clement[(316)] contrasts the true mystery with the false rites of the unbelievers, the true gnosis with the false doctrines of the pagans."(317)

Another element that added to the misunderstanding, & misconceptions, & made it hard for the "outsiders" or non-Christians & anti-Christians to be able to discern between some Christian sects & those of the pagans, etc., was that some Christian leaders, who had been converted from pagan backgrounds, had started blending in with the Christian religion, pagan elements. Thus the pagan elements were more visible & thus the early anti-Christian & non-Christians, & pagans were able to point these things out in order to built on their case against the whole Christian body in general.(318)

"The handclasp was an important initiatory gesture in the Mithraic mysteries. Iconography shows Mithras (himself often equated with the sun) clasping hands with Sol, the Sun, in a gesture of agreement, friendship, and reconciliation (at one time there was an antagonism between the two)." In another relief, Mithra and Sol "clasp hands over an altar," thus in Mithraic rite, there is some evidence that the handclasp came at the end of the initiation. According to Vermaseren, oaths & handclasp are done by "joining of the right hands" while others were done with the left hand.(319)

The early anti-Christians knew that there were hand clasping rites in the Mirthra religion, and in the Christian mysteries.(320) Thus, they charged that the Christians borrowed from the Mirtha(321) mysteries.(322) The Christians responded by saying that Mirtha was Satan's counterfeit of the true divine mysteries.(323) And yet at the same time we see some of the early Christians pointing to different parallels of similar beliefs in other nations to in order to say to their readers that they weren't so strange or too different from others, for others have also believed in similar things.(324) It is also clear from historical writings, that the Christians feared that they would be mistaken for these extreme-apostates, or "renegade Christians" who were going around doing all sorts of terrible things in the name of Christ & Christianity.(325) And who were mixing & blending pagan, occult rites in with the Christians' rites, thus perverting the Christian rites with such extreme mixtures.(326) The problem was, that many non-Christians & outsiders couldn't tell the differences between who was who. They confused the extreme practices of these renegade Christians, with those of the rest of Christianity.(327) The early anti-Christians didn't help much in these matters & situations either, for they only added to the confusion by lumping all the different movements into one group, under the general title of "the Christians" or "the Nazarene sects." Thus, with this sweeping generalization, some of the early critics made their attacks on
the Christian movement in general, as a whole.(328)

Then on the other extreme, we have Christians who were first pagans, and then later became apostates, (in some cases during times of persecution), & who kept the ideas with them that they had learned from Christianity. When they went back to their old pagan ways, they blended Christian concepts, symbols,
types, art works, and the mysteries with paganism.(329)

S. Cyril of Jerusalem warned the early Christians of the different evidences of counterfeit rivals that had been set up against Christianity by magicians, anti-Christs, apostates & heretics. Cyril then used 2 Thess.2:4, & claims that the anti-Christ would come to the temple of the Jews, which has been destroyed. "For God forbid that it should be the one in which we are!"(330) Cyril knew that the Christians had temple ordinances or mysteries of their own, & hoped that the anti-Christ wouldn't come in amongst them to counterfeit their rites, exalting himself. Cyril, had lectured on the Christian mysteries, and yet was aware that the predicted anti-Christ would bring forth his own counterfeit wonders, signs, & works. Thus, he warned Christians to guard themselves against Satan's counterfeit mysteries: "Guard thyself then, O man; thou hast the signs of Antichrist; and remember them not only thyself, but impart them also freely to all."(331) Cyril warns them to be on their guard, least they should "...receive the false one as the True. For the mystery of iniquity doth already work."(332) He later reminds them that they had been shown some of the aspects of Satan's counterfeit mysteries in order to recognize it: "Thou has received the tokens of the Deceiver who is to come; thou hast received the proofs of the true Christ, who shall openly come down from heaven. Flee therefore the one, the False one; and look for the other, the True."(333)

Gregory of Nyssa mentioned many things that were part the mysteries, or Christian ordinances, such as baptism, washing & anointing, garments, robes, the fig-tree leaves apron, and the ascension out of the spirit prison into paradise.(334)

St. Ambrose (born 340 A.D. died A.D. 387), wrote about the Christian mysteries: Baptism, anointing, garments, renouncing against the devil, etc. In his reply to the Memorial of Symmachus, he charged that the heathens rites were counterfeiting the Cybele from the Almo. He objected to the heathen-pagans who wanted to erect an alter in the Senate house of the city of Rome, where the majority who meet there were Christians. He rejected to the swearing of oaths at these pagan-heathen altars, to obey laws & decrees.(335)

A new convert to Christianity, Constantius of august memory, had not yet been initiated in the sacred Mysteries of the Christians and thought that he would "be polluted if he saw that altar."(336) Thus, he didn't want to see these pagan altars, & the mysteries of counterfeiting devils polluting the uninitiated, or those who hadn't yet been through the sacred mysteries of the Christians.(337)

In later centuries of Christianity, the mysteries(338) passed on into the hands of monks, priests, kings, and filtered down into Knight Orders. As time went by, different fragments were preserved, though in apostate forms, among the masonic Orders. A lot of temple evidence is seen in the beliefs and customs of Christ passing through broken down doors to enter different realms, and passing up out of the underworld to make his post-resurrection world wide trek.(339) Tertullian, in response to the early anti-Christians among the Jews, wrote how Christ's hand was grasped by the Father's in a rite of passage through the doors of the nations.(340)

Lactantius, citing scripture, wrote: "Thus saith the Lord God to my Lord Christ, whose right hand I have holden; I will subdue nations before Him, and will break the strength of kings. I will open before Him gates, and the cities shall not be closed."(341) Later Christian militant Christ imagery was derived from this early militant Christ imagery of Christ's hand being clasped by the Father as he breaks through the doors of the nations. Plus, of Christ's bought with the devil in the underworld, the hand clasping rites of passage out of the underworld, and of him being lifted up into heaven by the hand of the Father, where he is enthroned after a coronation ceremony. Plus, of his cross banner bearing victory march throughout the world, where the Kings, nobles, and monks around Christendom pay homage to him by greeting him with different types of hand clasps, when he comes to visit them, some times in different guises.(342)

In earlier centuries, vows or oaths, and the hand clasping rites of the Christian mysteries were preserved in the coronation., or crowning ceremonies of later Christian kings.(343) In the rituals of the Knight Orders, many aspects of the earlier Christian mysteries were fraternalized too, especially in later centuries, when the rites were passed down among the Knights Templars and later masons. To keep these militant Orders under their control, the Clergy caused their Knighted Princes to pass through ceremonies which included political-religious rites of ascension to the throne. Moreover, before a man would enter into an Order, he would fast, pray, and attend masses, make vows or oaths to protect the Church by fighting for his Lord and King. His Lord and King were considered to be God's "chosen anointed one," this is why some art works show Christ or the hand of God handing down the crown to the King. Thus, as God's representative on the earth, it believed that they had the divine right to rule. During the arming ceremony of a new Knight, he is clothed in new garments after a ritualistic bath. When a prince ascends to the throne, there is a coronation ceremony like unto the early Christian anointing rites. Barons, Lords, Earls and Knights would take part in rites of passage hand grips and tokens, and would perform oaths or vows to be loyal to the King. These rites were performed in almost each each level in the political-religious pyramid. Thus, in times of war the King calls on his Barons-Lords or Earls to gather their armies of Knights to fight off invaders or settle conflicts and inner disputes through single combats between Champions.(344)

Germanic Orders were also born out of the anti-religious and secular movements which Humanism helped create. This movement brought about the French revolution and atheistic communism through the influences of the Illuminati Order in Bavarian in 1776. Its founder, Adam Weishaupt was the product of atheistic humanized world views which had spread throughout Europe during the 15th-- 18th centuries. By this time, Christendom's mysteries were being faternalized even further in the rituals of freemasonry which Adam Weishaupt borrowed from in order to establish his own revolutionary new Order. Rites to Knighthood included prayers, ceremonial baths, being clothed in new garments as a symbol that he was to begin a new life. A snow white tunic was worn as a symbol of purity; then a red robe placed of him, symbolic of the blood he might be called upon to shed in defense of the oppressed. A black garment symbolized the mystery of death. His sword was blessed on the altar by a priest and he attended a mass to listen to a sermon of his duties and new life. He also took an oath(345) to defend the Church, to be true to the king, and help women in distress. He was expected to defend the Church, and love Christ, for his weapons were consecrated to the cause of God. A Knight in higher rank then came forth to confer upon him the order of knighthood. Kneeling down, the young man, with clasped hands, vowed to uphold religion and chivalry. His shoulders were tapped lightly with his sword, as the lord pronounced over him the solemn words: "In the name of God, of St. Michael, and of St. George, I dub thee knight. Be valiant, fearless, and loyal." And the young man rose a knight."(346)

What these modern anti-Mormon "Christian" critics may not know or ignore is how that critics of Christianity have made the same types of charges about Christendom, as "Christian" anti-Mormons have about Mormonism. For example, the late 19th century anti-Christian write, T. W. Doane notes that early Christian robes had "masonic symbols" on them. Furthermore, like modern anti-Mormon "Christians," who look for parallels to construct their theories about how Joseph Smith borrowed from the masons, etc. Doane, also like the early anti-Christians, uses the same tactic, for that is one of the main points of his book, that Christianity borrowed from pagan mysteries, legends, and customs to come up with their rituals, stories and bible "myths."(347) Now, as far as I'm concerned, Mormons shouldn't be too bothered with coming up with answers to "Christian" anti-Mormon charges because eventually, if they haven't already, these same critics themselves will have to come up the answers. Especially if they should ever attempt to answer the same types of charges made against historic Christianity by such critics, Doane, Celsus, and others. Consequently, how ever they would respond to them would also have to be a good enough response to their own charges against Mormonism. A lot of evidence for the Temple is found in very old art works that show the journey of Christ and different saints through different realms of existence. Christendom has preserved thousands of illustrations, art works, old manuscripts, and paintings, which still can be seen today, especially over the Internet now. And even though, in later centuries, the Temple endowment eventually became fragmented, these art works still contain many interesting forms and elements that preserved, in part, many aspects of what different versions of the endowments must have been like in the scattered branches of Christendom. Along with this were their ritualistic counterparts that varied among the different branches of Christianity, but still contained many elements that suggests that temple type endowments were scattered and spread into different areas where Christianity spread to.

Creation Dramas in Historic Christianity Ritualistic Hand, Wrist Grasping & Arm gestures

All throughout historic Christianity, depictions of creation dramas in the Garden of Eden, show Adam and Eve being instructed in symbolical ritualistic type of mysteries that include different types of hand(348) and wrist grips.(349) Dr. E. S. Drower notes that the mystery drama includes a representation of "the creation of Adam" and a ritualistic "handclasp."(350) Included with these aspects are oath and prayer gestures,(351) with both hands, or one hand raised up.(352) The pre-existence of Christ is also to be noted in these dramas too, because the pre-incarnate Christ, or his Spirit, before it was later clothed in a body through his birth to Mary, is often depicted instructing Adam and Eve, along with God the Father and angels, sometimes three angels.(353) The angels are also depicted making prayer gestures, and other gestures with their arms; gestures that Adam and Eve also make during these creation dramas.(354) In some cases, they make them in response to the hand of God that extends out of heaven.(355) The aprons, garments and robes are mentioned(356) and depicted too, for God or angels come down from heaven to cloth them in garments.(357) Their hands are joined in marriage(358) and they're banished from Eden to begin life outside of Eden, where they continue to perform the gestures that the angels, the pre-incarnate Christ, and God had showed them.(359) Angels, Christ and even God the Father sometimes descend from heaven to visit them and instruct them on how they will be able to return to their pre-incarnate glory in heaven, through the atonement of Christ, and after Christ rescues them up out of hell by clasping their hands and wrists during the future descent into hell and "anastasis" or resurrection.(360) Some of these art works were in, or near baptistries to illustrate how that fallen Adam and Eve, representing humanity, are raised up, by their hands or wrist, out of limbo, hades, hell, the grave, or underworld, during the harrowing of hell.(361) Baptism and earlier baptisms for the dead, and historic liturgical rites for the dead, were ritualistic types of this drama, and so it was fitting for the creation drama to be depicted, in many cases, in baptisteries.(362) In other cases, other aspects of the creation drama include depictions of the council in heaven, war in heaven, Satan and his angels being thrust out of heaven, and their fall from heaven.(363)

In a psalter, the Canterbury Psalter, from the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, based on a Psalter from Utrecht, the pre-existing, or "Cosmic Christ" is depicted as existing before the creation of the earth, creating the earth, plant life, animal life, and Adam and Eve. In one scene Adam stands with up-lifted hands towards the pre-existing Christ as if in praise and prayer. In other scenes, he instructs Adam and Eve.(364) 1100 c. in the creation of Eve, bas-relief by Wiligelmo, facade of Modena Cathedral, dated back to the 12th century in other sources, Christ's left hand thumb rests on about the middle of Eve's right hand palm, but closer to the wrist area than in other cases. Hence, she is being pulled out of the sleeping Adam's right side by the pre-incarnate Christ.(365)

12th century, in the illuminated Winchester Bible, a page illustrates the creation of Eve, and shows the pre-existing Christ, grasping, with his left hand, the right wrist of Eve, as he pulls her out of the sleeping Adam's right side.(366) 1125, in a Romanesque fresco, from the Church of the Holy Cross, Maderuelo, Spain. Prado, Madrid. Adam's left wrist is grasped by the pre-incarnate Christ's left hand as he raises him up from his knees.(367) 1138, Niccolo, fl. c 1120--50, a Romanesque sculptor, shows, in one of six scenes of Genesis, the creation of Eve. Here, she is being pulled out of the sleeping Adam's right side by her right wrist that is grasped by what could be the pre-existing Christ's right hand.(368)

A 12th or 13th century miniature shows God, or perhaps the pre-existing Christ grasping, with his left hand, the right wrist of Eve to raise her out of Adam's side. Eve also makes what just might be a praise or prayer gesture too, for both arms are raised up. Another scene shows their wrist being grasped by a person performing a wedding ceremony, hence, like in numerous other depictions of marriage,(369) where the priest or religious leader grasps the wrist to pull the bride's and grooms hands together to make the hand shake of marriage, so also are Eve's and Adam's wrists grasped too.(370) 13th century, on stained class, in Burgundy, showing the creation of Eve. God, with his left hand, grips the left wrist of Eve to raise her out of the sleeping Adam's right side.(371) Another section shows the pre-incarnate Christ clasping, with each hand, the hands of Adam.(372) In another section, Eve, with her right hand raised up, and Adam, extending his right hand, perhaps before the clasp, are both being blessed by the pre-incarnated Christ who makes finger and arm gestures. (373) 1260--70,the pre-incarnate Christ, making gestures as though talking with Adam and Eve, also watches them both perform gestures. Adam's right hand is raised up, while his left is down over by his right side, the palm is down. Eve's right hand is raised up by her right ear, while her left hand is in the middle of her mid section below her breasts.(374)

14th century, in a manuscript of the Illuminated pages of the Naples Bible, a two headed God, one body God the Father and Son, grasps, with their right hand, the right wrist of Eve to pull her out of the side of the sleeping Adam.(375) 1332, in series of Christian art works that depict the creation drama. One section shows what could be pre-existing souls taking part in the creation along with the pre-existing Christ. Others sections show the pre-existing Christ creating other forms of life. The last section on this particular page shows Christ
grasping, with his left hand, the right hand of Eve, as he pulls her out of the sleeping Adam's side.(376) 1440--1525, in the middle portion of a work by Monte de Giovanni, different scene of the creation drama are depicted, some of which show the Father pulling Eve out of Adam's side, while another shows Adam and Eve clasping each others' right hands, perhaps in marriage.(377)

In the Vienna triptych, Akademie der bildenden Kunste, the war in heaven, in which Satan and his angels are being thrust out, and fall from heaven, plus the creation drama down below these scenes, shows the pre-existing Christ grasping, with his left hand, the left wrist of Eve.(378) This work, is similar, though also different to the works by Hieronymus Bosch, A.D. 1450--1516, who also depicts Christ clasping the wrist of Eve, except, that Christ's left hand clasps Eve's right wrist.(379) In Russian Folk lore and creation legends from the Tombov Province, a possible reference to the hand clasps in the creation story is mentioned in this way: "God took them by the hand, and they went with him into the heavenly gardens and sang praise to God." (380)

Ritualistic Aprons in Ancient Mysteries


The ancient Essenes, who lived before and during Christ time, and in same part of the world, were a mystery religion, who were called, among other things, as "The Apron-Wearers."(381) Josephus, the Jewish Historian of the 1st century A.D., wrote that when the Essense would assemble, they would "put on linen aprons, and bath in cold water." This he suggests, was part of their "rite of purification."(382)

The fourth century Christian Father, Gregory of Nyssa, A.D. 331--395, mentions many things in the Christian mysteries, one of which was the fig-leaves apron, saying: "O Lord. . . Thou didst strip off the fig-tree leaves, an unseemly covering, and put upon us a costly garment".(383) Among the ancient Mayans, an apron, with a hand symbol on it, was discovered. Other aspects of their artworks suggest that the Mayans many aspects similar to other mystery religions in the Old World, and around the world.(384)

SYMBOLS IN THE HAND:
[FRAGMENTS OF TEMPLE ENDOWMENT THROUGHOUT THE WORLD?]

The hand has been used as a symbol in many cultures for many different reasons, and meanings. Though I'm going to include some cases from other cultures, historic Christianity(385) is were we find it being used more often than in the other cultures.

In pre-Christian time Jewish writings, such as in the Book of Wisdom, written by a Jew of Alexandria, decades before Jesus' time, a part that is often read at funerals include tells how the "souls of the just are in the  hands of God."(386) Dr. N. Hass "...observed that Jehohanan's [skeletial remains* on the] right radius (the upper arm bone as the arms outstretch) had both a surface cut and a distinct wearing action from the victim's writhing on the cross. This "scratch" on the bone was positioned between the two lower arm bones at a structurally more solid location to fix a nail. This evidence, coupled with a strict reading of the New Testament, indicates that both hand and wrist could have been pierced."(387)

In historic Christianity, baptismal scenes of Christ, showing different versions and types of baptism, often also show the hand of God extending down out of heaven over these different versions too.(388) In other cases, the hand of God extends during Christ's transfiguration.(389) 4th century, in a early Christian work, the Emperor Constantine is represented as being the vicar of God, or the representative of God on earth. Hence, he is being crowned by the hand of God that extends out of heaven.(390) The hand of God extends down in a depiction of "Charlemagn's grandson, Charles the Bald, is seen in this ninth-century picture surrounded by officers of state and receiving a Bible from the monks St Martin of Tours."(391) In another work, the hand of God extends to bless Able who offers to God the sacrificial lamb.(392) 830, in an ivory panel, Christ's right hand is grasped by the hand of the Father. Only the right hand of the Father is seen extending down out of heaven in the clouds. The Father's thumb rests on the "pointer" finger's knuckle.(393)

Mid 9th century, Carolingian, in The Vivien Bible, and the Moutier-Grandval Bible, are depictions of the hand  of God extending down out of heaven to hand the Law to Moses.(394) Numerous other examples of the hand of God giving the law to Moses, plus extending out of heaven in other biblical events, suggests that this was a popular way to depict these, and other events.(395) 850--860, in an illustration of Psalm 26, from the book cover of the Prayer book of Charles the Bald, the hand of the Father extends out of heaven, while it is as though Christ greets David, with a right hand clasp, at the door way to a church or building.(396) 940, in the Bible of Leo the Patrician, is a pages that shows the hand of God extending out of heaven to give a tablet to Moses, on which is written the Law.(397) 996, the hand of God extends out of heaven to crown the Emperor Otto III, in a Christian art work from the 10th century, in the Aachen Gospels. He is also in a mandorla symbol, and holds an orb in his right hand, hence, this may be symbolic of how he moves about his empire as the substitute for Christ.(398) 11th century, above a stone sculpture depiction of the crucifix, on the exterior west wall of the south transept at Romsey, the hand of God extends down out of the clouds.(399) 1015, on some bronze doors, "from St Michael's", is a number of scenes, one of which shows scenes of Genesis, with the hand of God extending down out of heaven on one scene.(400) 1019--1020, a depiction of the coronation of St. Henry II, shows two people supporting his arms that are raised up. If there is any fragment of the traditional clasp here, they are being done on his arms, rather than his hands. However, it may be that no ascension to the throne clasp are intended to be interpreted here too.(401) Mid 11th century, in the Farfa Bible, there is a drawing of the arm of God extending down out of heaven.(402) 1070--1100, up above the ascending Virgin, a hand extends, with the two largest fingers extended, and the thumb over the two smaller fingers which are curled in. The Virgin is in a mandorla, a symbol often seen around Christ, or saints as they travel into other realms of existences.(403) In another work, dated back to this time, and from a Gospels book, the same type of hand symbol is seen extending down up above through some curtains that have been drawn back.(404) A hand clasps is given to a person who is about to enter into a Franciscan Order & this seems to have preserved & could be based on the "rites of passage" hand clasps of the earlier Christian mysteries.(405) 11th -- 13th century is the date given for a fresco, from St. Clement of Tahull, Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, shows the hand of God extending out from the middle of circular designs.(406)

In a 12th century mosaic of The Agony in the Garden, an angel descends from heaven reaching out his right hand to Christ, who is reaching out too. Could this be before the clasp?(407) 12th century, the life of Guthlac, A.D. 667--714, the hermit saint of Crowland, is illustrated in ink drawings, one of which shows angels greeting his soul, at the moment of his death. One angel is his hand clasping guide to heaven, while the other hold the robe he is to be clothed in during his ascension into heaven.(408) The hand of God extends down in a scene that depicts the Pentecost. The hand is in a circle & below the hand is the dove which represents the Holy Ghost.(409) 1130--1140, on an ivory cover of a Gospel Book from St Gereon, Cologne, the hand of God extends down over Christ on the cross. The two largest fingers are extending down, while the others are curled in.(410) 1146, in the Wedric Gospels, the arm of God extends down holding the dove, symbolic of the Holy Ghost, which is speaking into the ear of St. John. In the lower corner of this same work, is a smaller
circuler section which also has the hand of God extending down from above.(411) 1150, the right hand of God extends out of the clouds to grasp the right wrist of Christ, on an altar frontal from Broddetorp.(412)
1130--1187, in the Mosaics of Norman Sicily, the hand symbol is seen, for from "the celestial sphere from which the from which the hand of God and the dove of the Holy Spirit emerge."(413) 1145--1147, the hand of God extends down over the cleansing of Naaman in the River Jordan.(414) 1160, in the Winchester Psalter, Christ and the apostles are at Mary's death bed. Christ passes her soul into the hands of an angel who is about to cloth her soul in a robe, while another angel also descends with another garment too. Up above, the hand of God extends out of heaven to bless this moment.(415)

Numerous hand and wrist grips are seen in Christian iconography, for example, in one portion of a 13th century work, Eve is pulled out of Adam's side by her hand, as God, or the pre-existing Christ grasps, with his left hand, the right wrist of Eve's two up lifted hands, as if she is praising or praying. Another portions shows a type of this in how that a small figure's hands are being grasped while being pulled out of Christ's wound in his side, while Christ is on the cross. Down below this scene, Adam and Eve's wrists are being grasped as if they were about to be brought together to make the clasp of marriage. The next sample blends both the creation clasp as a type of the clasp in the resurrection, for down below the crucifixion scene, Eve's right wrist is grasped as she is being raised out of Adam's side.(416) An early 14th century mosaic, made at Constantinople, shows the hand of God extending down out of heaven over forty martyrs.(417) 1323--1326, in a Gothic art piece, lower right corner, the arm of God(?) extends to grasp the hands of those reaching up this extending arm's right hand.(418) 1390, Bartolo di Fredi's art work of The Presentation of Christ in the Temple, shows Christ's hands about to be clasped by Mary in a similar manner as in rite of homage hand clasps done between nobles, Knights, and Christian Kings.(419) In this rite, in some cases, both hands of one of the subjects are placed together with in the hands of those of the king's hands.(420) 13th century, in an illuminated manuscript, the hand of God extends out of heaven to bless the scene of pilgrims and their equipment being blessed.(421) Another work, shows Christ reaching out to a heavenly being which is also reaching out towards Christ, as Christ ascends towards the hand of God that extends out of heaven too. Hence, the artist may have chosen to show the moments in the ascension, right before the hand grips take place.(422) 13th or 14th century(?), in a work, showing the ascension of St. John, his is helped up to a higher level by helping hands from a group of assemble saints.(423) During these centuries, panel series of art works, showing different scriptural events, show in some, the arm of God extending out of heaven.(424) 1320, the arms of God extend out of heaven over a wedding ceremony, in which the person, perhaps Christ, is grasping the wrist of the bride to bring the hands of the couple together to make the traditional hand grips of marriage. Above this, an angel holds what could be a vest or garment too.(425) In the tympanum of Saint Foi of Conques, a stone work, the hand of God extends towards a praying figure. On the right hand side of Christ, as Judge, Peter greets souls, by clasping their hands, at the door of paradise. Also on the right hand side, a church leader grasps the hands of those he is guiding to Christ.(426) Another depiction, 12th --14th centuries(?), shows one of the chosen souls being handed over to Peter who stands before the entrance to Heaven. With his right hand, Peter hold a set of keys, while his left hand is grasping the hands of the soul being received into heaven.(427) Early 14th century, a cross symbols or symbols in the hand are seen on different depictions of different people in later Christian art. Gloves often had this symbol in them to. Could these be types & symbols of the nails that Christ had received in his hands?(428) 14th century, the hands or hand of God, or of Christ are often seen in the depictions of the souls ascension into heaven. The hand or hands extend down from above to welcome the ascending soul. In some Byzantine manuscripts, some artist have depicted "...the victorious soul stretching up from the top of the ladder to receive the crown of life from the Redeemer depicted not as a full-length figure but by a tiny pair of hands extended from the top right hand corner of the miniature." "...In the fourteenth century ms. of Bartolomeo di Bartoli's Canzone, heavenly hands hold a crown and a scroll inscribed with the Corporal and Spiritual Beatitudes over the head of an already crowned figure of Spes who sits enthroned over `Judas desperatus' with his hang-rope."(429)

1400--1455, Fra Angelico, (Giovani da Fiesole). In a lower portion of one of his works, two monks clasp each others' right and left hands, perhaps in respect, or in what might be a ritualistic greeting. What ever might be the case, their thumbs rest on each others' pointer fingers' knuckles.(430) 1446--9, Vecchietta: The Virgin Receives the Souls of Foundlings. In this art work illustrating a ladder of Paradise, the virgin, helps infants up the ladder of paradise by clasping their wrists.(431) 1493, The creation dramas as depicted in early to later Christian art works is often another place where we see different types of hand clasps. For example, Wolgemut's work is said to have been part of the massive Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493. In this creation drama God clasps the wrists of Eve as she is being raised up or pulled up out of Adam's side.(432)

1676, the hand of God extends out of a cloud to give finger gestures of blessing upon St. Theodore Stratilates.(433) 1670--72, the wounded hand of Christ extends down out of heaven with the judgment scales.(434) 18th century, the hand of God extends out of a cloud to present a crown above Maria Theresa, Apostolic 'KING' of Hungary.(435)

Symbols in gloves:
1422, on the middle of the hand of a Christian religious leader's glove is a circular symbol with a X shaped design in it.(436) 1444--1510, Botticelli painted Barnabas and others, on the glove of the religious leader in the center, is a () mandorla shaped symbol, perhaps symbolic of the nail mark wound in Christ's palm.(437) Another work show a symbol similar to this, in the middle of the right hand glove area.(438)

ANCIENT OATHS AND VOW GESTURES
"The New Covenant of Mercy and Repentance". "When they are assembled for Community, everyone who comes to the Council of the Community shall enter into the Covenant of God in the sight of all the dedicated ones. And he shall impose it upon himself by a binding oath to return to the Law of Moses according to all that he commanded."(439) In later Christianity, Christian pilgrims & hermits had oaths or vows that they would do. "...Hermits had, in fact, been enrolled into a new order in the mid-thirteenth century by Innocent IV. They adopted the rule of St Augustine and were known at first as the Eremiti Augustini. They increased rapidly and formed communities soon known as the Augustine or Austin Friars. Hermits who wished to live in seclusion or in very small companies were still referred to as Eremites.... Before being able to profess himself as a hermit it was necessary first for a postulant to obtain a hermitage or at least land and the means to build
one. Then the consent of the bishop of the diocese was needed for permission to enter the order. Finally a religious service was held at which the prospective hermit took his vows. On 13 May 1394, John Ferrers of Norfolk went before the bishop of Norwich in the chapel of Thorpe and swore, I, John Ferrers, not married, promise and avow to God our Lady St Mary and all the saints, in the presence of you, reverend father in God, Richard, bishop of Norwich, the vow of chastity, after the rule of St Paul the eremite. In the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost. John's new garments and his crook, ressembling that of a shepherd, were blessed and sprinkled with holy water, psalms were sung and prayers offered that he would worthily follow the life of a hermit...."(440)

Some Christians took a vow before going on a pilgrimage. During the Middle Ages, monks and nuns were "men and women who had taken life-long vows of poverty, obedience and chastity". The medieval Church influenced the oaths and vows taken by the sovereign kings and rulers who believed that their right to rule was given to them from God. During the coronation ceremonies the king "had to take an oath to defend the Church and be faithful to his people, and was anointed with oil to consecrate or set him apart for his position." Some art works depict different aspects of the coronation ceremonies. One such work is of "the Order of the Coronation of the Kings of France the king kneels before the altar and is anointed by the Bishop with oil as a sign that he is set apart to rule his people in the name of God." Some took vows of silence. St. Francis vowed that he would rid himself of his possessions and devote himself to the service of the poor. Friars took the same vows of poverty, chastity and obedience just as monks and nuns had, except the friars worked in the community rather than in a secluded monastery as the monks and nuns did.(441)

"Many pilgrims also kept the vow of chastity on the way; others did not. Hence the proverb Ir romera y volver ramera ("Go a pilgrim, return a whore"). . . . Many went on pilgrimages to fulfill a vow made either by themselves or on behalf of another. Such a vow could be made in the case of recovery from a severe illness in which the intercession of the saint was believed to have restored one from the very brink of death. Or, again, one might have been in severe physical danger and promised to visit a shrine if one should be delivered from the peril. Such vows had a component of cupboard love in the religious motive if undertaken for a parent or other relative, or out of charity for a friend, or as a member of a guild for other members. . . . Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini who led a dissolute life before becoming a priest. . . in fulfillment of a vow he made during a tempest. . . he walked barefoot on the frozen ground to White Kirk near North Berwick and on his return had to be carried rather then led by his servants. . . . The importance of the vow of poverty was stressed in the narration of The Life of Saint Alexis."(442) Taking it to an extreme, he ended up giving away the food that was brought to him, to those even poorer than himself, and died of undernourishment.(443)

ANCIENT PRAYER GESTURES AND CIRCLES:
[PARALLELS BETWEEN THE OLD & NEW WORLD]
In ancient times, one of the most common ways to pray was to stand, looking up, & then lifting the hands over the head. Possible preservation of the prayer gesture are seen in the art works & writings. But also, an interesting parallel between the old & the new world. Is the manner in which different thrones were built. The Throne of Cyrus, rests on the heads & hands of a number of people depicted with also up lifted hands to support the King. Is this an ancient fragment in apostate form of the prayer gestures? The throne of Cyrus at Babylon, was perhaps known to the Hebrews, for Daniel the prophet had been taken captive some time between 604 -- 606 B.C. Daniel may have noticed that there were some similarities between Hebrew prayer gestures. And those of the apostate, retrogressed, & fragmented possible prayer gestures of the King of Babylon. If he noticed the depictions of people with up-lifted hands. The Prophet wrote of an oath with up-lifted hands, also in the form of a prayer. "And I heard the man clothed in linen, which was upon the waters of the river, when he held up his right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and sware by him that liveth for ever..." (Dan.12:7). In numerous early to later Christian art works, the Prophet Daniel is often depicted as praying in the lions' den, with up- lifted hands. In the Mosaic- Hebrew sacrifices, one of the prayer gestures was to stand praying with up-lifted hands. These types of prayer gestures have also been discovered in the New World,-- the ancient Americas.(444)

Cyrus H. Gordan wrote of the different ancient America parallels with the Old World. "In the Temple of the Warriors at Chichen Itza, Yucatan, is the great stone couch of the ruler. It is held up by various types with their hands raised high above their heads, palms forward, harking back to the theme found at Persepolis, capital of the Persian Empire. The Persian throne is supported by many figures in varying costumes, representing the component parts of his world empire sustaining his authority. It is in this manner, with outstretched arms, tha the support of his subject peoples is shown iconographically."(445)

Alexander W. Bradford, wrote in 1841, that near the Elk & Kenhawa rivers, in the western part of Virginia. Bishop Madison is said to have observed some remains of sculpture. Several figures were depicted, etc. "...Upon the side of the rock there are two awkward figures which particularly caught my attention. One is that of a man, with his arms uplifted and hands spread out, as if engaged in prayer...."(446)

Augustus Le Plongeon, also noticed a number of ancient American stone carvings that had what he thought could be depictions of prayer gestures. At Uxmal, one of the ancient metropolis in Yucatan, Mr. Plongeon claimed that there was an ancient ruin that had a number of symbolical depictions that reminded him of the ordinances or "mysteries" of the Masons & different Old World nations' mysteries. Among some of these symbolical depictions was a number of figures with up lifted hands over their heads.(447)

The early to later Christians of the scattered branches of Christianity had developed different ways to pray. Some of the gestures were moving gestures with symbolical meanings. As the centuries went by, prayer gestures and prayer circles faded off into traditional round dances, which were in some cases symbolic of the round dance that the righteous and the angels do while holding hands in the afterlife realms of paradise. Other later art works, such as The Birth of the Virgin, shows small children angels clasping hands and forming a circle in the air.(448)

A.D. 30--100, Clement of Rome, writing to the Corinthians, wrote: "Full of holy designs, ye did, with true earnestness of mind and a godly confidence, stretch forth your hands to God Almighty, beseeching Him to be merciful unto you, if ye had been guilty of any involuntary transgression."(449) Further on Clement of Rome wrote: "Let us then draw near to Him with holiness of spirit, lifting up pure and undefiled hands unto Him, loving our gracious and merciful Father, who has made us partakers in the blessing of His elect."(450)

Justin Martyr, A.D. 110--165, in his Dialogue With Trypho, wrote how that Moses outstretched hands was a  prayer gestural type of the cross.(451) In later Christian works of the cross, on each side of the horizontal parts of the arms of the cross, there are people with up-lifted hands, as if making the traditional Christian prayer gesture.(452)

Clement of Alexandria, A.D. 153-193-217, wrote how they "raise the head and lift the hands towards heaven, and stand on tiptoe as we join in the closing outburst of prayer".(453) He also wrote: "Come to our mysteries and you shall dance with the angels around the Unbegotten and Eternal one, while Logos of God sings along with us. . . the great High Priest of God, who prays for men and instructs them."(454)

In the third century catacombs, St. Callistus, Rome, is a fresco of a Christian woman, praying with up-lifted hands, and with her face veiled.(455) Second half of the third century, in the painted ceilings of the catacomb of SS. Pietro e Marcellino, Rome, Christ, represented as being the Good Shepherd, is encircled by praying figures with up lifted hands in four directions, and one showing Jonah, with up-lifted hands, being swallowed by a great fish.(456) 240-70 c., on the Christian sarcophagus, S. Maria Antica, Rome, a female praying figure, with hands held head high, is carved with other scenes too.(457) 4th century, in the catacomb of Vigna Massimo, Rome, a female figure stands praying with out stretched arms away from her sides.(458) Another in  the catacomb of Domitilla, Rome, shows the female praying figure with the hands at head level, stretched out.(459) 330, Christian sarcophagus, Nat. Mus. Rome, shows a female figure praying with hands held out at shoulder or neck level.(460) St. Ambrose, A.D. 340--397, Bishop of Milan, "speaks of the believer as dancing the spiritual dance in the ecstasy of faith. One of the most interesting survivals in this connection is in  the apocryphal of Acts of John (94--102) where there is a round dance of the Twelve Apostles with Jesus at the centre."(461) First half of the 4th century, on a Christian sarcophagus, Mus. Pio Cristiano, Vatican, a praying female figure holds her hands at neck level.(462)

In Coptic Christian art works a number of examples show the traditional prayer gesture as being with up-lifted hands. This prayer gesture was also done by many different pagan religions in the Old world area. Two reliefs of the Egyptian national saint, Menas show a person with up-lifted hands. Also a "Praying man with a cross." Is said to have been found on a "Fragment of a limestone niche from Sheikh Abada". Another fragment of a limestone relief shows a "priestly saint praying" with up-lifted hands.(463) Prayers for the dead, or art works showing the dead praying, still show them with up lifted hands. For example in early Christian sarcophagi art, Old Testament themes are shown with other types and themes, such as God delivering his faithful servants, Daniel in the lions den with up lifted hands in prayer, the three Children in the fiery furnace, again often shown with up lifted hands. "On the whole, these scenes are visual counterparts of prayers said in the Office of the Dead, in the form it is known to have had since the Middle Ages, and also of the invocations in other Christian  prayers. The same practice had obtained in the earlier Jewish and Gnostic liturgies". In Jewish and Christian images, such as Noah saved from the flood and Daniel in the lion's den,(464) "both with their arms raised in prayer, were familiar themes in the Jewish iconography of Antiquity."(465)

The prayer gesture with up-lifted hands is seen in later Christian art works. For example, Monks and others are depicted as praying with up-lifted hands.(466) "...Another miniature (folio 37a, Fig. 20) represents the longitudinal cross section of a magnificent Gothic cathedral with the royal couple at prayer" [in this case, the couple do not have their hands raised up,] "while monks praying in the open,..." [a number of them, not all, are depicted as lifting their hands towards heaven.](467) Prayer gestures with up-lifted hands were done by orthodox Christians as well as some of those who were considered heretics. "Among the Christian heretics of the later Roman age were the monophysites, who held that Christ was not human and divine, but had one composite nature. A sixth century fresco from one of their churches near Asyut represents the three children of Babylon in the fiery furnace." It also shows a number of persons with up-lifted hands as if in prayer.(468) 7th century, Frank Agilbert, trained in Ireland, became the bishop of Wessex, and was present at the Synod of Whitby, and died bishop of Paris. His tomb, now at Jouarre, east of Paris, shows souls in a last Judgment scene, with up-lifted hands in prayer. Another parallel tomb is found in Northumbria.(469) 827--844, Rome, in the mosaics of the vault chapel of San Zeno, Christ is depicted in a circle, while four angels, with up-lifted hands, touch the circle. Hence, it may be that this could be a fragment that preserves, in part, the prayer circle traditions.(470) 11th -- 13th century, is the date given for an icon that shows the Virgin Mary, praying with up-lifted hands.(471)

1020, Saxony, in a famous legend of the Middle Ages, The Cursed Carollers of Kolbigk, in his Life of St. Edith, the Flemish-born monk named Goscelin, through a pilgrim named Theodoric, tells the tale about the pilgrim's claims about a miracle that took place in Saxony about 1020. Here in this legend is what could be a faded fragment of the prayer circle, which in later centuries faded off into circular hand clasping dances. Twelve people were gathered at the Church of St. Magnus in Kolbigk on Christmas Eve, led by one Gerluus, in the company of two girls, Mersuind and Wibecyna, and the priest's daughter Ava, whom they forced to join the circle. There, they "joined hands and danced in the churchyard." This round dance or carol, was echoed by those who repeated certain parts. However, the manner in which it was done upset the priest who asked them to stop. When they refused, he invoked, through Saint Magnus, the wrath of the Lord upon them, and they found that they couldn't break the circle or stop dancing.(472) 1341-9, those who took part in later circular dances, form a circle by grasping each others' wrists and hands. An example of this in the Monastery Church, Lesnovo, Serbia. Wall painting of Psalm 150, dated 1341-9.(473) 1420's, Fra Angelico's Last Judgment depicts the round dance of the angels in paradise, in which saints clasp hands with the angels when they enter the circle that is being formed.(474) 1431, Fra Angelico, A.D. 1400--55, in his The Last Judgment, shows souls of the blessed and the angels joining hands in a round dance in a paradise type heavenly garden. Others near by watching this circular dance, are making prayer gestures, not the ones with the hands above the head, or at different levels, but with the hands together, with the finger pointing upward, and at about chin level.(475)

In the monastery of St. John Lampadistis, Kalopanayiotis. A work dated back to "ca. 1500" shows the pre-existing Virgin Mary and Christ-child in the middle of the burning bush as part of the vision of Moses. Mary has her hands raised up in the tradition prayer gesture. Another depiction of Mary and the Christ-child, shows them both with up-lifted hands. This one dates back to 1494 A.D. Some of the apostles seem to have been depicted in the act of making prayer gestures during communion with Christ. Another depiction of the Virgin Mary with up-lifted hands dates back to the 2nd decade of the 16th century A.D. Another depiction of the Virgin Mary & the Christ-child shows Mary with up-lifted hands in prayer, this one dates back to 1474 A.D. Another shows a similar scene of Mary & the Christ-child, Mary has up-lifted hands as an orant or one in the act of a prayer gesture. This one is dated back to the 14th century A.D.(476) A work that dates back to 1568 A.D. shows Mary and the Christ child. Mary's hands are raised up as if in the traditional prayer gesture.(477) Prayer gestures in Monastic Egypt: "...his arms outstretched in the form of a cross to heaven, calling on God."(478) In the Biblia Pauperum, "Melchisedech holds a chalice in his right hand, lifting up in his left a Host on which Abraham gazes, his right hand raised in a gesture that is typical of elevation scenes. . . . An Israelite in the background looks up to heaven with both hands outstretched. The gaze towards heaven from which the bread rains down and the raised hands are features of the iconography of the manna in the desert."(479) It may be that the up raised hands and other gestures mentioned are types of sacramental gestures, and prayer gestures. Late 19th century, in Russian Icons, St. Serafim of Sarov is depicted on his knees, and with up-lifted hands, while praying.(480) Some modern Christians, such as the London staff of the Church Missionary Society, perform a circular dance worship in their chapel. One aspect of it, as it was caught on film, shows a photo of them on their knees in a circle with up lifted hands, clasping or touching each others hands. It is not certain here if this modern method of worship was derived from earlier Christian prayer circle dances, or if it is part of other traditions. What ever might be the case, it is interesting to note a possible fragment of the earlier traditions.(481)

HAND & WRIST CLASPS
IN HISTORIC CHRISTIAN MARRIAGES
In a work showing the scenes of the Creation of the Universe, the Earth, and all kinds of life. Eve is raised up out of Adam's side with a helping hand clasp from God. Another portion shows Adam with his right hand raised up (perhaps making the marriage vow?), while his left hand holds that of Eve's right. God is there as if instructing & (perhaps performing the marriage?). Other hand clasps are seen here in other scenes, for God holds Adam's right hand, as he explains & shows him the tree of knowledge of good and evil. Another portion shows Eve sitting down while God bends forward as if to raise her up on her feet for He has taken a hold of both of her hands. Could these art works reflect the faded memories of the earlier Christian mystery dramas of the creation?(482) In many cases, double and triple types of hand and wrist grasps(483) are seen being done during marriage ceremonies. At least, this is what the art works seems to suggest.(484) In some cases, double clasps(485) are down in the way in which the one performing the wedding, brings the groom's and bride's hands together by grasping their wrists, or in some cases, arms. Other artists show different types of hand and wrist clasping, while the hands of the one performing the rite, still holds the wrists of the couple.(486) In other cases, the grip is made with right hands,(487) while in others with left to right, or left to left.

In the Metropolitan Museum of Art, an early Christian art work shows "the marriage ceremony of a Christian couple: inscribed above are the words Vivatis in deo, "May you live in God." The couple are clasping each others' right hands too.(488) "Marriage of the Virgin. The high priest joins the hands of the kneeling betrothed couple (Pinakothek, Munich)". The hand clasp, (as it has been depicted here in this art work), is made with the right hands of the couple. On page 116 the marriage veil is mentioned here too. "...The young bride was borne in a litter in her wedding dress with her head veiled..."(489) 300--310, on marble is carved, among other things, Adam and Eve embracing and clasping each others' right hands to form the "dextrarum junctio, the official marriage gesture."(490) 4th century, on a circular work, a couple grasps each others' right wrists in marriage. Above the joined hands is a large wreathed crown, and there is also an inscription that reads VIVATIS IN DEO, a formula used since the days of Clement of Alexandria in Christian wedding ceremonies.(491) 610--629, on a silver dish, is a Byzantium work that shows a couple clasping each others' right hand in marriage.(492) A 7th-- 8th century silver plate from Constantinople, shows the couple gripping each others' right hands during the "Marriage of David".(493)

In the sample of iconography studied by Jennifer O'Reilly, there is a 13th century Christian work that shows what could be God grasping the wrists of Adam and Eve, like later Priests would during marriage ceremonies, hence it is as though God were about to join Adam's and Eve's hands in marriage.(494) Along with the other hand and wrist grasping that connect up with imagery of realm traveling, and the mysteries,(495) the sacrament of marriage, when it became more and more legendized in some areas of Christianity, included tree and branch imagery that were types of lineage, and other symbolisms, that seem to contain fragments of washing and anointing, though in fragmented forms. For in one work, "Christ received the Gifts of the Holy Ghost so He pours them out on the faithful virgins who seek to please the eternal Spouse."(496) And inasmuch as one of the sacraments was marriage, another work shows the blood of Christ flowing down, as if to anoint a couple clasping hands in the sacrament of marriage.(497)

During the 11th--15th centuries, different types of hand and wrist grasps(498) were such a part of Christian wedding ceremonies, that it seems that one of the ways to depict a man and his wife together, was to show them grasping each others' hands. Hence, it is as though the different types of hand and wrist grasps became symbols that the couple had been joined together in marriage.(499) Both the mid-thirteenth and early fifteenth century manuscripts of the Bible Moralisee depict Eve being drawn from the side of Adam, with the "second Eve drawn from the side of the second Adam at the Crucifixion and of the betrothal of Adam and Eve paired with the mystic marriage of Christ and His Church, Mary Ecclesia" showing again different types of hand and wrist grips in illustrating these types.(500) In Giovanni di Paolo's altarpiece, the mystic marriage of St. Catherine show the moment of the clasp, hence, both the groom and Catherine are gripping each others' right hands.(501) A hand clasp is depicted as being done with the right hands of a couple, but also in this particular art work a religious leader seems to be in the process of binding their hands together with a strip of cloth. (15th cent. A.D.)(502)

Another depiction shows a couple as they clasps each others' right hand during a Roman marriage rite. This ceremonial marriage rite is called "...the solemn clasping of hands (dextrarum iunctio) which formed an important part in the Roman wedding...." This source also mentions the bride's veil.(503) 1250--1285, in early Gothic manuscripts, from the Hereford, Cathedral Library, a lettered art work shows a Bishop grasping the wrists of a couple to join their right hands in marriage. In this case, the groom's middle finger looks as though it is touching the middle part of the bride's right hand.(504)

1275--1291, in a depiction of Baldwin IV, he gives Sibylle in marriage to Guy de Lusignan by grasping them both by their right wrists to bring their right hands together.(505) 14th century, in the Illuminated Napels Bible, the Book of Ruth, two marriage scenes show two religious leaders grasping the right wrists of the couples' to bring the grooms' right hands to grip the right hands of the brides.(506) 1320, the arms of God extend out of heaven over a wedding ceremony, in which the person, perhaps Christ, is grasping the wrist of the bride to bring the hands of the couple together to make the traditional hand grips of marriage. Above this, an angel holds what could be a vest or garment too.(507) 1380, a brass depiction of Sir John and Lady de la Pole, shows them united together, symbolic of their right hands clasped, with the thumb of lady's right hand resting on the third finger's knuckle.(508) Early 15th century, in a composition of the wedding ceremony of Philippe d' Artois, Comte d' Eu, and Marie, daughter of Duc de Berry, the couple are joined together by their right hands by a religious leader who holds the right wrist of the groom. In this case, the ceremony take place outside the church.(509) 1420, in a drawing of a wedding ceremony, the couple is joined together by their right hands, with the help of a man who brings them together by grasping the groom's arm.(510) 15th century Venice, a Venetian Wedding, from a painting of Giovanni d' Alemagna and of Antonio Vivarini, shows the couple clasping each others' right hands.(511) In a manuscript drawing, perhaps 15th century, the marriage of  Henry V to Catherine of France, shows them shaking each others' right hand. In a 15th century Illumination manuscript, a portion shows the marriage of Henry VI to Margaret of Anjou, in this case, the King sets his left and on the Queen's right, while her left is on a book, perhaps the bible, as if she is making an oath or vow on the holy book.(512)

1448, a scene depicting the Marriage of Count Girart de Roussillon to the daughter of the count of Sens, shows the bishop grasping, with his right hand, the right wrist groom, while his left gently holds the top right wrist of the bride to join the couples right hands together.(513) 1452--1456, in Jean Fouquet's depiction of the Marriage of the Virgin, from the Book of Hours of Etienne Chevalier, the religious leader joins the right hands of the couple, by grasping their wrists.(514) Hapsburg emperor, Frederick III, reigned from 1440 to 1493, and is depicted by Pinturicchio, in the Cathedral Library, Siena, as entering into marriage with Eleanor of Portugal. In this case, they are joined together by their right hands, with a religious leader by their sides.(515) 1475, or third quarter of the 15th century, Tournai. On a tapestry, believed to have been made by Pasquier Grenier, is one of the seven sacraments, marriage. In this case, the religious leader grasps, with his left hand, the right wrist of the groom, as the bride grips, with her right, the right hand of the groom.(516) In some cases, the marriage ceremony is intended to reflect Old Testament types, for there are depictions of God the Father, grasping the wrists of Adam and Eve, before their right hands are brought together to make the marriage clasp. Hence, the ceremony performed by the religious leaders was a type of this.(517) 1487, on  brass, from a Northamptonshire church, is a depiction of an English rite of marriage, showing Sir Maunteel gripping, with his right hand, the right hand of his wife, while she holds up her left hand to perhaps indicate their wedding vows.(518) 1488--1541, Bernaert van Orley's Flemish work of the marriage of the Virgin, shows the couple joining each others' right hands.(519) 1504--5, another marriage scene that depicts a hand clasp, is that of Albrecht Durer's Marriage of the Virgin, woodcut from the Life of the Virgin.(520) 1518, the hand clasp in marriage is depicted in anti-Reform art work which shows a "Reform minister officiating at the marriage of the fool and the she-devil. From Thomas Murner's anti-Lutheran pamphlet Von dem grossen Lutherischen Narren, about 1518."(521) 1533, a depiction of the Scala/Vasari wedding of Catherine de'Medici to Henry 2nd/Palazzo Vecchio, Florence show the religious leader grasping, with his right hand, the right wrist of the groom. In this case the artist decided to show the moments before the clasp, for the religious leader's left hand is about to grasp the left wrist of the bride to bring them both together.(522) 1565, Venice, a wedding among the Common People--a cut from the poem, Naspo Bizaro, by Alessandro Caravia, 1565, shows the couple clasping hands, the bride's left is grasping the groom's right.(523)

Different types of hand and wrist grasps, in many cultures around the world, symbolized marriage. For example, in Asia, a stone work shows the marriage of iva and Prvat, two of Asia's deities, with the clasp being made with each others' right hands.(524) In an imitation of contemporary artists from the Renaissance to Baroque styles, imitating Durer's style, with his monogram, is another depiction of a marriage ceremony. In this case, the religious leader grips gently the arm of the bride with one hand, and the wrist of the groom with the other hand to bring their right hands together. The couples' right hand thumbs rest on each others' second fingers' knuckles.(525) In an early 19th century interpretation of the Creation, by Thomas Blake, God is grasping, with his right hand, the right hand of Adam, while his left grasps Eve's wrist, as if God is introducing Eve to Adam to perhaps marry them.(526) 1820, in Fohr, Germany, Olaf Braren, A.D. 1787--1839, painted  marriage ceremony, held at a home on the Island of Fohr, which shows the couple gripping each others' right hands, while the one performing the ceremony rests his right hand on groom's right hand.(527) The Quakers join hands and face each other to repeat their wedding vows.(528) A 19th century depiction of the Emperor Valens shows him offering "...the hand of asyhum to the Visigoths..." which consist of a hand clasp.(529) 1853, Walter Howell Deverell, 1827--54, his As You Like It, painting, shows Celia in the guise of a boy, pretending to Officiate at the "marriage" of Orlando and Rosalind, in guise of boy. The interesting thing about this "so-called marriage" is the right handed clasp, for their thumbs rest on each others' second knuckle down. (530) A similar clasp is found on a tapestry that depicts the marriage of Tobit.(531) 1890's, a Spanish work, carved bone and ivory on wood, shows the marriage of the Virgin, with a right hand grip. Pseudo-Gothic Triptych, ascribed to Francisco Pallas y Puig, A.D. 1859--1926.(532)

HAND CLASPING WEDDING & BETROTHAL RINGS
The Egyptians were among the first to use wedding rings in making their vows, for in their ancient literature they appear, and the circle in hieroglyphics represents eternity. Consequently, the circular form was eventually adopted as being "symbolic of the marriage ties, implying a marriage that will be binding throughout eternity."(533) In the Gospel of Philip, it says that when the woman is united to her husband in the Bridal Chamber it symbolized how that they could remain a couple in the next life and beyond. "Those who are united in the Bridal Chamber will no longer be separated" (Gospel of Philip 70:9-21).(534)

Concerning the circle in marriage traditions, the ring being circular, round and without end, it symbolized how that it was hoped that couples' love for each other would continue forever.(535) "By its very form the wedding ring is a symbol of the intention of both parties to keep for ever the vows they have made, to recognize as eternally binding the ties which join them in marriage."(536)

In many early to later Christian engagement, friendship, and especially wedding rings, they sometimes consist of two hands clasping(537) together.(538) Rings were also worn by civil & religious leaders, which hands and rings were kissed during hand clasping greetings & ceremonies.(539) In fact, in some cases, the kiss of peace, is: "A ceremonial gesture, as a kiss or handshake, used as a sign of unity and brotherhood among those celebrating and attending the Eucharist."(540) Furthermore, the "liturgical kissing of a bishop's hand usually means a kiss impressed upon the ring he is wearing at the ceremony."(541)

Consequently, it stands to reason that there may have been fragments of the earlier Christian mysteries preserved in these, and later traditional greetings & ceremonies. Especially when we also note that the conferring of some pontifical rings included hints to rites of passage hand and wrist grasps, as evident by the different references to different hand clasping elements in the mysteries, such as passing in through the gaits of Heaven, Brides, raising up the fallen, etc. For example, in 590, in the sacramental conferring of the pontifical ring upon a bishop, a translation into English of St. Gregory's formula says this: "Receive this ring of distinction and honor, a symbol of faith, that thou mayest seal what is to be sealed, and reveal what is to be revealed, and that to believers baptized into the faith, who have fallen but are penitent, thou mayst by the mystery of reconciliation open the gates of the Kingdom of Heaven."(542) In raising up the fallen, there are different types of hand and wrist grasps seen in the art works, especially too, in rites of passage hand and wrist grasps through the gates or doors to paradise, or heaven.(543) Another version of the conferring of the ring hints to the wedding ceremony, which, as we have already noted, often includes different types of hand and wrist grips. Hence, a more modern formula says: "Receive the ring of faith as a sign that thou wilt guard the Bride of God, Holy Church, with undaunted faith."(544) The reference to the Bride of God, is that hint which suggests the connection with earlier types and clasps in Christian weddings. Earlier, in the mid-thirteenth and early fifteenth century manuscripts of the Bible Moralisee, we see, among other hand and wrist gripping types, the clasps seen in "the mystic marriage of Christ and His Church, Mary Ecclesia."(545)

Furthermore, inasmuch as the early anti-Christians,(546) Celsus, Caecilius,(547) and Fronto, were disturbed by what they perceived were secret elements in the Christian mysteries, how they would " recognize each other by secret marks."(548) And how that they would "extend the hand for greeting at the bottom of the palm they make a tickling touch and from this they ascertain whether the person who appeared is of their faith."(549) Plus how that the secrecy of their mysteries and meetings, were largely due, in part, to the persecutions which the early Christians had to endure.(550) But also, because of how there were certain things which they felt should be reserved for those who had proved themselves to be worthy and ready for the mysteries.(551) It comes as no surprise to see elements of these "secret" aspects filtering down into later Christian customs. Hence, in later centuries, this concept that certain elements of the mysteries ought to remain secret, seems to be hinted to in the writings of Isidore, Archbishop of Seville from 601 to 636 A.D. He states that the pontifical ring is "one of the canonical insignia of the episcopate and terms it "a sign of pontifical honor, or a seal of secrets," adding that the priests must keep many secrets confided to them hidden in their breasts as though beneath a seal."(552)

The hand clasp in marriage was often depicted in jewelry, thus, two hands clasped together make part of a collection of wedding rings.(553) The Eastern Orthodox, including Greek and Russian Orthodox are similar, in their Marriage Rites, as the Catholic Church, for they also join hands.(554) 6th century, A.D., a golden marriage ring, Byzantine, shows two hands clasping.(555) 6th --7th century, on a gold octagonal marriage ring, Constaninople (?), perhaps referring to the octagonal shape of the Church of the Divine Concord at Antioch, Christ stands between the couple to officiate the wedding rite, which is done as the bride and groom join right hands.(556) A medieval drawing of a ring shows two right hand clasped together with lombardic lettering on the band area.(557) 12th century, English, a silver ring has two right hands clasped together, symbolizing a sign of faithfulness, especially in love and marriage. The ring, along with many others, was deposited about A.D. 1180, and later found at Lark Hill near Worcester, England, in 1854.(558) 13th century, a simple Lombardic type, shows two right hands that will make the grip. Inscribed on the band area is: IO SVI DE DRVERIE (a reverse N) E ME DV.(559) 14th century, a French right hand clasping ring was found with coins and other things, during a demolition of a house in la rue aux Juifs at Colmar, France, in 1923.(560) 14th century, two rings connect together by joining the hands.(561) Another 14th century hand clasping ring is made up of two rings that connect together to into one when the hands on them are joined
together.(562) 1420, in a French painting, during the time of Jean De Berry, the Father grasps the wrists of Adam and Eve to bring their right hands together to make the grip know as the "junctio dextrarum,"(563) while two angels hold the mantle of the Father.(564)

15th century, a number of British rings show different types of hand grips on them, one shows right hands clasping. Another, the thumb rests on the knuckle of the 4th finger. On a third ring, two right hands clasped; on another, the thumb rests on the third finger's knuckle; & the fifth is of two right hands making the clasp. These rings are called "love rings."(565) First half of the 15th century, "On a gimmal ring. . . in the Londesborough Collection, is an engraved head of Lucretia; at the back appear two hands clasped."(566)

The bringing together of the two, in some cases three parts of the ring, in some cases by two hands that clasp together to make the ring hold together. The concept of marriages that extend even in the after life realms, seems to be retained, somewhat, in how the rings are connected together, and in the words that some times are inscribed on the rings, such as a 16th century German work: "Quod Deus conjunxit homo non separed (Let man not separate what God hath joined together)."(567) "As a general rule all rings bearing clasped hands were termed gimmal rings, although the designation properly belonged to two or more separate rings joined together."(568) Another Christian ring has the hand grip, and the words inscribed on it that signifies "Jesus Nazarenus Rex."(569) 16th century, a "bezel in form of clasped hands," or hand clasping ring, can be seen in the British Museum.(570)

1550's, a French or German ring, the fede ring with two right hands making the marriage grip, from the Italian mani in fede, meaning literally 'hands in faith,' has been used since Roman times, and signified Christian betrothal or marriage.(571) 1586, German, two engagement rings with right hands on them, connect together to become one ring, symbolic of the union of marriage. Engraved on the gold are the words: WGZSFH bzw. DSDMNS, a variation of the inscription which is sometimes on these types of rings reads: "What God has joined together, let no man cut asunder."(572) Late 16th century, two separate rings with hands on them, when interlocked together, they make the right hand clasp of marriage.(573) Early 17th century, Flemish, a multiple band, sometimes used in betrothal rings, shows two separate clasps, both made with right hands.(574) 17th century, in the Albert Figdor Collection, Vienna, a betrothal ring of gold, has two clasping hands on it.(575) 18th century, interlacing rings, when connected, form a right hand clasping love ring, over a heart. (576) 1761, French, right hand clasping rings.(577) Tying the knot as types of Marriage Hand & Wrist Grips Another custom that seems to reflect the ancient symbolical concepts behind the different types of hand and wrist grips in the world's marriage rites is how different nations, and cultures tie a knot together to signify couples' unions. As case in point is in Indian Hindu wedding rituals, in which the priest ties the groom's sash to the bride's veil, after which the couple exchange vows, which includes a part in the seven steps, septa-padi, signifying eternal friendship,(578) where one says to the other that they have become their's forever.(579)

In the case with historic Christian weddings, different types of hand and wrist grips sometimes include a sash or long thin cloth that is wrapped around their joined hands to symbolize the couple has tied the knot, and are thus joined together as husband and wife.(580) In old Christian rings, called "gimmal rings" derived from the Latin "gemelli" twins, often consist of two or more separate rings that clasp together by a hand clasp. "On each circlet there is a band, so disposed that when both are brought together the hands are clasped and hold the separate rings in place. Occasionally there are three or more rings combined in the same way. . ."(581) These clasps were likened unto the "knots" that bound the two families together. Hence, the saying of tying the "knot" in marriage, derived from these hand clasping marriage traditions. Herrick refers to this: "Thou sent'st to me a true-lover knot; but I Return a Ring of jimmals to imply Thy love had one knot, mine a triple tye."(582) "A specimen of this type of ring is given in the privately-printed catalogue of Lady Londesborough's collection (London 1853, p. 17). This is described as "a triple gimmal, the first and third circlet having each a hand, so that, when joined, the two hands are clasped together and serve to conceal two united hearts on the third ring. of German workmanship."(583) One old ring has the hand clasp inscribed with the words: "Our hands and hearts with one consent, Hath tied this knot till death prevent."(584) On this same graphic page is another hand clasping ring, a gimmal ring, made of three rings that clasp together by two hands that make the hand shake, when the rings are brought together.(585) The Armenians of Mexico have the couple sit on a mat, after the bridegroom has taken her by the hand and led her there. There is also a possible fragment of washing and anointing, & the new white garment rite, for in the part of this ceremony, it includes four days of prayers and fasting, and having bathed themselves, new clothing is put on. Those who have been invited "adorned their heads with white, and their hands and feet with red feathers. The priest ties the knot by bring a point of the bluepilli, or gown of the bride, with the tilmatli, or mantle of the bridegroom together. The Miztecas also go through a knot tying ceremony in marriage too.(586) In Aztec wedding ceremonies, the ends of the couples' clothing are tied together to make the knot.(587)

 Wedding Vows or Oaths, and Hand Grips
The early Christian church recognized the property implications of betrothals: "De Sponsalibus et Donationibus ante Nuptias," which required a contract sworn before witnesses.(588) 13th century, in a depiction of the creation drama, the pre-existing Christ confronts Adam and Eve, perhaps about why they have fig leaves on. Adam is pointing over to Eve as if saying that she gave him the fruit to eat. Eve has her right hand raised as if acknowledging that they did eat. Or perhaps it may be that she might be performing a vow or oath, if that is, fragments of the earlier Christian mysteries were preserved in part in this series of art works.(589) 1275--1291, in another, depicting the marriage of Abraham and Sara, their right wrists are being grasped by the one performing the marriage. Their hand aren't joined yet, hence the artist shows the moment before the grasp. Sara's left hand is raised up, as if performing a wedding vow.(590) 1340, in Gothic art in Bohemia, two marriage scenes those of Joseph to Mary and Sarah and Tobias. In one, a bishop is grasping the wrists of the couple to bring their right hands together. The artist picked the moments before the clasp. In the other. In the other, the religious leader grasps the wrist of the bride with his right, while his other hand holds a rod or rolled up document, perhaps the marriage certificate(?). The groom's right hand is clasping the bride's right in this case. Each of the brides have their left hands raised as if to signify their wedding vows.(591)

13th-- 15th centuries, in some cases, English speaking peoples had their Priests bring couples together to perform the wedding rites outside the church doors. In a depiction of this, the priest's right hand is raised up, as if showing them the gestural oath of fidelity, as the couple grasps each other by their right hands.(592) 1434, Jan van Eyck's painting of the bethrothal of the Arnolfini, show the groom with his left hand holding the bride's right hand, while his right hand is raised up to signify the solemn vow. "The young woman has just put her right hand in Arnolfini's left and his is about to put his own right hand into hers as a solemn token of their union."(593) The artist recorded the "very moment when that most solemn vow was pronounced."(594) Another writer wrote also that "the Italian merchant is clearly at the most solemn moment of his vows".(595) Hence, they "are in the very act of making their marriage vows."(596) Still another writer tells us: "In their bedchamber Arnolfini takes his wife's hand and lifts his right in an oath of fidelity."(597)

During the Reign of Saint Louis, according to Manuscript Paintings from Paris, couples, during the wedding ceremonies, would grasps each other with their hands, while their other free hands are raised up to make a gestural oath or vow, known as "an oath of fidelity."(598) 2000th century, in traditional nondenominational Protestant churches, the rite varies, but also includes cases in which the couple join each others' right hands to make their wedding vows.(599)

Wedding Rites Around the World
In modern Egypt, a wedding photos of the couple, show them joining hands.(600) In Iceland, a ring, large enough for hand to pass through, was used to solemnize the betrothal. In placing his hand through the ring, "he  received the hand of his bride."(601) In the old form of marriage in the Orkneys, they would join their hands through a perforation, or ring, in a stone pillar.(602) Coptic Christians wedding rite has the couple sit on the ground . A napkin or white veil, that covers the bride, is placed on the couple. The priest anoints each of them on the forehead and above the wrist. He reads over them and has them join hands.(603) Another description of this Coptic type marriage mentions the "divan" on which the couple sit, and an embroidered veil or mantle that is placed on the shoulders of the two, the couple give each other rings, and "the hands joined under the bride's veil."(604) The Catholic mass emerged around the altar, which was the focal place of worship in the center of the circular architectural settings in many churches and Cathedrals, often under the circular domes. In some ways, it was likened, in a literal way, to the ark of the covenant where covenants and vows were made to God. "Prominent among these are the marriage promises, "ratified by the ring, the kiss, and the handclasp of the couple" as they "laid their joined hands on the gospel book."(605) The Peruvians also take each other by the hand in marriage promise.(606) Among the Chinese, a sort of wedding ceremony for the dead was performed because it was so significant that if one, or even both of the couple died, during the time of their betrothal, "the wedding ceremony went ahead as though nothing had happened; a girl once betrothed was treated like a widow."(607) In Ireland, as also in old Roman customs, "the wedding-ring was in the form of two hands clasped (called a "fede) in token of union and fidelity."(608)

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Antonin Matejcek & Jaroslav Pesina, Czech Gothic Painting 1350 - 1450, (Melantrich: Praba 1950). Ariel L. Crowley, BAPTISM FOR THE DEAD, (Boise Idaho: Prepared for Electronic Media by Stanley D. Barker.

A. Rogov, Alexandrov, Museum Cities, (Leningrad, Russia: Aurora Art, 1979).

Arnold Toynbee, (Editor), The Crucible of Christianity, Judaism, Hellenism and The Historical Background to  the Christian Faith, (New York, and Cleveland, World Publishing Company, CR Thames & Hudson, 1969).

Arthur E. Lickey, God Speaks To Modern Man, (The Review & Herald Publishing Association, 1953, & 1963).

Arthur Cotterell, The Macmillan Illustrated Encyclopedia of Myths & Legends, (New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, CR 1989, by Marshall Editions Limited).

Arthur Cushman McGiffert, A History of Christian Thought, (New York, & London: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1932, & 1954).

Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. The Age of Roosevelt, The Crisis of the Old Order, 1919--1933, Boston: The Riverside Press Cambridge, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1964, CR 1954 Schlesinger, Jr.

Arthur Voyce, The Art and Architecture of Medieval Russia, (Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1967).

A. S. Garretson, Primitive Christianity And Early Criticism, (Boston: Sherman, French & Company, 1912).

Barry W. Holtz, (Editor), Back To The Sources, (New York: Summit Books, 1984).

Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine's Abbey, Ramsgate, The Book of Saints, A Dictionary of Servants of God, (Wilton, Connecticut: Morehouse Publishing, 1921, 1989, sixth edition).

Belser Verlag, The Golden Age of Dutch Manuscript Painting, (New York: The Pierpont Morgan Library, 1990).

Bernard S. Myers, (General Editor and others), Art Treasures in Germany, Monuments, Masterpieces, Commissions of Collections, (New York: Terwin Copplestone, and London, England: Hamlyn Pub. Group Limited, 1970).

Betty Willsher and Doreen Hunter, Stones, (New York: Taplinger Publishing Company, 1978, and 1979).

Brian De Breffny and George Mott, The Churches and Abbeys of Ireland, (New York, U.S.A.: W. W. Norton, & Company. CR 1976 Thames and Hudson LTD., London, England).

Brian Murphy, The World of Weddings, (New York; London: Paddington Press, LTD, 1978).

Bruce W. Warren & Thomas Stuart Ferguson, The Messiah in Ancient American, (Provo, Utah, Book of
Mormon Research Foundation, 1987).

Ferguson, One Fold & One Shepherd, (Salt Lake City, Utah: Olympus Publishing Company, 1962).

Carl Nordenfalk, Early Medieval Book Illumination, (New York: Skira Rizzoli, 1st published in Early
Medieval Paintings, 1957. Paperback edition, New York: Rizzoli Interna. Publishers, 1988).

Carl Schmidt and Violet MacDermot, The Books of Jeu and the Untitled Text in the Bruce Codex, (Leiden: Brill, 1978).

Carl Van Treeck and Aloysius Croft, M.A., Symbols in the Church, 1936.

Carol Zaleski, Otherworld Journeys, Accounts of Near-Death Experiences In Medieval and Modern
Times, (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987).

Caroline Walker Bynum, Jesus as Mother, Studies in the Spirituality of the High Middle Ages, (Berkeley,
California: University of Berkeley California Press, 1982, paper back edition 1984).

Chandler Rathfon Post, A History of Spanish Painting, (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University
Press, 1930--1958). (New York: Kraus reprint Company, 1970's).

Charles De Tolnay, 1965, Hieronymus Bosch, (Holle Verlag).

Charles F. Horne, Ph.D., and Professor, (Editor, as well as others), The Sacred Books And Early
Literature Of The East, (New York, U.S.A., and London, England: Parke, Austin, & Lipscomb, Inc.,
1917).

Charles Francis Potter, (Rev. & Dr.), The Lost Years of Jesus Revealed, From the Dead Sea Scrolls and
the Nag-Hammadi discoveries, (Greenwhich, Conn.: A Fawcett Gold Medal Book, Fawcett Publications,
Inc., 1958, 1962).

Potter, Did Jesus Write This Book? A Study of The Book of the Secrets of Enoch, Reappraising it in the
light of the Qumran, Chenoboskion, and other recently discovered manuscripts and papyri. (Greenwhich,
Conn.: A Fawcett Crest Book, 1965, 1967).

Charles Norris Cochrane, Christianity and Classical Culture, (Clarendone Press, 1940, Paperback;
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1957).

Charles Oman, The Golden Age of Hispanic Silver 1400-1665, (London, England: Victoria and Albert
Museum, and Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1968).

Oman, Formerly Keeper of the Department of Metalwork at the Victoria & Albert Museum, British
Rings 800--1914, (Totowa, New Jersey: Rowman & Littlefield, 1973, first printed in the U.S.A., 1974).

Charles Rufus Morey, Medieval Art, (New York, New York: Princeton University, W. W. Norton
Company, 1942).

Charles T. Wood, The Age of Chivalry, Manners and Morals 1000--1440, (New York, U.S.A.; and
London, England: University Books, CR 1970 by George Weidenfeld & Nicolson LTD).

C.H. Dodd, The Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1958).

C. Hopkins & N. Rostovtzeff, Excavations at Dura Europas, 1931-32, (New Haven: 1934).

Christopher Brooke, (photos, Wim Swaan), Monasteries Of the World, The Rise & Development of the
Monastic Tradition, (Crescent books, 1982, Paul Elek).

Christopher De Hamel, A History of Illuminated Manuscripts, (Boston: David R. Godine, Horticultural
Hall, 1986; United Kingdom: Phaidon Press Limited, 1986).

Clara Erskine Clement, 1871 & 1881, A Handbook, Legendary And Mythological Art, (Boston and New:
Houghton Mifflin Company; Cambridge: The Riverside Press).

Clement, edited by Katherine E. Conway, A Handbook Of Christian Symbols And Stories Of The Saints
As Ilustrated In Art, (Boston; New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, The Riverside Press Cambridge,
1871, 1881, and 1886).

Clifford Davidson, Editor, The Iconography of Heaven, Early Drama, Art, and Music, Monograph
Series, 21, (Kalamazoo, Michigan: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1994).

Clifton Harby, The Bible In Art, Twenty centuries of Famous Bible Paintings, (Garden City, New York:
Covici, Friede, 1936).

Clive Gregory, LLB., (Editor, along with others), Great Artists Of The Western World, (New York,
U.S.A, and London, England: Marshall Cavendish, & Sydney, 1987).

Clyde L. Manschreck, A History of Christianity in the World, (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey:
Prentice-Hall, 1985, second edition).

Colleen McDannell and Bernhard Lang, Heaven: A History, (New Haven and London: Yale University
Press, 1988).

Colm Luibheid, (translation), Pseudo-Dionysius: The Complete Works, (New York; Mahwah: Paulist
Press, 1987).

Constance Cumbey, The Hidden Dangers Of The Rainbow, The New Age Movement And Our Coming
Age of Barbarism, (Lafayette, LA.: Huntington House, Inc., 1983).

Craig Harbison, The Last Judgment in Sixteenth Century Northern Europe, (New York, U.S.A., and
London, England: Garland Pub. Inc., 1976).

C. R. C. Allberry, The Manichaean Psalm Book, Part II, (Stugart: W. Kohlhammer, 1938).

C.R. Morey, Christian Art, (London, England; New York; & Toronto: Longmans, Green & Company,
1935, and University Press, 1988).

East Christian Paintings in the Freer Collection, (New York: 1914).

Curtis Vaughan, Th. D., (General Editor), The New Testament From 26 Translations, (Grand Rapids,
Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1967).

C. Warren Hollister, Medieval Europe A Short History, (New York; London and Sydney: John Wiley &
Sons, 1964, 1968, and 1975).

C. W. Ceram, translated from the German by E. B. Garside, Gods, Graves, & Scholars, The Story of
Archaeology, (Alfred A. Knopf, 1951, & 1964).

Cynthia Pearl Maus, The Church and the Fine Arts, An Anthology of Pictures, Poetry, Music, And
Stories Portraying The Growth and Development of the Church Through the Centuries, (New York:
Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1960).

Cyril G. E. Bunt, Russian Art, From Scyths To Soviets, (New York, U.S.A.; and London, England: The
Studio, 1946).

DT's unpublished manuscripts and computer files (1986--1997):
1. When Our Faith Is Challenged, 2 volumes (1986--1988).
2. Jesus Christ's "Everlasting Gospel" and Ancient "Patternism" (1990).
3. Early Christianity In Ancient America and Old and New World Parallels (1990).
4. The Pilgrimage and Struggles of the Human Family In and Through the Different Realms of
Existences (1991).
5. The Grand Pilgrimage: (Footnoting In & "Out of the Best Books"), Vol.1, Part 1, Issues 1-4,
April-Aug, 1992.
6. The Pre-existence: Our Pre-earth Life As Spirits In A "Family In Heaven" (1992).
7. The Ancient and Modern Anti-Christs Against the Early Saints and the Latter-day Saints (1992,
revised 1993-- 1994).
8. The Garments Of The First And Second Adam: [The Symbolical Meanings Of Garments In Early To
Later Christendom], October 1993, an unpublished research paper and file.
9. English "Deformed" Reformed Egyptian? (1994).
10. Upon Them Hath The Light Shined (1995).
11. The Christ In Santa Unmasked [How Modern Traditions & Legends About Santa Can Be Traced
Back To The Early Christian Doctrine That Christ Went to Other Nations Around The World]. (CR 1994,
revised December 1995).
12. "No Evidence For the Book of Mormon"? Look Again! (1996).
13. "Ye Are Gods... Children of the Most High" (CR 1993, revised 1994--1996).
14. The Mystery Behind the Mysteries, Ritualistic Realm Pilgrims In early to later Christian Mysteries,
(1996--1997).
15. Christ's Pilgrimage Unto the Ends of the Earth (1996).
16. Mormonism: Shadow or Reality? In Early Christianity (1996--1997).

Dan Smoot, The Invisible Government, (Dallas, Texas: The Dan Smoot Report, Inc., 1962).

Daniel C. Peterson, Dr. and Stephen David Ricks, Professor: 1- Offenders For A Word {How Anti-Mormons Play Word Games to Attack the Latter-day Saints}, (Salt Lake City, Utah: Aspen Books, 1992).
2- Comparing LDS Beliefs With 1st Century Christianity, The Ensign, March 1988, p. 7-11, (Salt Lake City, Utah: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints). Ricks, and John W. Welch, (Editors), The Allegory Of The Olive Tree, The Olive, the Bible, and Jacob 5, (Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company, and Provo, Utah: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies).

David Ayerst & A.S.T., Fisher, Records of Christianity, Vol. II, (Christendom), (New York: Harper &
Row, Inc., & Barnes & Noble Books, CR Basil Blackwell, 1977).

David Bland, A History of Book Illustration, The Illuminated Manuscript and the Printed Book,
(Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1958, 1969).

David Diringer D. LITT., The Illuminated Book, David Diringer D. LITT., (London, England: Faber and
Faber Limited, R. Q., MCMLVIII).

David Huge Farmer, 1978, The Oxford Dictionary Of Saints, (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

David Knowles, 1969, Christian Monasticism, (New York, Toronto: World University Library,
McGraw-Hill Company, reprinted 1972 & 1977). Tudor Publishers Company).

David Meilsheim, (translated by Grace Jackman), 1973, The World of Ancient Israel, (New York).

David M. Robb, The Art of the Illuminated Manuscript, (Cranbury, New York and South Brunswick: A.
S. Barnes & Company, and in London, England: Thomas Yoseloff LTD, 1973).

David M. Zesmer, Guide to English Literature From Beowulf through Chaucer and Medieval Drama,
(New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc., 1961, 10th printing 1970, Publishers Booksellers Since 1873).

David Oldfield, German Paintings In The National Gallery Of Ireland, (Ireland: The National Gallery Of
Ireland, 1987).

David Talbot Rice, BYZANTINE PAINTING, The Last Phase, (New York: The Dial Press, Inc., 1968;
Originally published in England under the same title by George Weidenfeld & Nicolson Limited), CR 1968 by Rice. Rice, THE ART OF BYZANTIUM, Photographs by Max Hirmer, (New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc.,
1959). Rice, Dr. Donald E. Strong, Professor Giuseppe Bovini, Peter Laske, Professor G. Zarnecki & George Henderson, and others, The Book of Art, A Pictorial Encyclopedia of Painting, Drawing, & Sculpture, Origins of Western Art, (New York; Montreal; Mexico City & Sydney: Grolier Inc.). David and Tamara Talbot Rice, Icons, And Their History, (Woodstock, New York: The Overlook Press, 1974). David M. Wilson, Anglo-Saxon Art, From the Seventh Century to the Norman Conquest, (USA: Thames & Hudson LTD., 1984, first published in the US by The Overlook Press).

Dewey Farnsworth & Edith Wood Farnsworth, The Americas Before Columbus, (Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book, 1949, 3rd edition, 1952).

Dom Hubert Van Zeller, The Holy Rule, Notes on St. Benedict's Legislation for Monks, (New York:
Sheed & Ward, 1958).

Donald E. Strong, Dr., & others, Professor Giuseppe Bovini, Professor David Talbot Rice, Peter Laske,
Professor G. Zarnecki & George Henderson, The Book of Art, A Pictorial Encyclopedia of Painting,
Drawing, & Sculpture, Origins Of Western Art, (New York, U.S.A.; Montreal, Mexico City, Mexico; &
Sydney: Grolier, 1965).

Donald W. Parry, (Editor), Marion D. Hanks, Huge W. Nibley, Adrew F. Ehat, Truman G. Madsen, John
M. Lundquist, Stephen D. Ricks, Donald W. Parry, Michael A. Carter, John J. Sroka, John W. Welch, M.
Catherine Thomas, William J. Hamblin, Brian M. Hauglid, John A. Tvedtnes, and many others providing
research papers, and unpublished works for authors to consider, Temples Of The Ancient World, Ritual
and Symbolism, (Salt Lake City, Utah: Desert Book Company, 1994, & Provo, Utah: Foundation For
Ancient Research and Mormon Studies).

Door G. J. Hoogewerff, De Noord-Nederlandsche Schilderkunst, (Martinus Nijhoff, 1939,1941-42).
Douglas Hill, (Carl G. Jung, and John Freeman as Co-editors), Man and His Symbols, (London, England:
Aldus Books Limited, CR 1964).

Dmitri Kessel, Splendors Of Christendom, Great & Architecture in European Churches, Henri Peyre,
(Commentary), (Edita S.A. Lausanne, 1964).

E. A. Wallis Budge, M.A. LITT.D., D.LITT., D.LIT: The Gods of the Egyptians or Studies In Egyptian Mythology, (Methuen, London: Keeper of the Egyptian & Assyrian Antiquities in the British Museum, 1904) Volume 2. Budge, translator, Coptic Martyrdoms, (London, England: British Museum, 1914), six volumes.
Budge, Coptic Apocrypha in the Dialect of Upper Egypt, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1913), six
volumes.

E. Baldwin Smith, The Dome, A Study In The History of Ideas, (Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton
University Press, 1950 & 1978).

E. Cecil McGavin, Mormonism & Masonry, (Salt Lake City, Utah: Stevens & Wallis, Inc., 1947).
Edgar Hennecke and Wilhelm Schneelmelcher, Epistula Apostolorum 19, in New Testament Apocrypha,
(Philadelphia: Philadelphia Westminster Press, 1963), 2 volumes.

Edgar Waterman Anthony, A History of Mosaics, (New York: reprinted by Hacker Art Books, 1968).

Romanesque Frescoes, (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1951).

Edisioni Mercurio, Italy,History-Art-Landscape, (Mercury Art Books, 1954, 1955--1957).

Edith Rothe, Mediaeval Book Illumination In Europe (The Collection of the German Republic), (New
York: W.W. Norton & Company). Translated from the German Buchmalerei aus zwolf Jahrhunderten,
by Mary Whittall, (Berlin, Germany: Union Verlag (VOB), 1966). This edition (London, England:
Thames & Hudson, 1968).

Edith W. Kirsch, Five Illuminated Manuscripts of Giangaleazzo Visconti, (University Park, and London,
England: Published for College Art Association, by The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991).

Edmund Wilson, The Scrolls From the Dead Sea, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1955).

Edward McNall Burns, Robert E. Lerner, & Standish Meacham, Western Civilizations, Their History and
Their Culture, (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1st edition 1941, 7th edition 1968-9, 10th edition,
1984). Volume one.

Edward S. Prior, M.A., A History of Gothic Art in England, (Wakefield, England: EP Publishing
Limited; E. Ardsley, 1974 CR George Bell & Sons).

G. H. Gombrich, The Story of Art, (Phaidon Press Limited, 1950,1972).

Eleanor C. Munro, The Golden Encyclopedia of Art, (New York: Golden Press, 1961).

Eliot Humberstone & Eric Maple, Mysterious Powers & Strange Forces, (London: Usborne Publishers,
1979).

Elizabeth Hallam, (Editor), Huge Trevor-Roper, (Preface), Four Gothic Kings, The Turbulent History of
Medieval England And the Plantagenet Kings (1216-1377) Henry III, Edward I, Edward II, Edward III
Seen Through The Eyes Of Their Contemporaries, (New York: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, CR 1987,
Phoebe Phillips Editions).

Ellen Badone, The Appointed Hour, Death, Worldview, and Social Change in Brittany, (Berkeley and
Los Angeles, California; London, England: University of California Press, 1989).

Emile Male, L' Art Religieux, De La Tin Du Moyen Age, En France, (Paris: Libraire Armand Colin,
1931).

Male, Religious Art in France, the Twelfth Century, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978),
Bollingen Series XC. I. Male, 1986, Religious Art In France, The Late Middle Ages, (Princeton: Bollingen Series, Princeton University Press).

L' Art Religieux Du XIIe Siecle En France, (Paris: Librairie Armand Colin, 1922).

E.O. James, From Cave To Cathedral (Temples and shrines of prehistoric, Classical, & early Christian
times), (New York & Washington: Frederick A. Praeger; Thames & Hudson 1965).

James, edited by J. Boudet, Jerusalem A History, (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons).

Ernst and Johanna Lehner, Devils, Demons, Death and Damnation, (New York: Dover Pictorial Archive
Series, Dover Publishing Inc., 1971).

Ernst Kitzinger, Byzantine Art in the Making, Main lines of stylistic development in Mediterranean Art,
3rd -- 7th Century, (Cambridge, Mass., 1977).

Ernst Murbach, The Painted Romanesque Ceiling Of St. Martin In Zillis, (New York and Washington:
Frederick A. Praeger, 1967).

Erwin R. Goodenough, Jewish Symbols in the Greco-Roman Period, 13 volumes. (New York: Pantheon
Books, 1953).

Goodenough, Jewish Symbols in the Greco-Roman Period, (Bollingen Series XXXVII, 1964, Pantheon
Books).

Esmond Wright, General Editor, The Medieval and Renaissance World, (Hamlyn Publishing Groups
Limited, 1969, revised 1979).

Estelle M. Hurll, 1898, The Life Of Our Lord In Art, With Some Account Of The Artistic Treatment Of
The Life Of St. John The Baptist, (Boston & New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Company, The Riverside
Press, Cambride, 1898).

Eve Borsook, Messages In Mosaic, The Royal Programmes of Norman Sicily (1130-1187), (Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 1990).

Everett Ferguson, Backgrounds Of Early Christianity, (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans
Publishing Company, 1987).

Eugene Seaich, Mormonism the Dead Sea Scrolls, and the Nag Hammadi Texts, (Murray, Utah: The
Sounds of Zion, 1980).

F.A. Wright, 1928, Fathers of the Church, (London, England: George Routledge & Sons).

Fay-Cooper Cole, Ph.D., Sc.D., LL.D., & Harris Gaylord Warren, Ph.D., An Illustrated Outline History
of Mankind, (Chicago: Consolidated Book, Book Production Industry, 1951, 1955, 1959, and 1963).

Federico Zeri, 1976, Italian Paintings in the Walters Art Gallery, (Baltimore: Publishing by the
Trustees).

F. E. Halliday, 1967-68, An Illustrated Cultural History Of England, (New York: A Studio Book, The
Viking Press).

Felipe Cossio Del Pomar, translated from spanish by Genaro Arbaiza, 1964, Peruvian Colonial Art, The
Cuzco School of Painting, (New York, New York: Distributed by Wittenborn & Company).

Ferdinand Anton, Art of the Maya, (London: Thames and Hudson, 1970).

Fredinand Seibt, Erich Bachmann, Hilde Bachmann, Gerhard Schmidt, Gotz Fehr, Christian Salm,
Editor: Erich Bachmann, Gothic Art in Bohemia, (Phaidon Press Limited, 1977, originally published as
Gotik in Bohmen, Phaidon Press Limited, 1969).

Ferdinando Rossi, Mosaics (A Survey of their History and Techniques), (New York, Washington, &
London: Praeger Publishing, 1970).

Florens Deuchler, Marcel Roethlisberger, & Hans Luthy, Swiss Painting (From the Middle Ages to the
Dawn of the Twentieth Century), (New York: Skira Rizzoli, 1976).

F. M. Godfrey, Christ and the Apostles, (London: The Studio Limited, 1957).

Francis Bond, Fonts and Font Covers, (London, New York, and Toronto: Henry Frowde, Oxford
University Press, 1908).

Francis Henry Taylor, 1954, Fifty Centuries of Art, (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, &
Harper & Brothers).

Francis Huxley, The Dragon, Nature of Spirit, Spirit of Nature, (New York, U.S.A.; London, England:
Collier Books, A Division of Macmillan Publishing Company, Inc., CR 1979, Thames & Hudson LTD).
Francis Legge, Forerunners And Rivals Of Christianity, (From 330 B.C. TO 330 A.D.), 2 Volumes as 1,
(New Hyde Park, New York: University Books, 1964).

Francis Robicsek, Copan, Home Of The Mayan Gods, (New York: The Museum of the America Indian
Heye Foundation, 1972).

Francis Wormald, The Winchester Psalter, (New York: Graphic Society, Harvey Miller and Medcalf,
1973).

Francis Y. Duval & Ivan B. Rigby, Early American Gravestone Art In Photographs, (New York: Dover
Publishers Inc., 1978).

Francois Souchal, Art Of The Early Middle Ages, (New York and London: Harry N. Abrams).

Frank Waters, 1963, The Book of the Hopi, (New York, New York: Viking Press).

Franz Xaver Kraus, Geschichte der Christlichen Kunst, (Freiburg im Breisgau. Herder'sche
Verlagshandlung. 1897).

Frederick A. Praeger, The Praeger Picture Encyclopedia of Art, 1958.

Frederick Hartt, Art, A History of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture, (New York: Harry N. Abrams,
1976) Volume 2.

Hartt, History of Italian, Renaissance Art, Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, (New York: Harry N.
Abrams, Inc., 4th edition, 1994).

Frederick S. Paxton, Christianizing Death, The Creation of a Ritual Process in Early Medieval Europe,
(Ithaca & London: Cornell University Press, 1990).

Frederic W. Farrar, D.D., F.R.S., The Life Of Christ, As Represented In Art, (New York: The Macmillan
Company, 1923; and London, England: Adam & Charles Black, 1894).

Fredk, WM. Hackwood, F.R.S.L., Christ Lore (Being the Legends, Traditions, Myths, Symbols, & Superstitions of The Christian Church), (London: 1902, republished, Detroit: Gale Research Company, Book Tower, 1969).

Gabriel Bise, translated by G. Ivins & D. MacRae, The Illuminated Naples Bible (Old Testament) 14th
Century A.D. Manuscript, (Cresent Books, distributed by Crown Publishing Inc.)

Gabrielle Sed-Rajna, Le Mahzor Enlumine, (Les voies de formation d'un programme iconographique),
(Leiden- E.J. Brill- 1983, (Tuta Sub Aegide Pallas, E.J.B.).

Gabriel Millet, L'Iconographie De L' Evangile, Aux XIVe, XVe Et XVIe Siecles, (Paris: Editions E. De
Boccard, 1960).

Gary Allen, None Dare Call It Conspiracy, (Rossmoor, California: Concord Press, 1971 & 1972).
Allen, The Rockefeller File, (Seal Beach, California: '76 Press, 1976).

Gary Vikan (Editor), Illuminated Greek Manuscripts from American Collections, An Exhibition in Honor
of Kurt Weitzmann, (Princeton: The Art Museum, Princeton University Press, 1973, [Dates of exhibition
April 14--May 20, 1973].

G. de Jerphanion, Les eglises rupestres de Cappadoce (Paris: Geuthner, 1925--1928).

G. Elliott Smith, Elephants And Ethnologists, (New York: E. P. Dutton and Company, 1924).

Gerald Gassiot-Talabot, translated by Anthony Rhodes, Roman & Palaeo-Christian Painting, (New York: Funk & Wagnalls).

Germain Bazin, The History of World Sculpture, (The Netherlands: Lamplight Publishers, Inc., CR 1968
by Smeets Lithographers, Weert, translated from the French by Madeline Jay).

Gertrud Schiller, Iconography of Christian Art, (Greenwich, Connecticut: New York Graphic Society,
1966 & 1971).

Geoffrey Barraclough, The Christian World, (London, England: Thames & Hudson, and New York:
Harry N. Abrams, 1981).

Geoffrey R. King, The Forty Days, (Grand Rapids, Michigan: W.M. B. Eerdmans, 1949).

George Arthur Buttrick, & others as Editors, The Interpreter's Bible, (New York and Nashville Tennessee: Abingdon Press, 1952).

Georges Dogaer, Flemish Miniature Painting in the 15th and 16th Centuries, (Amsterdam: B. M. Israel B. V., 1987, translated by Anna E. C. Simoni and others).

Geoffrey Barraclough, The Christian World, (London, England: Thames & Hudson, 1981).

George Frederick Kunz, Ph.D., Sc.D., A.M., 1917, Rings For the Finger, From the Earliest Known
Times to the Present, With Full Descriptions of the Origin, Early Making, Materials, The Archaeology, History, For Affection, For Love, For Engagement, For Weddings, Commemorative, Mourning, Etc.,
(New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1973, originally published in 1917 by J. B. Lippincott) Company,
& 1945, Mrs. Ruoy Kunz Zinsser).

George Every, 1970 & 1987, Christian Legends, (New York: Peter Bedrick Books).

Every, Christian Mythology, (London, England; New York, U.S.A.; Sydney Toronto: The Hamlyn Pub.
Group Limited, 1970, and Middlesex, England: Hamlyn House, Feltham, 1973).

George Ferguson, Signs & Symbols In Christian Art, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1959).

George Heard Hamilton, The Art & Architecture of Russia, (U.S.A., and England: Penguin Books, 1954
& 1975).

George Rainbird, The Book of Art, (London, England: Grolier, Inc., 1965), volume one.

George Roux, Ancient Iraq, (Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, LTD., 1964; First published by
George Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1964).

George Zarnecki, Art of the Medieval World, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1975).

Germain Bazin, (translated from French by Madeline Jay), The History of World Sculpture, (Weert, The
Netherlands: Lamplight Publishers, Inc., CR 1968 by Smeets Lithographers).

Gertrud Schiller, translated by Janet Seligman, 1966 and 1977, Iconography of Christian Art,
(Greenwhich Connecticut: New York Graphic Society, LTD. Translated from the 2nd Edition 1969,
English edition Garden City, New York: Lund Humphries, 1971).

Gilbert Thurlow, Bible Myths & Mysteries, (London, England: Octopus Books, 1974).

Gilda Berger, Easter And Other Spring Holidays, (New York; London; Toronto; and Sydney: Franklin
Watts, 1983, A First Book).

Gilles Quispel, The Secret Book of Revelation, (New York: McGraw-Hill Books Company, 1979).

Gina Pischel, A World History of Art, (New York: Newsweek Books, 1966), 2nd revised edition by Gina
Pischel, 1978.

G. Millet, Les Iconoclastes et la Croix. A propos d'unc inscription de Cappadoce. (Bulletin de
correspondance hellenique XXXIV, 1910).

Goblet D'Alviella, (The Count), The Migration of Symbols, (Westminster, 1894, reproduced in New
York: University Books, 1956).

Guido Gregorietti, Jewelry Through The Ages, (New York: American Heritage, CR Arnoldo Mondadori,
1969).

Gustav Davidson, 1967, A Dictionary Of Angels, Including the Fallen Angels, (New York; London: The
Free Press, and Collier-Macmillan Limited).

Gustav Kunstler, (Editor), Romanesque Art In Europe, (New York Graphic Society LTD., Greenwich,
Connecticut, 1968).

Guy Carleton Lee, Ph.D., (Editor in Chief), The World's Orators, (New York and London: University
Edition, G.P. Putnam's Sons, The Knickerbocker Press, 1900).

G. W. Butterworth, Origen On First Principles, (Gloucester, Massachuset: Peter Smith 1973, & Harper
& Row, 1966).

Hanns Swarzenski, Monuments Of Romanesque Art, The Art of Church Treasures in North-Western
Europe, (The University of Chicago Press, 1954 and 2nd, Edition, 1967).

Romanesque Art, Harold Osborne, (Editor), The Oxford Companion To Art, (Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 1970).

Harry B. Wehle, The Metropolitan Museum Of Art, A Catalogue Of Italian, Spanish and Byzantine
Paintings, (New York: 1940).

A Catalogue Of Italian, Spanish and Byzantine Paintings, (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art,
1940).

Heather Child and Dorothy Colles, 1971, Christian Symbols Ancient & Modern, (Charles Scribner's
Sons, Great Britain).

Henri L. M. Defoer, (Catalogue & others), The Golden Age of Dutch Manuscript Painting, (New York:
The Pierpont Morgan Library, March 1, 1990--May 6, 1990, English edition 1989).

Henry Ansgar Kelly, The Devil at baptism: Ritual, Theology, and Drama, (Ithaca and London: Cornell
University Press, 1985).

Henry Chadwick, The Early Church, (New York: Dorset Press, 1967).

Henry Bettenson, The Early Christian Fathers, (Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1956).

Bettenson, Documents of the Christian Church, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1963).

H. Spencer Lewis, F.R.C., Ph.D., The Secret Doctrines of Jesus, (Rosicrucian Lib. 1937 & 1965).

Henry Trivick, 1971, The Picture Book of Brasses in Gilt, (London: Five Royal Opera Arcade Pall Mall,
SW I, John Baker).

Herbert L. Kessler, The Illustrated Bibles From Tours, (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1977).

Herbert Thurston, S. J., and Donald Attwater, (editors), Butler's Live Of The Saints, (New York: P. J.
Kenedy & Sons, Vol. 3, July - August - September, 1956).

Herman Liebaers, (and under the direction of others), Flemish Art, From the Beginning till Now, (New
York: Arch Cape Press, 1988, CR 1985 by Fonds Mercator Antwerp).

H.P. L' Orange and P. J. Nordhagen, translated by Ann E. Keep, Mosaics, (New Fetter Lane, London:
Methuen & Company, LTD., 1966, CR 1958 Dreyers Forlag, Oslo).

Horst de la Croix and Richard G. Tansey, GARDNER'S ART THROUGH THE AGES, Eighth Edition,
(Gardner, Helen, 1986), (San Diego; New York; Chicago; Atlanta; Washington, D.C.; London; Sydney;
Toronto: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers HBJ).

Horton and Marie-Helene Davies, Holy days and Holidays, The Medieval Pilgrimage to Compostela,
(London and Toronto: Lewisburn, Bucknell University Press, 1982).

Howard Simon, Five Hundred Years of Art In Illustration, From Albrecht Durer to Rockwell Kent,(New
York: Garden City, 1949).

H. Spencer Lewis, F.R.C., Ph.D., The Secret Doctrines of Jesus, (San Jose, California: Rosicrucian
Library, and Supreme Grand Lodge of A.M.O.R.C.,1937 & 1965), volume 4.

Huge Nibley, Dr. (Series): The Collected Works of Huge Nibley, (Provo and Salt Lake City, Utah:
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies = F.A.R.M.S., and Deseret Book Company).
Volume 1: Old Testament and Related Subjects, (1986).
Volume 2: Enoch The Prophet, (1986).
Volume 3: The World And The Prophets,
Volume 4: Mormonism and Early Christianity, (1987).
And other volumes in this series.
Nibley, Baptism for the Dead in Ancient Time, (Salt Lake City, Utah: Improvement Era, 51--52,
(December 1948--April 1949).
Nibley, What is a Temple, The Idea of a Temple in History, reprint by F.A.R.M.S., Nibley, (IDE-T).
From: The Millenial Star 120 (August 1958). Nibley, The Early Christian Church in the Light of Some Newly Discovered Papyri from Egypt, (Provo, Utah: F.A.R.M.S. reprint, Nibley 1985. From a talk given by Dr. Nibley during a Tri-Stake Fireside, Brigham Young University, March 3, 1964).

Hugh Tait, Editor, Jewelry 7000 years, An International History and Illustrated Survey from the
Collection of the British Museum, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1986).

H. W. Janson, (Professor of Fine Arts, New York University), with Dora Jane Janson, History of Art, A
Survey of the Major Visual Arts from the Dawn of History to the Present Day, (New York: Harry N.
Abrams, Inc., Publishers, first printing October 1962, revised and enlarged in 1969, 19th printing 1973,
and 1986).

Key Monuments of the History of Art, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 5th printing 1964).

Ignace Vandevivere, Professor at the Catholic University of Louvain, and Catheline Perier-d' Ieteren,
Photos by Hugues Boucher, Renaissance Art In Belgium, Architecture, Monumental Art, (Brussels: Marc
Vokaer Publishers, 1973).

Ignazio Mancini, O.F.M., (Historical Survey), Archaeological Discoveries,Relative to the
Judaeo-Christians, (Jerusalem: Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, Collection minor #10, Franciscan
Printing Press, 1970).

Islay Burns, D.D., Professor of Church History, The First Three Christian Centuries, (London, England:
Free Church College, Glasgow, 1884).

Jacob Neusner, (Editor), Origins of Judaism, Volume III, Part 1, Judaism and Christianity in the First
Century, (New York; London: Garland Publishing, 1990).

Origins of Judaism, Volume XI, Part 1, The Literature of Formative Judaism: The Midrash-Compilations, Neusner, (Editor), (New York and London: Garland Pub. 1990).

Jacobus de Voragine, The Golden Legend, (Readings on the Saints), (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton
University Press, Vol. 2, 1993).

The Golden Legend, Jacobus de Voragine, translated and adapted from the Latin by Granger Ryan and
Helmut Ripperger, 1941, New York: Arno Press of New York Times, 1969).

Jacques Dupont & Cesare Gnudi, Gothic Painting, (New York: Skira Rizzoli, 1979, first published in
Geneva: Editions d' Art Albert Skira, 1954, translated by Stuart Gilbert).

Jan Bialostocki, The Art of the Renaissance in Eastern Europe, Hungary, Bohemia, Poland, (Ithaca, New
York: Cornell University Press, 1976).

J. Eugene Seaich: Ancient Texts and Mormonism, (Murray, Utah: Sounds of Zion, 1983).
The Heavenly Council, Mysteries and Sacred Ordinances, (unpublished research paper).
Mormonism, The Dead Sea Scrolls & The Nag Hammadi Texts, (Murray, Utah: Sounds of Zion, 1980).

James Burnham, The Web Of Subversion, Underground Networks In The U.S. Government, (Boston; Los
Angeles: Western Islands; The American Library, 1954).

James L . Barker, Apostasy From The Divine Church, (Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret News Press, 1960).

Barker, The Divine Church, Down through Change, Apostasy therefrom, and Restoration, (Salt Lake City, Utah: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Council of The Twelve Apostles, 1952, CR David O. McKay 1951), three volumes: 1952, 1953, 1954.

James M. Robinson, The Nag Hammadi Library In English, (San Francisco, California: Harper & Row,
1977).

James W. Lesueur, Indian Legends, (Independence, Jackson County, Missouri: Zion's Printing &
Publishing Company, 1928).

Jaroslav Folda, Crusader Manuscript Illumination at Saint-Jean d'Acre, 1275--1291, (New Jersey:
Princeton University Press, 1976).

Jaroslav Pelikan, The Illustrated Jesus Through The Centuries, (New Haven & London: Yale University
Press, 1997).

J. Charles Wall, Devils, (London, England: Methuen & Company, 1904; Detroit: Singing Tree Press,
Book Tower, 1968, reissued).

Jean Charbonneaux and Eric Peters, (Texts), Greece In Photographs, (182 Pictures in Photos by Roger
Viollet), (London, & New York: Thames & Hudson, 1954).

JCJ Metford, Dictionary of Christian Lore and Legend, (London, England: Thames and Hudson, 1983).
Jean Danielou, Translated by John A. Barker, The Development of Christian Doctrine Before the Council
of Nicaea, Volume 1, The Theology of Jewish Christianity, (Chicago; Darton; Longman & Todd: The
Henry Regnery Company).

Jeanne Villette, La Resurrection Du Christ, Dans L'Art Chretien Du IIe Au VIIe Siecle, (Paris, France:
Henri Laurens, Editeur, 1957).

Jeffrey Burton Russell, Satan, The Early Christian Tradition, (Ithaca, London: Cornell University Press,
1981). Lucifer, The Devil In the Middle Age, (Ithaca, London: Cornell University Press, 1984). The Prince of Darkness, Radical Evil and the Power of Good in History, (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1988).

Jeffrey F. Hamburger, The Rothschild Canticles, Art & Mysticism In Flanders & the Rhineland Circa
1300, (London, England and New Haven: Betty Grant Program, Yale University Press, 1990).

Jeffrey Ruda, Fra Filippo, Life And Work, (North American: Harry N. Abrams, Phaidon Press, 1993).

J. E. Gillet, Tres pasos de la [Passion] y una Egloga de la Resurreccion, (The Modern Language
Association of America, 1932).

J. G. Davies, The Architectural Setting of Baptism, (London, England: Barrie & Rockliff, 1962).

Davies, The Early Christian Church, (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1965).

J. H. Hexter, (General Editor with others), The Traditions Of The Western World, (Chicago: Rand
McNally & Company, 1967).

J. Hubert and J. Porcher, The Carolingian, (W.F. Volbach, 1970).

J. J. G. Alexander & Elzbieta Temple, Illuminated Manuscripts, In Oxford College Libraries, (London,
England: Clarendon Press, 1985, The University Archives & the Taylor Institution).

J. M. C. Toynbee, Death And Burial In The Roman World, by, (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University
Press, 1971).

Joan Comay, Who's Who in the Old Testament, (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1971).

John A. Stormer, None Dare Call It Treason, (Florissant, Missouri: Liberty Bell Press, 1964).
Stormer, The Death of a Nation, (Florissant, Missouri: Liberty Bell Press, 1968).

John Beckwith, IVORY CARVINGS IN EARLY MEDIEVAL ENGLAND, (New York: New York Graphic Society LTD: Harvey Miller & Medcalf 1972, London England).

Beckwith, 1961, The Art of Constantinople, An Introduction To Byzantine Art 330-1453, A.D., (Phaidon
Publisher, Inc., distributed by New York Graphic Society, Greenwich, Connecticut).

Beckwith, Early Christian and Byzantine Art, (Penguin Books, 1970. 1979).

John Bunyan, The Pilgrim's Progress, The Harvard Classics, Volume 15, edited by Charles W. Eliot,
LL.D., (New York: P. F. Collier & Son Corporation, 1938, 56th printing 1965).

John Coulson, (Editor), The Saints, A Concise Biographical Dictionary, (New York: Hawthorn Book,
Inc., 1958, 2nd printing 1960).

John Ferguson, An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Mysticism and the Mystery Religions, (London, England,
Great Britain: Thames and Hudson LTD., CR 1976, and in New York, U.S.A.: A Continuum Book, The
Seabury Press, 1977).

John Harthan, 1977, Books of Hours and Their Owners, (Thames and Hudson).

John J. Delaney, Dictionary of Saints, (Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company).

John McManners, (Editor), The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, (Oxford, New York: Oxford
University Press, 1990).

John M. Robertson, Christianity And Mythology, (London, England: Watts & Company, 2nd edition,
1910).

John Page-Phillips, Macklin's Monumental Brasses, Including a bibliography and a list of figure brasses
remaining in churches in the United Kingdom, (London: George Allen And Unwin LTD, 1969, 2nd
edition 1972).

John P. Lundy, Monumental Christianity, Or the Art and Symbolism of the Primitive Church, (New
York: J. W. Bouton, 1875 & 1882).

John Pope-Hennessy, Fra Angelico, (London, England: Phaidon Press, 1952, CR 1974, Phaidon Press,
LTD. And in Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1974).

Italian Renaissance Sculpture, (London, England: Phaidon Press, 1958).

Renaissance Bronzes, From the Samuel H-Kress Collection, (The Phaidon Press for the Samuel H.
Kress Foundation, 1965).

John Rupert Martin, The Illustration Of The Heavenly Ladder of John Climacus, (Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 1954).

Jonathan Alexander and Paul Binski, (Editor), Age of Chivalry, Art in Plantagenet England
1200--1400, (Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London: Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1987).

Joseph Campbell, Bill Moyes (Editor), The Power Of Myth, (New York, U.S.A., and London, England:
Doubleday, 1988).

Joseph Gantner & Marcel Pobe, Romanesque Art In France, (London, England: Thames & Hudson,
1956).

Joseph Pijoan, and Glenn Frank, (Editor in Chief), The University Of Wonder Books, Art In The Middle
Ages, (Chicago: University of Knowledge, Inc., 1940).

Joseph Wilson Trigg, Origen (The Bible and Philosophy in the Third-century Church), (Atlanta: 1946,
1952, 1971, 1973, & John Knox Press, 1983).

Joshua Moses Bennett: The Writings of the Rabbis & Other Important Discoveries. (Salt Lake City, Utah: Morning Star, 1990). The Gospel of the Great Spirit, (Salt Lake City, Utah: Morning Star, 1990).

J. P. Migne, Patrologiae Cursus Completus; Series Latina, 221 volumes; (Paris: 1844-1864).

Patrologia Cursus Completus, Series Graeca (Paris: 1857-1866, 161 volumes).

Juan Ainaud de Lasarte, (introduction), Art Treasures In Spain, Monuments, Masterpieces, Commissions
and Collections, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company; Toronto: CR The Hamlyn Publisher Group
1969).

Julian Gardner, The Tomb And The Tiara, Curial Tomb Sculpture in Rome and Avignon in the Later
Middle Ages, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992).

Justino Fernandez, Arte Mexicano, De Sus Origenes a Nuestros Dias, (Av. Republica Argentina, 15;
Mexico, D. F.: Editorial Porrua, S.A., 1961), Segunda Edicion.

J. W. Powell, Tenth Annual Report of the BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY To the Secretary of the
Smithsonian Institution, 1888-- '89, (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1893).

Karl E. Meyer, and Editors of Newsweek, Teotihuacan, (New York: Newsweek Book Division, 1973).

Kathleen Cohen, Metamorphosis Of A Death Symbol, The Transi Tomb in the Late Middle Ages and the
Renaissance, (Berkeley, and Los Angeles, California; London, England: University of California Press,
CR 1973, by the Regents of the University of California).

Kenneth Clark, Civilisation, A Personal View, (New York and Evanston: Harper & Row, 1969).

Kenneth Lindley, Of Graves And Epitaphs, (London, England: Hutchinson of London, 1965).

Konrad Onasch, 1961, Ikonen, (Guterslocher Verlashaus Gerd Mohn).

Kostas Papaioannou, translated by Janet Sondheimer, Byzantine and Russian Painting, (New York: Funk
& Wagnalls).

Kurt Rudolph, and Robert McLachlan Wilson (translation editor), Gnosis The Nature and History of
Gnosticism, (San Francisco, California: Harper & Row Publishers, 1977, 1980, and 1984).

Kurt Weitzmann, (Essays), Studies In The Arts At Sinai, (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1982).

Byzantine Book Illumination & Ivories, (London: Variorum Reprints, 1980).

The Miniatures Of The Sacra Parallela (Parisinus Graecus 923), (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton
University Press, 1979).

Age of Spirituality, Late Antique and Early Christian Art, Third to Seventh Century, (New York: The
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1979).

Illustrations In Roll & Codex, A Study of The Origin & Method of Text Illustration, (Princeton, New
Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1947).

Weitzmann, (Editor, Herbert L. Kessler), Studies In Classical & Byzantine Manuscript Illumination,
(Chicago, U.S.A., and London, England: The University of Chicago Press, 1971).

Weitzmann, (Editor), Age Of Spirituality, 1979. The Icon, (New York: Arnoldori Editore, & Alfred A. Knopf., Inc. 1982). Weitzmann's Studies In Classical And Byzantine Manuscript Illumination, edited by Herbert L. Kessler, (Chicago; London: University of Chicago Press, 1971). Weitzmann, & others, Arnoldori Editor, The Icon, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1982). Illuminated Greek Manuscripts from American Collections, An Exhibition in Honor of Kurt Weitzmann, Edited by Gary Vikan, (The Art Museum, Princeton University Press, 1973, [Dates of exhibition April 14--May 20, 1973].

Laurette Sejourne, Burning Waters--Thought & Religion in Ancient Mexico, (London, England:
1956).

Le Mahzor Enlumine, (Les voies de formation d'un programme iconographique), par (by) Gabrielle
Sed-Rajna, Published by Leiden- E.J. Brill- 1983, (Tuta Sub Aegide Pallas, E.J.B.).

Lawrence Gowing, 1987, Paintings in the Louvre, (New York: Stewart, Tabori & Chang).

Leo MacCauley and Anthony Stephenson, The Works of Saint Cyril of Jerusalem, (Washington D.C.:
Catholic University Press, 1964).

Leonard W. Cowie, 1962, The March of the Cross, (New York, U.S.A.; Toronto, Canada; and London,
England: McGraw-Hill Book).

Leopold Wagner, Manners, Customs, & Observances, Their Origin & Signification, (London: Scripta
Manent, William Heinemann, 1894, republished in Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research Company, Book
Tower, 1968).

Leslie Dunkling, A Dictionary of Days, (New York, New York; and Oxford, England: Facts On File
Publishers).

Lilian M.C. Randall, Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Walters Art Gallery, Vol. I, France,
875-1420, (Baltimore & London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, with the Walters Art Gallery,
1989).

Lillian Eichler, The Customs Of Mankind (With Notes on Modern Etiquette and the Newest Trend in
Entertainment), (Garden City , New York: Nelson Doubleday, Inc., 1924).

Linda J. Ivanits, Russian Folk Belief, (Armonk, New York; and London, England: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.
1989).

L. M. J. Delaisse, (Commentaries), Medieval Miniatures, From the Department of Manuscripts,
Formerly the "Library of Burgundy" (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., The Royal Library of Belgium).
Louis Coulange (Father Louis Coulange), The Life of the Devil (London, England: Alfred A. Knopf,
1929, translated from the French by Stephen Haden Quest).

Louis Herbert Gray, A.M., PH.D., Editor, George Foot Moore, A.M., D.D., LL.D. The Mythology of All
Races (Boston: Marshall Jones Company, 1917; New York: Cooper Square, 1964), thirteen volumes.

Louis Reau, La Miniature, Histoire De La Peinture Au Moyen-Age, (Melun Librairie D'Argences,
MCMXLVI).

L. Taylor Hansen, He Walked The Americas, (Amherst, Wisconsin: Amherst Press, 1963).
Ludmila Kybalova, Coptic Textiles, (1967).

L. W. Yaggy M.S., and T. L. Haines, A.M., Museum of Antiquity, A Description of Ancient Life: The
Employments, Amusements, Customs and Habits, The Cities, Palaces, Monuments and Tombs, The
Literature and Fine Arts of 3,000 Years Ago, (Chicago, Illinois: Western Publishing Company House,
1883).

Madeleine Jarry, 1969, World Tapestry, From Its Origins to the Present, (New York: G. P. Putnam's
Sons, 1968 & 1969; France: Librairie Hachette, 1968, 1969, original entitled: La Tapisserie).

Madeleine Pelner Cosman, 1981, Medieval Holidays And Festivals, A Calendar Of Celebrations, (New
York: Charles Scribner's Sons).

Magus Backes and Regine Dolling, Art of the Dark Ages, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1969 CR Holle
Verlag GMBH Baden Daden, Germany).

Mahmoud Zibawi, The Icon, Its Meaning and History, (Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press,
1993, Editoriale Jaca Book s.p.a., Milan).

Malcolm Norris, 1978, Monumental Brasses, The Craft, (London & Boston: Faber and Faber).
Malcom Warner, Portrait Painting, (Phaidon Press, 1979).

Marcell Restle, Byzantine Wall Painting In Asia Minor, (Plates II), 1967.

Marcus von Wellnitz, The Catholic Liturgy and the Mormon Temple, article published in Brigham Young
University Studies, (Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press, 1979), vol. 21, Winter 1981, Number
1. Margaret Baker, Wedding Customs And Folklore, (Tor., New Jersey: David and Charles, & R & L.,
1977).

Margaret E. Martignoni, Dr. Louis Shores, Harry R. Snowden, Jr., & Ruth Weeden Stewart, (Editors),
Harvest of Holidays, (New York: The Crowell-Collier Publishing Company, 1962).

Margaret E. Tabor, The Saints In Art, With Their Attributes And Symbols Alphabetically Arranged, (New
York: Frederick A. Stokes Company).

Margaret M. Manion, and Vera F. Vines, 1984, Medieval and Renaissance Illuminated Manuscripts, In
Australian Collections, (New York, and London. England: Thames & Hudson, Melbourne).

Maria-Gabriele Wosien, Sacred Dance, Encounter with the Gods, (Thames & Hudson, 1974).

Marion P. Ireland, Textile Art in the Church, (Nashville, Tennessee and New York: Abingdon Press,
1966, 1967, & 1971).

Martin Davies, revised by Dillian Gordan, The Early Italian Schools (Before 1400), National Gallery
Catalogues, (London: The National Gallery, 1988).

Martha Himmelfarb, Tours Of Hell, An Apocalyptic Form in Jewish and Christian Literature,
(Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983).

Max I. Dimont, Jews, God and History, (New York, New York: A Signet Book, Published by The New
American Library, 1962).

Meyer Schapiro, The Romanesque Sculpture of Moissac, (New York: George Braziller, 1985).

Michael Batterberry, Art of the Early Renaissance, (Milan Italy: Fratelli Fabbri, 1961-- 1964, and 1968).

Art of the Middle Ages, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1961-- 1964, & 1977).

Michel Pierre, Morgan -- Antoine Sabbagh, The Human Story, Europe In The Middle Ages, (originally
published in 1986 by Casterman, under the title: L' Histoire des Hommes: L' Europe du Moyen Age.
English translation in Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Sliver Burdett Press, 1988).

Michel Thomas, Christine Mainguy, & Sophie Pommier, Textile Art, (New York: Skira Rizzoli, 1985).
Miklos Boskovits, General Editor, Irene Martin, The Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, 1990, Early Italian
Painting 1290-1470 A.D., (Sotheby's Publications).

Milton R. Hunter, Christ In Ancient America, (Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company, 1959),
Volume 2. The Gospel Through the Ages, (Salt Lake City, Utah: Stevens & Wallis, 1945).

Millard Meiss, assisted by Sharon Off Dunlap Smith, Elizabeth Home Beatson, The Limbourgs and Their
Contemporaries, (The Pierpont Morgan Library, 1974).

Mircea Eliade, Rites and Symbols of Initiation, (New York: Harper and Row, 1958).

Morris Bishop, and the Editors of Horizon Magazine, Editor in Charge, Norman Kotker, The Horizon
Book of the Middle Ages, (New York: American Heritage Publishing Company, 1968).

Mortan Smith, 1973, The Secret Gospel, The Discovery & Interpretation of the Secret Gospel According
to Mark, (New York: Harper & Row).

Moshe Pearlman, Digging Up the Bible, (New York, New York: William Morrow, 1980).

Mrs. Clara Erskine Clement Waters, A Handbook of Legendary And Mythological Art, (Boston: James R.
Osgood & Company, 1883).

Mrs. Simon, The Ten Tribes of Israel, (London, England: R. B. Seely & Burnside, 1836).

M. V. Alpatov, and others, Frescoes Of The Church Of The Assumption At Volotovo Polye, (Moscow:
Iskusstvo, 1977).

Nicholas Penny, Church Monuments in Romantic England, (New Haven and London: Paul Mellon
Center for Studies in British Art, Yale University Press, 1977).

Nigel Morgan, Early Gothic Manuscripts, II, 1250 - 1285, A Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the
British Isles - General Editor: J. J. G. Alexander, (London: Harvey Miller, 1988).

Morgan and Richard Marks, The Golden Age of English Manuscript Painting, 1200-1500, (New York:
George Braziller, 1981).

Nikolaus Pevsner, Editor, The Pelican History of Art, (Penguin Books, 1955), vol. 9: Lawrence Stone,
Sculpture In Britain, The Middle Ages. Olga Opova, trans. by Kathleen Cook, Vladimir Ivanov and Lenina Sorokina, Russian Illuminated Manuscripts, (Leningrad: Aurora Art Publishing, 1984).
O.M. Dalton, Byzantine & Archaeology, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1911, and New York: Dover
Publishing, Inc., 1961).

East Christian Art, A Survey of the Monuments, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1925).

O. Preston Robinson, The Challenge of the Scrolls, How Old is Christ's Gospel? (Salt Lake City, Utah:
Deseret Book, 1963).

O Preston & Christine H. Robinson, Christ's Eternal Gospel, (Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book,
Company, 1976).

Otto A. Jager, Ethiopia Illuminated Manuscripts, (New York: The New York Graphic Society &
Unesco).

Otto G. Von Simson, Sacred Fortress, Byzantine Art and Statecraft in Ravenna, (Princeton, New Jersey:
Princeton University Press, 1987).

Pamela Kennedy, An Easter Celebration, Traditions and Customs From Around the World, (Art research
by F. Lynne Bachleda), (Nashville, Tennessee: Ideal's Children's Books, 1990).

Pater Cramer, Baptism and change in the early Middle Ages, c. 200-c. 1150, (Cambridge, England; New
York, New York, USA: Cambridge University Press, 1993).

Paul Carus, Dr., The History Of The Devil And The Idea Of Evil, From the earliest times to the present,
(La Salle, Illinois: Open Court Publishing Company).

Paul Johnson, A History of Christianity, (New York: Atheneum, 1979).

Paul M. Hanson, Jesus Christ Among the Ancient Americans, (Independence, Missouri: Herald
Publishing House, 1947).

Paul Muratoff, La Peinture Byzantine, (Paris, France: Paris A. Weber, MCMXXXV).

Paul R. Cheesman, The World of The Book Of Mormon, (Bountiful, Utah: Horizon Publishers, 1984).

These Early Americans, (Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company, 1974).

Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa, 1572, History of the Incas, (Cambridge: Hakluyt Society, 2nd Series, No.
22, 1907).

R. Furneaux Jordan, A Concise History of Western Architecture, (London, England: Thames and Hudson
Limited, 1969, Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc.)

Peter Bamm, The Kingdoms of Christ From The Days of the Apostles to the Middle Ages, (New
York, U.S.A; Toronto, Canada; London, England: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., CR Droemersche
Verlagsantalt & Thames & Hudson, London, England, 1959.

Peter Brown, Society And The Holy In Late Antiquity, (Berkeley, & Los Angeles: University of
California Press, 1982).

Peter Clayton, Treasures of Ancient Rome, (Gallery Books, Bison Books, 1986).

Peter Hayman, "Monotheism-- A Misused Word in Jewish Studies?" (Journal of Jewish Studies 42
(Spring 1991).

Peter Humfrey, The Altarpiece In Renaissance Venice, (New Haven and London: Yale University Press,
1993).

Peter and Linda Murray, 1963, The Art of the Renaissance, (London, England: Thames & Hudson).

Peter Humfrey, The Altarpiece In Renaissance Venice, (New Haven and London: Yale University Press,
1993).

The Philadelphia Museum of Art, Paintings from the Berlin Museums (Exhibited in Co-operation with
the Department of the Army of the United States of America), (Philadelphia, Publishers Printing Co.,
William Bradford Press, New York, 1948).

Philp Schaff, The Creeds of Christendom, (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1884).

Schaff, D.D. LL.D., The Teaching of The Twelve Apostles Or, The Oldest Church Manual The Didache
and Kindred Documents in the Original, (New York: Funk & Wagnalls, and Astor Place, 1890).

Piero Torriti, La Pinacoteca Nazionale Di Siena, i dipinti dal XV al XVIII secolo, (Genova: Sagep
Editrice, 1978).

Pierre Honore, 1961, English translation by Verlag Heinrich Scheffler, Frankfurt A. M., 1963, In Quest
of the White God, (London, England, and New York, U.S.A.: Hutchinson & Company, and G.P.
Putnam's & Sons).

Pierre M. Du Bourguet, S. J. (Translated by Caryll Hay-Shaw) 1967 & 1971, The Art of the Copts, (New
York: Crown Publishers Inc.)

Por Jose Gurrero Lovillo, Las Cantigas, Estudio Arqueologico De Sus Miniaturas, (Madrid: 1949).

Powel Mills Dawley, Our Christian Heritage, Church History and the Episcopal Church, (New York:
Morehouse-Barlow Company, 1959, 3rd edition, 1960).

Raymond A. Moody, Jr. M.D., 1975, Life After Life, The investigation of a phenomenon-- survival of
bodily death, (Toronto; New York; London; and Sydney: Bantam Books, 1976, and 1981).

Moody, 1977, Reflections On Life After Life, (Toronto; New York; London; Sydney and Auckland:
Bantam Books, Mockingbird edition, June 1977).

Raymond E. Brown, The Gospel According to John (i-xii), volume 29 of The Anchor Bible Series,
(Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1966).

Raymond Koechlin, Les Ivoires Gothiques Francais, (Planches), (Paris: Reimpression, F. De Nobele,
1968).

Raymond S. Stites, The Arts And Man, (New York, U.S.A., and London, England: McGraw-Hill Book
Company, 1940).

Rebecca Martin, Textiles in Daily Life in the Middle Ages, (Cleveland Ohio: The Cleveland Museum of
Art, 1985).

Rene Huyghe, (Professor in the College of France, General Editor), Art and Mankind, Larousse
Encyclopedia of Renaissance And Baroque Art, (New York: Prometheus Press, 1958, 1961, Paul Hamlyn
LTD, 1963, 1964). Auge, Gillon, Hollier-Larousse, Moreau et Cie (Paris France: Librairie Larousse, and
this edition, London, England: Paul Hamlyn LTD, 1963).

Huyghe, (General Editor), Art and Mankind, Larousse Encyclopedia of Byzantine and Medieval Art,
(New York: Prometheus Press, 1958).

Rev. Alexander Hislop, The Two Babylons (or The Papal Worship Proved to be the Worship of Nimrod
and His Wife), (England: A & C Black, LTD., 1916; American editions, Neptune, New Jersey: Loizeaux
Brothers, 1943 and 1956).

Rev. Hugo Hoever, (Editor), Lives of the Saints, For Every Day of the Year, (New York: Catholic Book,
1955).

Rev. S. Baring-Gould, M.A., Lives of the Saints, (Edinburgh: John Grant, 1914).

R. H. Charles, Dr., The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, (Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1913).

Charles, (translator, and others), The Sacred Books And Early Literature Of The East, (New York and
London, England: Parke, Austin, & Lipscomb, Inc., 1917), volume 14, The Great Rejected Books of the
Biblical Apocrypha,Old Testament Apocrypha, The Books of Adam and Eve.

R. Joseph Hoffmann, (translator) Celsus On The True Doctrine, (A Discourse Against the early
Christians), (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987).

R. G. Hamerton-Kelly, (Professor of the New Testament McCormick Theological Seminary, Chicago),
Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series 21, Pre-Existence, Wisdom And The Son of Man, A
Study of the Idea of Pre-existence in the New Testament, (Cambridge University Press; Cambridge, Great
Britain, 1973).

Richard H. Randall Jr., and Diana Buitron, Jeanny Vorys Canby, William R. Johnston, Andrew Oliver,
Jr. and Christian Theuerkauff, Masterpieces of Ivory, From the Walters Art Gallery, (New York:
Christian Theuerkauff, Publishing, Hudson Hills Press, with W. A. G. Baltimore, 1985).

Richard Krautheimer, Early Christian And Byzantine Architecture, (Baltimore, Maryland: Penguin
Books, 1965-- 1967).

Richard Marks and Nigel Morgan, The Golden Age of English Manuscript Painting, 1200--1500, (1981).

Richard P. McBrien, Catholicism, (Minneapolis: Winston Press, 1980), 2 volumes.

Richard Laurence, LL.D., (Trans.) The Book of Enoch The Prophet, (Re-issued: Williams & Norgate,
1892).

Richard Rutherford, The Death of a Christian: The Rite of Funerals, (New York, 1980).

R. Mcl. Wilson, The Gospel Of Philip, (London: A.R. Mowbray).

Robert A. Kraft, The Testament of Job according to the SV Text, (Missoula, Mt.: Scholars Press, 1974).

Robert Branner, Manuscript Painting In Paris During the Reign of Saint Louis, A Study of Styles,
(Berkleley; Los Angeles; London, England: University of California Press, CR 1977 by Shirley Prager
Branner).

Robert Charles Zaehner,(Editor), The Concise Encyclopedia of Living Faiths, (New York: Hawthorn
Books Inc., 1959).

Robert Claiborne, The Birth of Writing, (U.S.A.: Time Inc., 1974).

Robert Fossier, Edited and Translated by Janet Sondheimer, The Middle Ages I, 350-950, (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press 1989).

Robert G. Calkins, 1979, Monuments of Medieval Art, (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1979).

Calkins, Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages, (New York: Cornell University Press, 1983).

Robert Hughes, Heaven and Hell in Western Art, (New York: Stein and Day/Pub., 1968).

Robert Louis Wilken, The Christians As The Romans Saw Them, (Yale University Press; New Haven and
London, 1984).

Robert M. Grant, and David Noel Freedman, The Secret Sayings Of Jesus, (Garden City, New York:
Doubleday & Company, 1960).

Grant, and Wayne A. Meeks, (forward), Gods of the One God, volume one of The Library of Early
Christianity, (Philadelphia: W. Press, 1986).

Robert P. Bergman, The Salerno Ivories, Arts Sacra from Medieval Amalfi, (London, England: Harvard
University Press, 1980 & Fellows of Harvard College).

Robert S. Nelson, The Iconography of Preface and Miniature in the Byzantine Gospel Book, (New York:
New York University Press, 1980).

Robert Tilton, God's Laws of Success, (Dallas: Word of Faith, 1983).

Robin Cormack, WRITING IN GOLD, Byzantine Society And Its Icons, (New York: Oxford
University Press, 1985).

Roderick Grierson, (Editor), Gates of Mystery, The Art of Holy Russia, (Fort Worth, Texas:
InterCultura and the State Russian Museum).

Roland H. Bainton, The Horizon History of Christianity, Edited by Marshall B. Davidson of Horizon
Magazine, (U.S.A.: American Heritage Publishing Company, English edition, 1964). Behold the Christ, (1974).

Here I Stand, A Life of Martin Luther, (Paper back edition, 1950 by Pierce & Smith, & 1978, New
American Library for Abingdon Press, Nashville).

Roger Hinks, Carolingian Art, A study of early Medieval painting and sculpture in Western Europe,
(Michigan: The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor Paperbacks, 1962).

Roger S. Wieck, Time Sanctified, The Book of Hours in Medieval Art and Life, (New York and
Baltimore: George Braziller, Inc., in association with The Walters Art Gallery).

Rosa Maria Letts, The Renaissance, (Cambridge University Press, 1981).

Roselle Williams Crawford, Survival of Legends, Legends and Their Relation to History, Literature and
Life of the Southwest, (San Antonio, Texas: The Naylor Company, 1952).

Roy Mills, The Soul's Remembrance, Earth is not our home, (Seattle, Washington: Onjinjinkta
Publishing, 1999).

R. Trexler, Public Life in Renaissance Florence, (New York: Academic Press, 1980).

Medieval and Renaissance Religion, (edited by C. Trinkaus with H. Oberman, (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1974).

Rutherford H. Platt, Jr., and J. Alden Brett, (Editors), The Forgotten Books of Eden, (U.S.A.: Alpha
House, Inc., 1927).

Sachse, Jules Friedrich, The German Sectarians of Pennsylvania, 1708-1800. A critical and Legendary
History of the Ephrata Cloister and the Dunkers, (Philadelphia: Printed for the author 1899-1900).

Sarel Eimerl, and Editors of Time-Life Books, The World of Giotto, C. 1267-1337, (New York:
Time-Life Books, 1967).

Schroll, Sister M. Alfred, Benedictine Monasticism, as reflected in the Warnefrid-Hildemar
commentaries on the Holy Rule, (New York, Columbia University Press, 1941).

Sheila D. Campbell, (Editor), The Malcove Collection, (University of Toronto Press, 1985).

Sheldon Cheney, A World History of Art, (New York: The Viking Press, 1947).

Shirley Glubok, The Art of Ancient Peru, (New York: Harper & Row, 1966).

Sidney Painter, A History of the Middle Ages, 284-1500, (Alfred A. Knopf, 1953).

Sir Banister Fletcher, A History of Architecture, (Butterworths: 19th Edition, edited by John Musgrove,
1987).

Slyvanus Griswold Morley, (revised by George W. Brainerd), The Ancient Maya, (3rd Edition, CR 1946,
Stanford University Press).

Stephen Benko, Pagan Rome And The Early Christians, (Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1984).

Steven L Davies, The Gospel of Thomas and Christian Wisdom, (New York: The Seabury Press, 1983).

Stuart Gilbert & James Emmons, Byzantium, From the Death of Theodosius To the Rise of Islam,
(France: Ed. Gallimard, 1966; U.S.A.: Thames and Hudson, 1966).

Sidney Painter, A History of the Middle Ages, 285-1500, (Alfred A. Knopf, 1953).

Sylvanus G. Morley, George W. Brainerd, revised by Robert J. Sharer, The Ancient Maya, (Standford,
California: Stanford University Press, 4th edition, 1983; First edition, Morley in 1947. CR 1946, 1947,
1956 & 1983).

T. Edgar Lyon, Apostasy to Restoration, (Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company, 1960; Course of
Study for the Melchizedek Priesthood Quorums of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, CR
1960, David O. McKay).

Thomas A. Kselman, Death and the Afterlife in Modern France, (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton
University Press, 1993).

Thomas Armitage, D.D., LL.D., A History Of The Baptists, (New York: Bryah, Taylor, & Chicago:
Morningside, 1887).

Thomas Stuart Ferguson, One Fold & One Shepherd, (Salt Lake City, Utah: Olympus Publishing
Company, 1st edition 1958, revised edition 1962).

Timothy Verdon & John Henderson, (Editors), Christianity And The Renaissance, Image and Religious
Imagination in the Quattrocento, (Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1990).

Tomie de Paola, Christopher, The Holy Giant, (New York: Holiday House, 1994).

T. W. Doane, Bible Myth, And Their Parallels In Other Religions, (New York: The Truth Seeker
Company, 1882 & 1910).

Valentin Denis, Professeur a l' Universite de Louvain, Des Catacomes A La Fin Du Xve Siecle, (Editions
Meddens in 1965).

Vincent Cronin, Mary Portrayed, (London, England: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1968).

Wahib Aziz, Khalil, Al-Ma ' mudiyah wa-al-Ghitas, (al-Qahirah: Dar al-Amal lil-Tiba ' ah wa-al-Nashr,
1979). Subjects: Coptic Church; Baptism; Epiphany.

Walter Cahn, Romanesque Bible Illumination, (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1982, CR by
Office du Livre, SA, Fribourg, Switzerland).

Walter Hugelshofer, (introdution and notes), Swiss Drawings (Masterpieces of Five Centuries),
(Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1967).

Walter Lowrie, Art In The Early Church, (Washington Square, New York, New York: Pantheon Books,
1947).
Walter Oakshott, Classical Inspiration In Medieval Art, (New York, New York: Frederick A. Praeger
Inc., 1959).

Werner Foerster, Gnosis: A Selection of Gnostic Texts, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972).

Werner R. Deusch, Deutsche Malerei, Des Funfzehnten Jahrhunderts, Die Malerei Der Spatgotik,
(Berlin, Germany: Kurt Wolff Verlag, 1936).

Deutsche Malerei Des Dreizehnten Und Vierzehnten Jahrhunderts, Die Fruhzeit der Tafelmalerei,
(Berlin, Germany: Genius Verlag, 1940).

W.G. Thomson, (3rd edition revised and edited by F.P. & E.S. Thomson), A History of Tapestry, From
the Earliest Times until the Present Day, (E P Publishing Limited, First edition 1906, this edition 1973).

W. H. C. Frend: Martyrdom & Persecution In The Early Church, (Garden City, New York: Anchor Books Doubleday & Company, 1967). The Early Church, (Philadelphia and New York: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1966).

Whitney S. Stoddard, Monastery and Cathedral in France, Medieval Architecture, Sculpture, Stained
Glass, Manuscripts, The Art of the Church Treasures, (Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University
Press, 1966).

William Barclay, The Apostles' Creed For Everyman, (New York and Evanston: Harper and Row, 1967).

William Henry Paine Hatch, Greek and Syrian Miniatures in Jerusalem, (Cambridge, Massachuset: The
Medieval Academy of America, 1931).

William Hood, Fra Angelico at San Marco, (New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 1993).

Willis Barnstone, (Editor), The Other Bible, (San Francisco, California: Harper & Row, 1984).

Wim Swaan, The Late Middle Ages, Art and Architecture from 1350 to the Advent of the Renaissance,
(Ithaca, New York: Paul Elek, LTD., 1977, Cornell University Press).

Swaan, The Gothic Cathedral, (Garden City, New York: Double-Day and Company, 1969, Paul Elek
Productions Limited).

Wolfgang Fritz, Early Christian Art, (New York: Harry N. Abrams).

W.R. Lethaby, Medieval Art, From the peace of the Church to the eve of the Renaissance 1312-1350,
revised by David Talbot Rice, (New York, U. S. A., and London, England: Thomas Nelson & Sons).

Yves Bonnefoy, Mythologies, (A Restructured Translation of Dictionnaire des mythologies et des
religions des societes traditionnelles et du monde antique). Prepared under the direction of Wendy
Doniger. Translated by Gerald Honigsblum, etc., (Chicago, U.S.A., & London, England: The University
of Chicago Press, 1991).

Yves Christe, Tania Velmans, Hanna Losowska and Roland Recht, Art of the Christian World A.D.
200-1500, A Handbook of Styles and Forms, (Rizzoli International Publishing, CR 1982 Office du
Livre).

ENCYCLOPEDIA SERIES:
Bernards S. Myers, (Editor, and others), Encyclopedia of Painting, Painters and Painting of the World
from Prehistoric Times to the Present Day, (New York: Crown Publishing, Inc., 1963).

Eleanor C. Munro, The Golden Encyclopedia Of Art, (New York: Golden Press, 1961).

Encyclopedia Of Early Christianity, Everett Ferguson, Editor, Michael P. McHugh & Frederick W.
Norris, Associate Editors, David M. Scholer, Consulting Editor, (New York, U. S. A., and London,
England: Garland Publishing, Inc.,1990).

The Encyclopedia of Religion, Mircea Eliade, Editor in Chief, (New York: Macmillan Publishing
Company, 1987).

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF WORLD ART, Vol. V, ESKIMO CULTURES -- GALLO-ROMAN ART, (London, England: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, 1961), Paper for plates and text supplied by
Cartiere Burgo, Turin-- Engraving by Zincotipia Altimani, Milan-- etc. Limburg Brothers - Francisco Ribalta, The Encyclopedia Of Visual Art, Biographical Dictionary of Artists, (London, England: Encyclopedia Britannica International, LTD).

Louis Hourticq, Harper's Encyclopedia of Art, Architecture Sculpture Painting, Decorative Arts, translated under the supervision of Tancred Borenius, PH.D., D. LIT., fully revised under the direction of J. Leroy Davidson & Philippa Gerry, L-Z, (New York, U.S.A., and London, England: Harper & Brothers Publishing, 1937).

International Illustrated Encyclopedia Of Art, General Editor Consultant, Sir John Rothenslein,
C.B.E., Ph.D., LL. D., (New York: Greystone Press, MCMLXVII).

Praeger Encyclopedia of Art, (New York; Washington, & London, England: 1971).

The Catholic Encyclopedia, (New York: The Gilmary Society, 1908).

The Catholic Encyclopedia, An International world of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine,
Discipline, & History of the Catholic Church, Edited by Charles G. Herbermann, Ph.D., LL.D., Edward
A Page, Ph.D., D.D., & Conde B. Pallen, Ph.D., LL.D., Thomas J. Shahan, & others, (In 15 volumes).

New Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume 3, The Saints, Edited by John Coulson, (New York: Hawthorn,
Books, Inc., 1958).

New Catholic Encyclopedia, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967-79).

New International Illustrated Encyclopedia Of Art, (General Editorial Consultant, Sir John Rothenstein,
C.B.E., Ph.D., LL.D., (New York: Greystone Press, MCMLXVII).

MAGAZINE SERIES:
The Ensign (Salt Lake City, Utah: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints). April 1977 General Conference of the LDS Church, the prophet Spencer W. Kimball talk on deification and how in the after-life realm the saints will pass through more ordinances and will be ordained to powers and given the keys to resurrect the dead. This is similar to early Christian beliefs about how Mary passed through a coronation ceremony in the after life and while on her way towards being crowned, enthroned, glorified and deified the Queen of heaven. National Geographics: Maria Nicolaidis-Karanikolas, National Geographic, Vol. 164, No. 6, December, 1983, Byzantine Empire, article entitled Eternal Easter in Greek Village.

PUBLISHED BY ART GALLERIES AND MUSEUMS:
Gothic and Renaissance Art in Nuremberg 1300-1550, by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York,
& Germanisches Nationalmuseum, (Nuremberg: CR 1986 Philippe de Montebello, Director).
Illuminated Books Of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, The Walters Art Gallery, An Exhibition Held at
The Baltimore Museum of Art, Jan. 27 -- March 13. (Baltimore: The Walters Art Gallery, 1949).
Paul Williamson, The Medieval Treasury, The Art of the Middle Ages in the Victoria and Albert Museum,
(The Victoria & Albert Museum, 1986).
The Secular Spirit: Life and Art at the End of the Middle Ages, (New York: A Dutton Visual Book E. P.
Dutton & Company, Inc., with The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1975).
The Toledo Museum Of Art European Paintings, designed by Harvey Retzloff, (Toledo, Ohio: The
Toledo Museum of Art, Distributed by Pennsylvania State University Press, 1976).
The Vatican Collections, The Papacy And Art, (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1982,
Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Official Publication. Authorized by the Vatican Museums).
Treasures From The Kremlin, An Exhibition from the State of Museums of the Moscow Kremlin at the
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, May 19-September 1979, and Grand Palais, Paris, October 12,
1979 & Jan. 7, 1980, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, Distributed by Harry N. Abrams, Inc.).
WALTERS ART GALLERY, EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART, AN EXHIBITION
HELD AT THE BALTIMORE MUSEUM OF ART, April 25--June 22, organized by The Walter Art
Gallery, (Baltimore, Maryland: 1947, Published by the Trustees of the Walters Art Gallery).
RADIO SHOWS:
KTKK, 630 AM Radio, K-Talk, Salt Lake City, Utah: Martin Tanner, host of Religion on the Line.
June 2, 1991, Tanner, guest: DT, subject: The Journey of the Soul in Early Christian art works and writings.
March 1, 1992, Tanner, guest: Matthew Roper, subject: Early Christianity, and Baptism for the Dead.

PUBLISHED WORKS BY PUBLISHING COMPANIES:
George Prior, (Publisher), Great Centers of Art, Prague, Allantleld and Schram Montclair, (Leipzig,
London: 1979).

McGraw-Hill Dictionary Of Art, edited by Bernard S. Myers, (New York; Toronto; and London:
McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1969).

Reader's Digest, Jesus And His Times, (Pleasantville, New York and Montreal, Canada: The Reader's
Digest Associations, Inc., 1990).

After Jesus, The Triumph of Christianity, (Pleasantville, New York and Montreal, Canada: The Reader's
Digest Associations, Inc., 1992).

Mysteries of the Bible, The Enduring Questions of the Bible, (Pleasantville, NewYork and Montreal: The
Reader's Digest Association, Inc., 1988).

Reader's Digest History of Man, 1973, The Last Two Million Years, (Pleasantville, New York, Montreal).
Reader's Digest's ABC's Of The Bible, Kaari Ward, (Editor), 1991.

SERIES:
A Library of Fathers of the Holy Catholic Church, (Oxford, London: John Henry Parker, J. G. F. & J.,
MDCCCXL, MDCCCXXXIX, Rivington).

Brigham Young University Studies (Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University).

The Ante-Nicene Fathers = TANF. A set of volumes on the writings of the early Christians before the
Nicene Creed era of A.D. 325. (Grand Rapids, Michigan: T & T Clark, Edinburgh, W. M. B. Eerdmans
Publishing, reprinted October 1989), nine volumes.

The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, (Grand Rapids, Michigan: W. M. B. Eerdmans, reprinted April
1986), fourteen volumes.

The Library of Christian Classics, volume 2, Alexandrian Christianity, Selected Translations of Clement & Origen with Introductions and Notes by John Ernest Leonard Oulton, D.D., Regius Professor of Divinity in the University of Dublin; Chancellor of St. Patrick's and Henry Chadwick, B.D., Fellow & Dean of Queens' College, Cambridge. (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press). volume 4, Cyril of Jerusalem And Nemesius of Emesa, edited by William Telfer, (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, MCMLV).

MISCELLANEOUS BOOK TITLES:
A Lithuanian Cemetery, St. Casimir Lithuanian Cemetery in Chicago, Illinois, (Chicago: Lithuanian
Photo Library and Loyola University Press, 1976).

Apologetical Works, Tertullian, (Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of American Press, 1962).

Codex Borgian, (Eine altmexikanische Bilderschrift der Bibliothek der Congregatio de Propaganda
Fide), Herausgegeben auf Kosten Seiner Excellenz des Herzongs von Loubat. Von Dr. Eduard Seler,
(Berlin, Germany: MDCCCCIIII).

De Noord-Nederlandsche Schilderkunst Door G.J. Hoogewerff, ' S-Gravenhage Martinus Nijhoff, 1936.
Dr. Eduard Seler, Codex Borgia, Eine altmexikanische Biderschrift der Bibliothek der Congregatio de
Propaganda Fide, (Berlin, Germany: MDCCCCIIII). (Codex Borgian, a pre-conquest Toltec/Aztec,
document from Tlaxacalan, near the present site of Mexico City, dating between about A.D. 1350 A.D.
& A.D. 1500).

Deutche Spatgotische Malerei, 1430-1500, Alfred Stange, Karl Robert (Langewiesche Nachfolger,
1965).

Duitse Middeleeuwse Beeldhouwwerken In Belgische Verzamelingen R. Didier, H. Krohm, 6 Oktober 30
November 1977.

Eine Bayerische Malerschule Des XI. Und XII. Jahrhunderts, Von, E.F. Bange, 1923.

Episodes de L'Historie de S. Jean Baptiste Detail du Tableau d' autel - Art Neo-Hellenistique
(1250-1270) Academie, Sienne, Essays in Northern European Art, Presented to Egbert Haverkamp-Begemann, (Davaco Publishing, 1983).

Gabrielle Sed-Rajna, Le Mahzor Enlumine, Les voies de formation d'un programme iconographique,
(Leiden- E.J. Brill- 1983, (Tuta Sub Aegide Pallas, E.J.B.).

G. de Jerphanion, Les eglises rupestres de Cappadoce, (Paris, France: Geuthner, 1925-- 1928).

G. J. Hoogewerff, 'S-Gravenhage, De Noord-Nederlandsche Schilderkunst Door, (Martinus Nijhoff,
1936).

Goticka Nastenna Malba V Zemich Ceskych, I, 1300 - 1350, Nakladatelstvi Ceskoslovenske Akademie
Ved, Praba 1958.

Great Centers of Art, Prague, Allantleld and Schram Montclair, (Leipzig London: George Prior, 1970).

Hallenfahrt Christis, in Richard Paul Wulker, Bibliothek der Angelsachsischen Poesie, (Leipzig:
Wigands, 1897), three volumes.

Himmel Holle Fegefeuer, Das Jenseits im Mittelalter, 1994, Schweizerisches Landesmuseum, Zurich,
Wilhelm Fink Verlag, Munchen, J. Cabre Aquilo, Monumento Christiano-Bizantino, de Gabia La Grande, Memorias Junta Superior Excavaciones y Antiquesdades, LV, 1923.

Las Cantigas, Estudio Arqueologico de sus Miniaturas, por Jose Guerrero Lovillo, Madrid, 1949.

Les Ivoires Gothiques, Francais, Par Raymond Koechlin, Planches, Reimpression, (Paris, France: F. DE
Nobele, 1968).

Legenda Aurea: Sept Siecles De Diffusion, Editions Bellarmin, Montreal 1986.

Luzerner Historishce Veroffentlichungen Band 24, Kloster und Pfarrei zu Franziskanern in Luzern,
Clemens Hegglin/Fritz Glauser (Hg.), Rex-Verlag Luzern/Stuttgart 1989.

Manuel D'Histoire de la Litterature Francaise par Gustave Lanson et Paul Tuffrau, 1933, (Paris &
Boston: Librairie Hachette D.C. Heath & Company).

M. Aubert, Les Fouilles de Doura-Europas, Bulletin Monumental, 1934, Lasssus, Sanctuaires chretien
de Syria, Paris, 1947.

Meisterwerke Der Altdeutschen Malerei Von Gerhard Ulrich, (Somogy Paris: Hamburg, Alle Rechte
Vorbehalten 1957).

Meisterwerke Kirchlicher Kunst, S. O Sterreich, Nnsbruck-Wien-Munchen. Aufnahmen, Text und
Bildgestaltung von Alois Schmiedbauer. Monumente Istorice Bisericesti Din Mitropolia Moldovel Si Sucevei, 1974.

O. Grandidier, Bulletin de la Societe d' archeologie de' Alger, I, 1895.

Popol Vuh, The Sacred Book of the Ancient Quiche Maya, translated in English by Delia Goetz &
Sylvanus G. Morely, (Oklahoma: 1950).

Propylaen Kunstgeschichte In Achtzehn Banden, Band 3, Byzanz Und Der Christliche Osten, Von
Wolfgang Fritz Volbach Und Jacqueline Lafontaine-Dosogne, 1968, Propylaen Verlag Berlin,
Sacramentum Serapionis, XXX, in Didascalia et Constitutiones Apostolorum, editor, Franz X. Funk,
(Paderborn, 1905), 2 volumes.

Splendors Of Christendom, Great & Architecture in European Churches, Dmitri Kessel (Commentary by
Henri Peyre, Edita Lausanne, 1st Published in 1964, Edita S.A. Lausanne).

Studies in the Dynamics of Byzantine Iconography), [1975, The Pennsylvania State Un., Park and
London], That Unknown Country (Or What Living Men Believe Concerning Punishment After Death),
(Springfield, Massachuset: C.A. Nichols & Company, 1888).

The Book of Saints, by the Benedictine monks of St. Augustine's Abbey, (Wilton, Connecticut:
Ramsgate, Morehouse Publishers, 1989, first published in 1921).

The Renaissance, Six Essays Wallace K. Ferguson, Robert S. Lopez, George Sarton, Roland H. Bainton,
Leicester Bradner, Erwin Panofsky, (New York: Harper and Row, Harper Torchbooks, 1962, The
Academy Library, CR 1953, by The Metropolitan Museum of Art).

Christmas Traditions and Legends, and other Holidays:
Alice Dalgliesh, Christmas, A Book of Stories Old And New, (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1948).

Aileen Fisher, 1968, A Crowell Holiday Book, Easter, (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company).

Anne Thaxter Eaton, The Animals' Christmas, (New York: The Viking Press, CR 1944, Eaton and
Valenti Angelo), "So Hallowed and So Gracious Is the Time--" by Anne Thaxter Eaton.
Bobbie Kalman, Early Christmas, The Early Settler Life Series, (Toronto; New York: Crabtree
Publishers Company, 1981, 1990, 1991).

Celia McInnes, An English Christmas, (New York: Henry Holt & Company).

Clement A. Miles, Christmas Customs And Traditions, Their History and Significance, (New York:
Dover Publishing, Inc., 1976).

Dorothy Gladys Spicer, 46 Days Of Christmas, A Cycle of Old World Songs, Legends and Customs,
(New York: Coward-McCann, Inc., 1960).

D. J. Herda, 1983, Christmas, (New York and London: Franklin Watts, A First Book).

Earl W. Count, 4000 Years of Christmas, (New York: Henry Schumann, 1948).

Elizabeth Hough Sechrist, Christmas Everywhere, A Book of Christmas Customs of Many Lands,
(Philadelphia: Macrae Smith Company, 1931 1936 & 1962).

Elizabeth Hough Sechrist and Janette Woolsey, 1959, It's Time For Christmas, (Written and Compiled
by Decorations by Reisie Lonette), (Philadelphia: Published by Macrae Smith Company).

Sechrist and Woolsey, Its Time For EASTER, (Philadelphia: Macrae Smith Company, 1961).

Elva Sophronia Smith & Alice Isabel Hazeltine, The Christmas Book of Legends and Stories, (New
York: Lothrop, Lee and Shepard Company, 1944, 3rd printing October 1945).

Francis X. Weiser, 1952, The Christmas Book, (New York: Illustrated by Robert Frankenberg, Harcourt,
Brace & Company).

Gilda Berger, Easter And Other Spring Holidays, (New York; London; Toronto; Sydney: Franklin Watts,
1983, A First Book).

Hamilton W. Mabie, The Book of Christmas, (Toronto, Canada: The Macmillan Company of Canada,
LTD).

Herbert H. Wernecke, (Editor), Celebrating Christmas Around The World, (Philadelphia: The
Westminster Press, CR MCMLXII).

Horace J. Gardner, 1940 & 1950, Let's Celebrate Christmas, Parties, Plays, Legends, Carols, Poetry,
Stories, (New York: The Ronald Press Company).

James Cross Giblin, 1985, The Truth About Santa Claus, (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell).
Jane Duden, Christmas,(New York: Crestwood House, 1990).

Leslie Dunkling, A Dictionary of Days, (New York, New York; Oxford, England: Facts On File
Publishing).

Lillian Eichler, The Customs Of Mankind, With Notes on Modern Etiquette and the Newest Trend in
Entertainment, (Garden City, New York: Nelson Doubleday, Inc., 1924).

Lillie Patterson, 1968, A Holiday Book, Christmas Feasts and Festivals, (Champaign, Illinois: Garrard
Publishers Company).

Lisl Weil, 1987, Santa Claus Around the World, (New York: Holiday House).

Margaret E. Martignoni, Editor-in-Chief Dr. Louis Shores, Volume Editor, Ruth Weeden Stewart,
Harvest of Holidays, Series Editor, (New York: A Collier's Junior Classics Series; The Crowell-Collier
Publishing Company, 1962).

Maymie R. Krythe, 1954, All About Christmas, (New York, Evanston, & London: Harper & Row).
Patricia Bunning Stevens, 1979, Merry Christmas (A History of the Holiday), (New York: Macmillan
Publishing Company, Inc., and London: Collier Macmillan).

Peter Watkins & Erica Hughes, 1981, Here's the Year, (Great Britain: Camelot Press, Southhampton;
New York; Julia MacRae Books, 1981).

Raymond Jahn, Concise Dictionary of Holidays, (New York: Philosophical Library, 1958).
Robert Haven Schauffler, (Editor), Christmas, Its Origin, Celebration And Significance As Related In
Prose and Verse, (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1907, 1947).

Robert J. Myers, with the Editors of Hallmark Cards, Celebrations, The Complete Book of American
Holidays, (Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, 1972).

Ruth Sawyer, 1941, The Long Christmas, (New York: The Viking Press).

Satomi Ichikawa, Robina Beckles Willson, (Text), Merry Christmas, (New York: Philamel Books,
1983).
Steve Englehart, Christmas Countdown, (New York, New York: An Avon Camelot Book, 1993).

Tasha Tudor, Take Joy! The Tasha Tudor Christmas Book, (Cleveland & New York: The World
Publishers Company, 1966).

Terence Goldsmith, Jacqueline Ridley, John Clark, and others, Christmas Around the World, A
Celebration, (New York: Sterling Publishing Co.; New Orchard Editions Ltd., Robert Rogers House,
1985; Blandford Press Ltd, 1978).

T. Fisher Unwin, Christmas in Ritual and Tradition, Christian and Pagan, (1912).

T. G. Crippen, Christmas And Christmas Lore, (Detroit: Gale Research Company, Book Tower, 1971,
from facsimile reprint of the 1923 edition first published in London: Blackie & Son Limited).

Tristram Potter Coffin, The Book of Christmas Folklore, 1973, (New York: A Continuum Book, The
Seabury Press).

The Life Book of Christmas, Vol. 3, The Merriment of Christmas, by the Editors of Life, (New York: A
Stonehenge Book, Time Inc., 1963).

William Kean Seymour and John Smith, Happy Christmas, (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1968).

William Muir Auld, Christmas Traditions, (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1931, republished in
Detroit: Gale Research Company, Book Tower, 1968).

William S. Walsh, The Story Of Santa Klaus, Told for Children of all Ages From Six to Sixty, (New
York: Moffat, Yard & Company, 1909, republished by Omnigraphics, Penobscot Building, Detroit,
1991).

Yorke Henderson, Lenore Miller, Eileen Gaden, & Arnold Freed, Parent's Magazine's Christmas
Holiday Book, (New York: Parent's Magazine Press, MCMLXXII).

Research Papers, Theses and Typescripts:
Allen Richardson, Evidences of the Divine Authenticity of The Book of Mormon, (Utah).
Frank S. Harris III, Ancient America: Native Accounts of Their Origins, (Provo, Utah: Foundation For
Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. FARMS reprinted HAR-73, from: Ancient America: Tenability
of Old World-New World Contacts, by Harris III, Master Thesis, at University of Texas at Arlington,
May 1973).

G. F. Bushman, Masonic & Mormon Temple Ceremonies, (North Salt Lake City, Utah: an unpublished
research paper, CR March, 1952, dated March 1953).

Gordon C. Thomasson, Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, (Provo, Utah: Foundation for Ancient
Research and Mormon Studies, 1993), Volume 2, Number 1, Spring 1993, pp. 21-- 38, Paper entitled:
Mosiah: The Complex Symbolism and Symbolic Complex of Kingship in the Book of Mormon.

Jennifer O'Reilly, A Garland Series, Outstanding Theses In The Fine Arts From British Universities,
Studies in the Iconography of the Virtues and Vices in the Middle Ages, (New York, U.S.A., and London,
England: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1988). Thesis submitted to the University of Nottingham for the
degree of Doctor of Philosophy, October 1972).

Joseph L. Allen, A Comparative Study of Quetzalcoatl, The Feathered-Serpent God Of Meso-- America,
With Jesus Christ, The God of the Nephites, A Dissertation Presented to the Department of Ancient
Scripture, Brigham Young University. In Partiel Fulfilment of the Requirement for the Degree of Doctor
of Philosophy, August 1970.

L. W. Stokes, Temple Texts and the Pre-Mortal Council, (Salt Lake City, Utah: The Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints Historical Library, Archives, call slip # PQ M233.3 5874t, 1980), typescript
paper presented to John M. Lundquist, November 23, 1980.

Roger J. Adams, The Iconography of Early Christian Initiation: Evidence for Baptisms for the Dead,
(unpublished manuscript 1977).

End Notes:
1. Ed Decker's, The Godmakers, (Saints Alive); Jerald and Sandra Tanner, Mormonism: Shadow or
Reality? 1986. This is also based on numerous conversations I have had on the Radio and in person, with
numerous "Born-again Christians."

2. Dr. Huge W. Nibley has pioneered this area of study, and has presented many evidences over the years
of which have been continued to be rejected or ignored by many anti-Mormon "Christians." See: The
Collected Works of Huge Nibley, (Salt Lake City, & Provo, Utah: Foundation for Ancient Research and
Mormon Studies = F.A.R.M.S. and Deseret Book Company), in numerous volumes now. See especially
Mormonism and Early Christianity. See also: Donald W. Parry, Editor, Temples of The Ancient World,
Ritual and Symbolism, (Salt Lake City & Provo, Utah: F.A.R.M.S & Deseret Book Company, 1994);
DaRell D. Thorpe, Jesus Christ's "Everlasting Gospel" and Ancient "Patternism" (Salt Lake City, Utah:
Religious, Historical & Polemical Studies = R.H. & P.S.,1990); Thorpe, Early Christianity in Ancient
America, & Old & New World Parallels, (Salt Lake City, Utah: R. H. & P.S., 1991); Thorpe, The Grand
Pilgrimage: Footnoting In & "Out of The Best Books" (Salt Lake City, Utah: R.H. & P.S., 1992). Thorpe,
The Pilgrimages & Struggles of The Human Family in & Through The Different Realms of Existences
(Salt Lake City, Utah: R. H. & P.S., 1992); During 1987--1988, and from 1989 into the 1990's, I have
presented numerous evidences on numerous radio shows on KZZI 1510 AM radio, West Jordan, Utah,
during my show, "Out of the Best Books," and on KTKK K-talk, 630 AM Radio, Utah, Religion on the
Line. And other radio shows, as a co-host, guest, and caller. Thorpe, Christ, The World Wide Wounded
Wanderer, (Salt Lake City, Utah: R. H. & P. S. 1999, 2000 & 2001).

3. Dr. Huge Nibley, The Message of the Joseph Smith Papyri, an Egyptian Endowment, (Salt Lake City,
Utah: Deseret Book, 1975), explanation p. xxi.

4. Dr. Huge Nibley, The Message of the Joseph Smith Papyri, an Egyptian Endowment, (Salt Lake City,
Utah: Deseret Book, 1975), explanation p. xxi.

5. Dr. Huge Nibley, The Message of the Joseph Smith Papyri, an Egyptian Endowment, (Salt Lake City,
Utah: Deseret Book, 1975), explanation p. xxi.

6. Dr. Huge Nibley, The Message of the Joseph Smith Papyri, an Egyptian Endowment, (Salt Lake City,
Utah: Deseret Book, 1975), explanation p. xxi.

7. Dr. Huge W. Nibley, The Collected Works of Huge Nibley, (Salt Lake City, & Provo, Utah:
Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies = F.A.R.M.S. and Deseret Book Company), in
numerous volumes now. See especially Mormonism and Early Christianity. See also: Donald W. Parry,
Editor, Temples of The Ancient World, Ritual and Symbolism, (Salt Lake City & Provo, Utah: F.A.R.M.S
& Deseret Book Company, 1994).

8. DaRell Don Thorpe, The Ancient And Modern Anti-Christs Against the Early Saints, and The
Latter-day Saints, (Salt Lake City, Utah: R.H.& P.S., 1990 & 1991); Robert L. Wilken, The Christians
As The Romans Saw Them, (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1984); W.H.C. Frend,
Martyrdom & Persecution In the Early Church, (Garden City, New York: Anchor Books Doubleday,
1967); A.S. Garretson, Primitive Christianity and Early Criticisms, (Boston: Sherman, French &
Company, 1912); Francis Legge, Forerunners & Rivals Of Christianity, From 330 B.C. to 330 A.D.,
(University Books, 1964), 2 volumes in 1; R. Joseph Hoffmann, Celsus On The True Doctrine, A
Discourse Against The Christians, (Oxford University Press, 1987); The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 4, pp.
395--669, Origen Against Celsus, 8 books. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 1, pp. 194--270, Justin
Martyr's Dialogue With Trypho.

9. H. Spencer Lewis, 1937 & 1965, The Secret Doctrine of Jesus, pp. 23-146; Fredk. WM. Hackwood,
Christ Lore, (Detroit: Gale Research Company, Book Tower, reprinted 1969, from the 1902 editions),
p.5; Pellistrandi, The Early Christian Civilization, pp.180--99; Frend, Martyrdom and Persecution In The
Early Church, pp. 9, 124--29 & foot notes on p.453; Scrapbook of Mormon Polemics, (Sandy, Utah:
Mormon Miscellaneous, 1986), vol.1, #2, February, 1986, pp. 23--25; R. Joseph Hoffmann, Celsus On
The True Doctrine, p. 53; John P. Lundy, Monumental Christianity, pp. 26--27.

10. Even some apostates from the early Christian faith said that they had taken oaths, but that they had
not been conspiratorial. They said these oaths were a vow that they should do no wrong, or any crimes,
etc. (Alfred Firmin Loisy, La Naissance du Christianisme Les Origines du Nouveau Testament, (The
Birth of the Christian Religion and the Origins of the New Testament), translated from the French by L.P.
Jacks, pp. 191--93; Frend, Martyrdom and Persecutions In the Early Church, p.9, 124--25; Bettenson,
pp. 3--4, as cited by Hale, #2, card 280).

11. The World of the Bible, (Yonkers, New York: Herit. Inc.), p. 255, 2 Kings 2:24; Wilden, The
Christians As The Romans Saw Them, pp. 98--101, 109; Garretson, Primitive Christianity and Early
Criticism, pp. 47-49; Benko, Pagan Rome and The Early Christians, pp.103--39; Hoffmann, Celsus On
The True Doctrine, pp. 43--44, 53-4, 57, 59, 77, 89-90, 97-9; The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 4, pp.413,
415, 421-22, 427, 452, 467, 590-1, Origen Against Celsus.

12. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 4, pp. 412--13, Origen Against Celsus, books 1--8, chapter 38; & pp.
415--16, book 1, chapters xlv-xlvi & pp. 421-2, chap. lvii & p.427, chap. lxviii, p.428, chap. lxxi, p.437;
Book 2, chap. xiv, pp. 450--52, chap. xlix-liii, pp. 466--67; p. 590--91; Book 6:38-41, etc. Stephen
Benko, Pagan Rome and The Early Christians, pp. 103--62; Hoffmann, Celsus On The True Doctrine,
pp. 43-44, 53-4, 56-7, 59-60, 66, 89-90, 95-99; A.S. Garretson, Primitive Christianity and Early
Criticisms, (Boston: Sherman, French & Company, 1912), pp. 47, 49, 74-5; Robert L. Wilken, The
Christians As The Romans Saw Them, (New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 1984), pp. 98,
100-1, 109; Robin Lane Fox, Pagans and Christians, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf Inc., 1987), p.96 &
117 etc.

13. Wilken, The Christians As The Romans Saw Them, pp.17-22, 94-99 & 159; Garretson, Primitive
Christianity and Early Criticisms, p.10-11, 58-60, 71-3; Benko, Pagan Rome and The Early Christians,
pp.54-78; Hoffmann, Celsus On The True Doctrine, pp. 17-22; Pellistrandi, The Early Christian
Civilization, pp.180-199; The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol.4, pp.585, 591, Origen Against Celsus.

14. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 4, pp. 397, 399, 471, 486--88; Hoffmann, Celsus On The True
Doctrine, p.53; Garretson, Primitive Christianity and Early Criticisms, pp. 10-11 & 71-3; Pellistrandi,
The Early Christian Civilization, pp. 180-99; Frend, Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church,
p.9--12; Matt.6:6 13:10-11; Wilken, The Christians As The Romans Saw Them, pp. 17-25; Benko, Pagan
Rome and The Early Christians, pp. 4-5, 10--13; p.18-25; Leonard W. Cowie, 1962, The March Of The
Cross, (Great Britain: Weidenfeld & Nicolson LTD. 1962; USA, New York; Toronto; London:
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1962), p.20, fig.26.

15. Minucius Felix, Octavius 9 (of Christians); C.T. Lewis & C. Short, A Latin Dictionary (Oxford:
Clarendon, 1890), s.v.; E.R. Dodds, Pagan & Christian in an Age of Anxiety (New York: Norton, 1965),
p. 111; Origen, Contra Celsum, I, 1, in PG 11:652; Apuleius, Apology 56; Isaiah 42:6-7;
Robert M. Grant, David Noel Freedman, etc., The Secret Sayings of Jesus, (Garden City, New York:
Doubleday & Company, 1960), pp.17--187; DaRell D. Thorpe, When Our Faith Is Challenged, (Salt
Lake City, Utah: R.H.& P.S., 1988, unpublished manuscript), in two volumes, vol.2; Thorpe, The
Ancient & Modern Anti-Christs Against the Early Saints & the "Latter-day Saints" (Salt Lake City, Utah:
R.H. & P.S., 1990 & 1991). By Study & Also by Faith, (Salt Lake City & Provo Utah: Deseret Book
Company and F.A.R.M.S., 1990), vol.1 pp. 202--21, chapter 11: Aspects of an Early Christian Initiation
Ritual, William J. Hamblin BYU Provo Ut. & Chapter 24: The Handclasp & Embrace as Tokens of
Recognition, by Todd M. Compton, LA California, pp. 611--42, in footnote 48 on p.635 of Compton's
research paper; Huge Nibley, The Message of the Joseph Smith Papyri, an Egyptian Endowment, (Salt
Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book, 1975); Stephen Benko, Pagan Rome and The Early Christians, p.54, also
see n.1 & 2, on p.74; Frend, Martyrdom & Persecution In The Early Church, pp.187--88; Pellistrandi,
Early Christian Civilization, pp. 180--99; H. Spencer Lewis, F.R.C., Ph.D., The Secret Doctrines of
Jesus, (San Jose, California: Supreme Grand Lodge of A.M.O.R.C., Rosicrucian Library, 1937 & 1965),
vol. 4, pp. 23, 25-9, 84 & 146; The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 4, pp. 583--84, Origen Against Celsus, book 6, chapters 22--24; Garretson, Primitive Christians and Early Criticisms, pp. 71--73.

16. Hoffmann, Celsus On The True Doctrine, p. 53.

17. Jahrbuch Der Berliner Museen,Jahrbuch der PreuBischen Kunstsammlungen Neue Folge, Zehnter
Band 1968, (Verlagsort, Berlin: Im Gemeinschaftsverlag G. Grote'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung KG - Gebr.
Mann), pages 134--38, abb 7. Donatello, Christus in der Verholle. Florenz, San Lorenzo, rechte Kanzel.
Christ descent into hell, here he is grasping, with his right hand, the right hand of one of the ones he is
lifting up out of hell. See also detail on page 137, Abb. 8.

18. Jahrbuch Der Berliner Museen,Jahrbuch der PreuBischen Kunstsammlungen Neue Folge, Zehnter
Band 1968, (Verlagsort, Berlin: Im Gemeinschaftsverlag G. Grote'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung KG - Gebr.
Mann), pages 134--38, abb 7. Donatello, Christus in der Verholle. Florenz, San Lorenzo, rechte Kanzel.
Christ descent into hell, here he is grasping, with his right hand, the right hand of one of the ones he is
lifting up out of hell. See also detail on page 137, Abb. 8.

19. John Beckwith, The Art of Constantinople, An Introduction to Byzantine Art 330--1453, (Greenwich -
Connecticut: Phaidon Publishers Inc., Distributed by New York Graphic Society, 1961), p. 143, fig. 188.
The Anastasis. Detail of a fresco in the parecclesion of the Church of St. Saviour in Chora. Instanbul.
11th or 12th century (?). Christ stands over the broken down doors of hades, with the bound devil under
him, as he grasps with each hand, the right wrists of Adam and Eve, while raising them up out of their
graves. He is also encircled in the mandorla.

20. Jeanne Villette, La R�surrection Du Christ, Dans L'Art Chr�tien Du Iie Au VIIe Si�cle,
Quarante-Huit Planches Hors-Texte, (Paris, France: Henri Laurens, �diteur, 1957), pl. XLII--XLIII,
Descente aux Enfers. Colonne du Ciborium de Saint-Marc � Venise (cl. Osvaldo B�hm). Adam, reaching
around a column, grips, with his right hand thumb, the nail mark wound in Christ's right hand. Dated 4th
or 5th centuries (?). Other different types of wrist grasps are seen in the depictions of Christ descent into
hades & limbo too. See: Plates XLV, & XLVII. See also: Walter Lowrie, Art in the Early Church, (New
York, New York: Pantheon Books, 1947), pl. 100, Christ's descent into limbo. Showing the same work
as in plate XLIII of Villette's book.
21. Gabriel Millet, Membre de l' Institut, Recherches Sur L' Iconographie De L' �vangile, AUX XIVe,
XVe ET XVIe SI�CLES, D'APR�S LES MONUMENTS DE MISTRA, DE LA MAC�DOINE ET DU
MONT-ATHOS, DESSINS DE SOPHIE MILLET, DEUXI�ME �DITION, (Paris, France: �DITIONS
E. DE BOCCARD, RUE DE M�DICIS, 1960), fig. 3. Icone de Ch�mokm�di, en G�orgie. (Coll. H. �t.),
top left corner area, Christ descent into hell. Christ has turned and has grasped, with his right hand, the
right hand of the first to be raised up.
22. In a later moment during the descent, Christ has turned and is in the act of guiding a person by
grasping, with his right hand, the person's right hand. Kartsonis, Anastasis, fig. 21, Vatican, Museo
Sacro. Silver reliquary of Pascal I. The raising of Adam).
23. (Isa.lxi I, 2.), The Ante-Nicene Fathers, 1: p.46, Ep. of Barnabas, chap. xiv.
24. Robert M. Grant in collaboration with David Noel Freedman, The Secret Sayings Of Jesus, (Garden
City, New York: Doubleday & Co., 1960), p. 118; The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 8, pp. 750, 756-8.
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25. The Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers, vol.5, pp.519-520, & 524. Gregory of Nyssa: Dogmatic
Treatises, etc. reprint June 1972, by WM. B. Eerdmans). Early to later Christian art works, & writings,
depict & mention, that some of the catechumens, or people being baptized, as having been naked. It may
have been a symbolical type of the nakedness of birth. And symbolically, the baptismal act was also a
sort of ritualistic rebirth, or the act of being "born again," thus, in some cases they were naked. The same
sort of symbolism is found in the case with the descent in, & ascension out of the grave, limbo, hades, the
pit, etc., (which the baptismal font was a type of, in many cases), many art works show naked souls, just
before they are clothed in a garment. In some cases they are naked, but it wasn't for long, for they would
be clothed in garments. "Cardinal Colonna writes `The Catechumens without clothing, descended into
the water of the baptistery, and were there immersed 3 times; then priest accompanying the act with his
hand, & invoking at each immersion the name of 1 of the persons of the Holy Trinity.' "And De Rossi
warns us that `We ought not to confound the imposition of the right hand with which the ministrant
accompanies the immersion of the candidate with what the bishop in the case of the neophyte as he
emerges from the water, and is clothed in white at the confirmation.' See: Curry, A History of the
Baptists, pp. 274-5; 2 Cor.5:1-10, King James Version; Editor in Chief, Guy Carleton Lee, Ph.D., The
World's Orators, (New York and London: University Edition, G.P. Putnam's Sons, and The
Knickerbocker Press, 1900), pp. 146-7.
26. Russell, Satan, The Early Christian Tradition, pp. 118-122; The Lost Books of the Bible and The
Forgotten Books of Eden, pp. 86-8, Nicodemus Chap. XIX: 1-4, 8-12; XX:11-12.
27. W.R. Lethaby, revised by D. Talbot Rice,Medieval Art From the peace of the Church to the eve of
the Renaissance 1312-1350, (London and New York: Thomas Nelson & Sons LTD), p.50, plate 14. The
Descent into Hell, St. Clemente, Rome.
28. Edited by Harold Osborne, The Oxford Companion To Art, p.525.
29. Kartsonis, Anastasis, fig. 80, etc.
30. Age of Spirituality, pp. 634-6, fig. 574, 8th c.
31. Carl Nordenfalk, Early Medieval Book Illumination, (Skira: 1957, first published as Early Medieval
Paintings, (New York: Rizzoli International, Paperback ed., 1988), p.88, "Beastus Apocalypse. Hell.
Dated 975" Folio 17, Gerona Cathedral.
32. Edited by Elizabeth Hallam, Preface by Huge Trevor-Roper, Four Gothic Kings, The Turbulent
History of Medieval England And the Plantagenet Kings (1216-1377) Henry III, Edward I, Edward II,
Edward III Seen Through The Eyes Of Their Contemporaries, (New York: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, C/R
1987 Phoebe Phillips Editions), pp.70-1, & 198-199.
33. Editor, Paul Williamson, The Medieval Treasury, The Art of the Middle Ages in the Victoria and
Albert Museum, (Published by the Victoria & Albert Museum, 1986), "3 The Basilewsky Situla;
Ottonian, c. 980 page 77"; New International Illustrated Encyclopedia Of Art, vol. 12, p. 2375.
34. David M. Robb, The Art of the Illuminated Manuscript, (New York: South Brunswick & A.S. Barnes
& Co., London: Thomas Yoseloff LTD, 1973), pp. 168-9, fig. 107. Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica, Ms.
lat. 9820, m. 9. Exultet Scroll, Christ's Descent into Limbo. Following Christ's death on the cross, the
descent was "to bring salvation to the deserving of the Old Dispensation". This "is a subject found in
nearly all the Exultet scrolls. The example illustrated is from one written for Pandulfus II of the
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monastery of St. Peter in Benevento between 981 and 987." The "style has some Byzantine overtones,
and is closely related to that of late 9th century south Italian frescoes, like those in the chapel of San
Lorenzo in the church of San Vicenzo at the source of the Volturno River" (p. 168).
35. Alice Bank, 1977, Byzantine Art, pl. 136, "Diptych with the 12 Feasts of the Church. 10th --11th
centuries." See also fig. 184.
36. Peter Lasko; Editors: Nikolaus Pevsner & Judy Nairn, The Pelican History of Art, (Harmondsworth,
Middlesex; Baltimore, Md., Ringwood, Victoria, Australia: The Pelican History of Art, Penguin Books,
1972), vol. 36, Ars Sacra, 800--1200, p. xv--xvi, plate 138. Altar cross, c. 1024/39; in the centre a
Fatimid crystal, tenth century. Borghorst, St Nicomedes. Angels descending to rescue a soul out of hell.
The moment before the clasp. This scene is seen on the lower portion of the cross. Hence suggesting the
traditional place for Adam's grave.
37. George Every, Christian Mythology, (London; New York; Sydney Toronto, The Hamlyn Pub. Group
Lim., 1970; Feltham, Middlesex, England: Hamlyn House, 1973), p. 37.
38. Emile Male, Religious Art in France, the Twelfth Century, (Princeton: Princeton University Press,
1978, Bollingen Series XC . I), p.110, fig.99; O'Reilly, Studies in the Iconography of the Virtues and
Vices in the Middle Ages, pp.176-7, & 340.
39. Editor in Chief, Guy Carleton Lee, Ph.D., The World's Orators, (London and New York: University
Edition, G.P. Putnam's Sons, The Knickerbocker Press, 1900), pp.307-319.
40. Peter Lasko; Editors: Nikolaus Pevsner & Judy Nairn, The Pelican History of Art, (Harmondsworth,
Middlesex; Baltimore, Md., Ringwood, Victoria, Australia: The Pelican History of Art, Penguin Books,
1972), vol. 36, Ars Sacra, 800--1200, p. xiii, plate 76. A.D. 1018--1045, on the book-cover of
Archbishop Aribert, Christ descent into hell is seen below the crucifixion. Clasp made with Christ's left
hand on Adam's right wrist. Milan Cathedral, Treasury.
41. Yves Christe, Tania Velmans, Hanna Losowska and Roland Recht, Art of the Christian World A.D.
200-1500, A Handbook of Styles and Forms, (Published by Rizzoli International Pub., CR 1982 Office
du Livre), p. 165, fig. 104, Mosaic: Descent into Limbo, 11th c., church of Daphni.
42. O. M. Dalton, Byzantine Art And Archaeology, (New York: Dover, 1961, 1st Published in New York:
Oxford University Press, 1911), p. 663, fig. 420. "The Anastasis: mosaic of the 11th cent. in the
Cathedral of Torcello. (Alinari.)"
43. Dalton, Byzantine Art And Archaeology, p. 675, fig. 427, a portion shows the descent into hell on a
mosaic of the 11th century A.D., in the Cathedral of Torcello. (Alinari.)
44. The Walters Art Gallery, Early Christian and Byzantine Art, An Exhibition Held At The Baltimore
Museum of Art, April 25--June 22, Organized by The Walters Art Gallery, In collaboration with The
Department of Art and Archaeology of Princeton University and Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and
Collection of Harvard University and forming part of Princeton's Bicentennial Celebration. (Baltimore:
Trustees of the Walters Art Gallery, 1947), p. 138 for explanation for plate XCIV, fig. 705. Lectionary of
the Gospels, Byzantine, 11th century, Greek text. Showing the descent into hades, with Christ grasping,
with his right hand, the right wrist of Adam, to lift him out of his grave.
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45. Edited by Albert Skira, The Great Centuries of Painting, Byzantine Painting, Historical and
Critical Study of Andre Grabar, (Geneva, Switzerland: 1953), p. 108, "The Descent into Limbo. Detail:
Christ. Mid-11th cent. Mosaic, Church of the Nea Moni Chios."
46. Weitzmann, Icons, 1980, pl. 47, p. 23.
47. J. A. Herbert, Illuminated Manuscripts, Burt Franklen Bibiographical Series XI, 1911, see pp. 166-7,
pl. XX, Exultet Roll. Italian, 12th century. British Museum, ADD. 30337. The date for the art work has
been assigned by the editors of the Palaographical Society as being the 12th century A.D., while Bertaux,
who says (p. 226) that it came from Monte, and dates back to the late 11th century A.D.
48. The Walters Art Gallery, Early Christian and Byzantine Art, p.140 for explanations of plate XCVII,
fig. 713. The Crucifixion and the Anastasis. Byzantine, 11th--12th centuries. See also: K. W. Clark,
Greek New Testament Manuscripts, pp. 180 f.
49. C.R. Morey, Christian Art, (London; New York; Toronto: Longmans, Green & Co., 1935), p. 31: The
Harrowing of Hell: Mosaic of about 1100 A.D., in Saint Mark's Venice; Another sources says this is a
12th cent. work, see: New International Illustrated Encyclopedia Of Art, vol. 14, pp. 2916-7.
50. Michael Batterberry, Art of the Middle Ages, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1961--
1964, & 1977; Fratelli Fabbri Ed. Milan, Italy), p. 76, fig. VII-14. The Descent of Christ into Limbo,
wall painting at the Church at Tavant, 12th century. In a 12th century wall painting at the Church at
Tavant, Christ, with his right hand, grips both wrists of Adam, while with his left, he thrusts a lance at
the demonic forces attempting to stop him from freeing souls out of limbo. In this case, Christ is also
assisted by the hand of God, which extends out of heaven to help battle, with a lance, the monstrous
demons too.
51. Osborne, The Oxford Companion, p.526, fig.159.
52. Russell, Lucifer, the Devil in the Middle Ages, p.150, the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York.
53. Alice Bank, Byzantine Art, Plates, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1978), pl. 182.
54. Gilbert Thurlow, Bible Myths & Mysteries, (Published by Octopus Books, 1974), p. 56, left.
55. Emile Male, Religious Art in France, pp.110-111, fig.100. "Descent into Limbo. Le Mans (Sarthe),
Cathedral of St.-Julien. Stained glass panel of nave window."
56. Christe, Art of the Christian World A.D. 200-1500, p. 172, fig. 132, Mosaic: Last Judgment, 12th c.,
Torcello Cathedral, Italy. See also p. 233, fig. 355. Book cover, silver gilt and cloisonne enamel: Descent
into Limbo, 12th c., S. Mark's Treasury, Venice.
57. Kurt Weitzmann, and others, The Place of Book Illumination in Byzantine Art, p. 35-6, fig. 30, Four
Passion scenes, top middle shows the descent or the Anastasis. Tbilisi (Georgian S.S.R.), Academy of
Sciences, cod. H. 1667, fol. 195r (after Machavariani). p. 35. Georgian book illumination were done in a
similar manner as Constantinopolitan models. Gospel book from Jruchi, passion scenes. See also foot
note 74, making reference to: H. Machavariani, Greorgian Manuscripts (Tbilisi, 1970), p. 41, & pl. 33.
58. Dalton, 1911, Byzantine Art and Archaeology, p. 240, fig. 149.
59. Dalton, Byzantine Art and Archaeology, p. 254, fig. 157, 12th cent., Gospel in the British Museum,
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(Harley 1810).
60. Russell, Lucifer, the Devil in the Middle Ages, pp. 145-6, top portion of a two part picture.
Illumination manuscript, English, A.D. 1150, the British Library. "The holy dead wait in hell for Christ's
approach; he breaks down the doors, and a great light shines into the darkness, accompanied by angelic
song as if at dawn." (p. 145).
61. Peter Lasko; Editors: Nikolaus Pevsner and Judy Nairn, The Pelican History of Art, (Australia, etc.:
Penguin Books, 1972), vol. 36, Ars Sacra: 800--1200, p. xix, plate 241. Christ has turned, and with his
left hand has grasped the right hand of Adam, the first in many to be resurrected out of the underworld.
1150. Alton Towers triptych, London, Victoria and Albert Museum.
62. Peter Lasko; Editors: Nikolaus Pevsner and Judy Nairn, The Pelican History of Art, (Australia, etc.:
Penguin Books, 1972), vol. 36, Ars Sacra: 800--1200, p. xxi, plate 285. Christ in Majesty. Below this
scene, to the right, Christ is resurrecting the dead, during his descent into hell. The clasp is made with left
hands, in this case. From the altar frontal from �lst, c. 1150--1160. Copenhagen, National-museet.
63. Franz Unterkircher, A Treasury of Illuminated Manuscripts, A selection of miniatures from
manuscripts in the Austrian National Library, (1st Edition in 1967, in Eng. Trans., from German:
Abendlandische Buchmalerei by J. Maxwell Brownjohn. (Great Britain under the title: European
Illumination Manuscripts), pp. 50-1, pl. 10, Liutold Gospels, written and illuminated at Mondsee
Monastery by the monk Liutold, 3rd quarter of the 12th century. Christ in limbo.
64. O.M. Dalton, Byzantine Art and Archaeology, p. 642, fig. 407, Descent into Hell, 12th century.
Monastery, Mount Sinai (Sinait 339). (Hautes Etudes: N. Kondaoff.); The Walters Art Gallery, Early
Christian And Byzantine Art, (Baltimore: Trustees of the Walter Art Gallery, 1947), p. 122 for
explanation for a portion of the 12 Feasts, Italo-Byzantine, 12--14th centuries, plate LXXX, fig. 612,
shows Christ grasping, with his right hand, the wrists of Adam, during the "Descent into Limbo."
65. Andreas Stylianou and Judith A. Stylianou, The Painted Churches of Cyprus, Treasures of Byzantine
Art, (Trigraph, West Africa House Hanger Lane, London for the A.G. Leventis Foundation, 1985), pp.
355-6, fig. 211. The Anastasis, 1183, "classicizing" style, tomb niche of the "Enkleistra," monastery of
St. Neophytus, near Paphos. Grasp on the left wrist, during the anastasis.
66. Timothy Verdon & John Henderson, Editors, Christianity And The Renaissance, Image and Religious
Imagination in the Quattrocento, (Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1990), pp. 12-13, fig.
2, a Tuscan painted cross, unknown artist, during the late 12th century A.D., Florence, Uffizi Gallery.
Photo Alinari/Art Resource, N.Y.
67. Male, Religious Art In France, pp. 119-121, fig. 108. Descent into Limbo. Miniature cycle of the Life
of Christ from St.-Martial of Limoges. New York, The Pierpont Morgan Library, ms. 44, fol. IIV. Late
12th cent. A.D.
68. Frederick Hartt, History of Italian, Renaissance Art, Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, (New York:
Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1994, 4th edition), p. 48, fig. 25. School of Florence. Cross. Late 12th century.
Panel, Uffizi Gallery.
69. Andreas and Judith A. Stylianou, The Painted Churches of Cyprus, pp. 354-5 & 357, fig. 212, the
Anastasis, 1196 A.D., "monastic style," nave of the "Enkleistra," monastery of St. Neophytus, near
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Paphos.
70. Propyaen Kunstgeschichte In Achtzehn Banben Das Mittelalter II Das Hohe Mittelalter Von Otto
Von Simson. MCMLXXII, 1972, Verlag Ullstein Gmbh, Frankfurt am Main-Berlin-Wien, Propylaen
Verlag. Propylaen Verlad Berlin, fig. 259b.
71. Weitzmann, The Place of Book Illumination in Byzantine Art, p. 32, & 34-5, fig. 28. Anatasis, Mont
Athos, Layra, Skevophylakion. Lectionary, fol. IV. See also fig. 29, Anastasis. London, British Museum,
cod. add. 7171, fol. 156v. Phocas Lectionary in the Treasury of the Athos monastery, Lavra, (fig. 28)
shows Christ dragging Adam out of the Lower World just as Heracles had dragged Cerberus out of
Hades. A Syriac Lectionary in the British Museum from around A.D. 1220. Fig. 29 copies a Byzantine
model with similar details.
72. William Henry Paine Hatch, Greek and Syrian Miniatures in Jerusalem, (Cambridge, Mass.: The
Medi., Ac., of America, 1931), pl. LXVIII, p. 124-5, "The Harrowing of Hell." "Syrian Orthodox of St.
Mark, Jerusalem. Codex 28, 1222 A.D., Fol. 133V."
73. Hartt, History of Italian, Renaissance Art, (4th ed., 1994), p. 58, color-plate 18. School of Pisa. Cross
No. 20. c. 1230. Parchment on panel, Pinacoteca, Pisa.
74. Ernst and Johanna Lehner, Devils, Demons, Death and Damnation, (New York: Dover Pub., Inc.,
Dover Pictorial Archive Series, 1971), list of illustrations xi, fig.7. "Jesus Christ breaking down the gates
of Purgatory. After a miniature in a French manuscript, thirteenth century."
75. Weitzmann, 1982, The Icon, p. 170, Greek painter working at Ohrid in the Church of the Virgin
Peribleptos, gallery of icons in the Church of St. Clement, Ohrid, Macedonia. 13th century icon showing
a right hand grasp on a left hand, during the harrowing of hell.
76. Kurt Weitzmann, etc., The Icon, (Published by Arnoldori Editore, 1982, and in New York: Alfred A.
Knopf., Inc.), p. 225.
77. Nigel Morgan, Gothic Manuscript (II) 1250-1285 , A survey of Manuscripts illuminated in the Britist
Isles, General Editor J.J. G. Alexander, (London: Harvey Miller, 1988), see fig. 400. "Descent into Hell"
Krvoklat Castle Lib., I.b.23,f.12 (cat. 184)".
78. Morgan, Gothic Manuscript (II) 1250-1285 , fig. 272, Descent into Hell, Velletri, Museo Capitolare,
Roll 155.
79. Dalton, Byzantine Art and Archaeology, p. 241, fig. 150, Monastery of Vatopedi, Mount Athos. Clasp
done with Christ's right hand on the right hand of the person being raised up.
80. Every, 1970, Christian Mythology, pp. 96-7, about A.D., 1305, at Kahrie Cami (the Church of St
Mary in Chora), Istanbul; Richard Krautheimer, Early Christian And Byzantine Architecture, (Baltimore,
Maryland: Penguin Books, 1965-7), p. 192, Constantinople, Kahrie Cami, parckkleston, c. 1303- c. 1320;
Gilbert Thurlow, Bible Myths & Mysteries; The Encyclopedia Of Visual Art, (London: Encyclopaedia
Britannica International, LTD.), vol. 3, gives the date as A.D. 1315-21. John Beckwith, The Art Of
Constantinople, An Introduction to Byzantine Art 330-1453, (New York: Phaidon Pub., Inc., 1961,
distributed by New York Graphic Society, Greenwich, Connecticut), p. 143, fig. 188.
81. Bank, Byzantine Art, pl. 278.
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82. The Encyclopedia Of Visual Art, vol. 10, p. 63.
83. Robert Charles Zaehner, Editor, The Concise Encyclopedia of Living Faiths, (New York: Hawthorn
Books Inc., 1959), p. 104, Plate II. Russian icon, Eastern Church, early 14th c., British Museum, London.
See also: Sheila D. Campbell, Editor, The Malcove Collection, (Toronto: University of Toronto Press,
1985), p. 258, "Painted Icons" 351 Icon, Anastasis, Gesso, Russian, late 16th century M82.131. Also see:
V.I. Antonova, Drevnerusskoe Iskusskoe v Sobranii Payla Korian (Mos.) 61, 123. It may be that a late
16th century work was based on the early 14th century work. See also: Bainton, The Horizon History of
Christianity, pp. 214-15; Jospeh Gantner, etc., Romanesque Art In France, pl. 135, p. 64; Huges, Heaven
and Hell in Western Art, pp. 188--91.
84. Hartt, History of Italian, Renaissance Art, 4th 1994, color-plate 2. Pietro Lorenzetti and assistants.
Lower Church of S. Francesco, Assisi. Frescoes.
85. Richard H. Randall Jr., with texts by Diana Buitron, & others, Christian Theuerkauff, Masterpieces
of Ivory From the Walters Art Gallery, (New York: Hudson Hills Press, with W. A. G. Baltimore, 1985),
pp. 210-11, & #290 a, b. Scenes of the Passion, the harrowing of hell. Spanish work, A.D. 1330.
Purchased from Leon Gruel, Paris 1923, Bib.: L. Randall, Games and the Passion in Puccelle's Hours of
Jeanne d' Evreux, Speculum, XLVII, no. 2, April 1972, fig. 6.
86. Clifton Harry, Editor, The Bible In Art, 20 Centuries of Famons Bible Paintings, (New York: Garden
City Pub.,1936, Covici, Friede, Inc.), "Jesus's Legendary visit to Hell". Simone Martini, Chapel of
Spaniards, Florence, 14th cent. See also: Bainton, Behold the Christ, p.171, fig. 195. "Release of the
spirits in prison". 14 cent.
87. Kurt Weitzmann, etc., Icons, 1980, p. 177, see also pages 151 & 228. Descent into Limbo, National
Museum, Ohrid; Bank, 1977, Byzantine Art, pl. 278, 14th cent.
88. Weitzmann, 1980, Icons, p. 82, pl. 123, 14th century work by Michael Damaskinos; see also pp. 151,
228, fig. 177; The Art of the Illuninated Manuscript, Robb, op. cit., pp. 168-9, fig. 107; Sebastian Hann,
by Viorica Guy Marica, Editura Dacia, Cluj 1972, XXVI, Christ stands on the crossed and fallen doors of
hell, behind him is the mandorla as though he had passed from one realm into the next. His right hand
has grasped the left wrist of a person (Adam?), while his left hand has grasped the right wrist of another
on the opposite side. A number of others souls and kings are there to witness this event. In another
source: Text by Stephen Wright & Otto A. Jager, Ethiopia Illuminated Manuscripts, (New York: The
New York Graphic Society by arrangement with Unesco, 1961), pl. XIX, Kebran Manuscript. During
Christ's descent, he stands on the crossed doors of hell, and the mandorla is behind him. With his right
hand, Christ grips the left hand of a person (Adam?). See also: Sheila D. Campbell, The Malcove
Collection, (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1985), p. 258, fig. 351. Christ stands on the broken &
crossed gaits of hell, & with the mandorla to his back, he grasps, with his right hand, the left wrist of a
person (Adam?). For additional sources showing the mandorla and different types of hand grips in both
the descent and the ascension, see: Huyghe, Art And Mankind, pp. 149-150, fig. 296; History of Art, p.
227 fig. 328; Banks, Byzantine Art; Weitzmann, 1982, The Icon, pp. 170, 225, & 321; Antoine Bon,
1972, Byzantium; Kartsonis, Anastasis, figs. 14a, & 17a; Rice, Lethaby, Medieval Art, p. 50, pl. 14. John
Pope-Hennessy, Italian Renaissance Sculpture, (London: Phaidon Press, LTD, 1958), fig. 48; Paul
Williamson, 1986, The Medieval Treasury, pp.116-17; W. F. Volbach, Early Christian Art, see top
portion of Ivory of the crucifixion, 11-12 cent., Narbonne, Treasure of the Cathedral of Saint-Just; John
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Beckwith, Ivory Carvings in Early Medieval England, (London, England: Harvey Miller & Medcalf
LTD, 1972), #33; Swarzenski, Monuments of Romanesque Art, 1954 & 67, pl. 66, fig. 151; Eine
Bayerische Malerschule Des XI. Und XII. Jahrhunderts, Von, E.F. Bange, 1923, Mit 186 Abbildungen
Auf 67 Tafeln. See: Taf. 60: 164, Munchen: Staatsbibl., Clm. 2939.
89. Text & Note by David Talbot Rice, Photos by Max Hirmer, The Art of Byzantium, (New York: Harry
N. Abrams, 1959), p.73, see XXXVII Miniature Mosaic, 1 of 12 feast depictions, 14th cent., Florence.
Opera del Duomo.
90. Goticka Nastenna Malba V Zemich Ceskych, I, 1300 - 1350, Nakladatelstvi Ceskoslovenske
Akademie Ved, Praba 1958, figs. 99, 119, & 208.
91. The Walters Art Gallery, Early Christian And Byzantine Art, p. 122 for explanation for plate
LXXIX, fig. 614.
92. Gothic Painting I, p.48, op. cit; Todd M. Compton cites a number of writers to show that the
handclasp was part of the descent drama. "The salvific handclasp is nearly the trade-mark of the
iconography of Christ's post-crucifixion descent in Hades." (P. Verdier, "Descent of Christ into Hell,"
New Catholic Encyclopedia, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967-79), vol. 4:788-93, esp. 791, figs. 2-6).
Some writers have noted that there are a number of different types of hand grips too, for in some works,
Christ grasps the wrist, while in others they are raised up with the "dextrarum iunctio". (Ibid., Verdier,
791, fig. 5, etc.) See: By Study and Also By Faith, (Salt Lake City and Provo, Utah: Foundation for
Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, and Deseret Book Company, 1990, two volumes, vol. 1, pp.
620-23, Chapter 24, by Compton. See also: Lilian M.C. Randall, etc., Medieval and Renaissance
Manuscripts in the Walters Art Gallery, vol. I, France, 875-1420, (Baltimore & London: The Johns
Hopkins Un. Press, with the Walters Art Gallery, 1989), see pp.309-10, fig., 65, Cat. 32, f.25; fig. 59,
Cat. 29, f. 33. Showing the descent in which Christ clasp the hand of a naked soul who is being delivered
out of the jaws of hell. Others souls greet Christ with up-lifted hands.
93. Rene Huyghe, General Editor, Art and Mankind, Larousse Encyclopedia of Bysantine and Medieval
Art, (New York: Prometheus Press, 1958), pp. 149--150, fig. 296. Late Byzantine. Central part of the
Descent into Limbo. Fresco in the apse of the Parecclesion of Kariyeh Djami, Constantinople. 14th
century
94. Sarel Eimerl, & the Editors of Time-Life Books, The World of Giotto c. 1267 - 1337, (New York:
Time-Life Books, 1967), art work before chapter VIII, Giovanni del Biondo: Altarpiece of the Baptist, &
the descent, etc.
95. Konstantin Kalokris, Photos by Farrell Grehan, The Byzantine Wall Paintings of Crete, (New York:
Red Dust, 1959), BW 46. "Our Lady, Lambiotis, Late 14th c. Resurrection; Descent into Hell. Cretan
style.
96. Bernards S. Myers, Editor, and others, Encyclopedia of Painting, Painters and Painting of the World
from Prehistoric Times to the Present Day, (New York: Crown Pub., Inc., 1963), pp. 41-2, Christ in
Limbo. Detroit Institute of Arts, by Bles, Herri Met de, (1480?- after 1550), Flemish Painter, also known
as Blesius. Civetta. Henrice da Dinant.
97. John Pope-Hennessy, Fra Angelico, (London: Phaidon Press, 1952), pp. 184-5, pl. XXIV, # 31.
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98. William Hood, Fra Angelico at San Marco, (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1993),
pp. 141-2, pl. 134. Andrea di Bonaiuto. Passion Scenes. Florence, Santa Maria Novella, Spanish Chapel,
north wall. See also pp. 188-9, pl. 183; pp. 245-6, pl.238. Fra Angelico assistant. Descent into Limbo.
Florence, San Marco, Cell 31. [Photo: Florence, Soprintendenza per i Beni Artisici e Storici]. See also:
John Pope-Hennessy, Fra Angelico, (New York: Cornell University Press, 1974; Ithaca, New York:
1952, CR 1974 by Phaidon Press LTD.), p. 209, & fig. 33.
99. Bank, Byzantine Art, (Leningrad, Russia: Aurora Art Pub., 1977), pl. 316. 15th century.
100. Fredk. WM. Hackwood, F.R.S.L., Christ Lore, Being the legends traditions myths symbols customs
& superstitions of the Christian Church, (London: Elliot Stock, 1902, republished in Detroit: Gale
Research Co., Book Tower, 1969), p. 248, from a Book of Hours, 15th century.
101. Geoffrey Barraclough, etc., The Christian World, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1981), pp. 8-9, The
Harrowing of Hell, 15th century A.D., alabaster made in Nottingham.
102. Temple, Icons, And The Mystical Origins of Christianity, 135, fig. 32. Descent into Hell. Russian
icon, 15th century. Rivate collection, London. See also pp. 136-7.
103. Das Jenseits im Mittelalter, Himmel H�lle Fegefeuer, (Schweizerisches Landesmuseum, Zurich,
Wilhelm Fink Verlag, Munchen, 1994), p. 354, kat. 142. Hades-Fahrt Christi. St. Laurenz, Passion altar,
Vorholle, 1425-30 A.D.
104. Randall, Masterpiece of Ivory, p. 187, fig. 46. "The Harrowing of Hell, from the Biblia Pauperum
woodcut. Flemish or German 1430 or later.
105. Richard H. Randall Jr., Masterpieces of Ivory, From the Walters Art Gallery, fig. 45, p. 186, cat. #
359.
106. Michael Batterberry, Art of the Early Renaissance, (Milan, Italy: Fratelli Fabbri, 1961-64, & 1968),
pp. 120-21, pl. 130.
107. Chandler Rathfon Post, A History Of Spanish Painting, vol. 5, pp. 173-180, figs., 46-7, (The
Hispano-Flemish Style in Andalusia); Michael Batterberry, Art of the Early Renaissance, (Milan, Italy:
Fratelli Fabbri, 1961-64, &1968), pl.130, pp.120-21; Sidney Painter, A History of the Middle Ages,
284-1500, (Alfred A. Knopf, 1953), p.430; Robert Fossier, Editor, and Janet Sondheimer, Translator, The
Middle Ages, The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Middle Ages, I, 350-950, (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1989), p.435.
108. De Noord-Nederlandsche Schilderkunst Door G.J. Hoogewerff, ' S-Gravenhage Martinus Nijhoff,
1936, pp.466-8, Afb. 247. Christus in het Voorgeborghe van de Hel. Miniatuur in een Getijdenboek. Br.
Mus. te Londen. 15th century A.D.
109. Hoogewerff, 1937, p.335, Afb. 162. Christus verlost de Aartsvaders. Min. in een getijdenboek van
het Museum Plantijn-Moretus, Antwerpen.
110. Hoofeweff, 1947, p. 39, Afb. Noord-Nederlandsch Meester. Eind 15de eeuw. Afdaling van Christus
in het Voorgeborchte van de Hel. Particuliere verzameling.
111. Weitzmann, The Icon, 1982, p. 321, Christ in limbo. Deesis (Christ between the Virgin and St. John
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the Forerunner with 12 Feasts), Nicholas Ritzos, son of Andreas. Herakloin, Crete, end of the 15th cent.
A.D., Museum of the Ancient Serbian Church, Sarajevo; Icon, p. 283, The Harrowing of Hell, late 15th
c. A. Morozov Collection, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, see also p. 282 for another depiction.
112. Heinz Skrobucha, Icons in Czechoslovakia, (London; New York: Hamlyn, 1971, Artia), #4, The
Resurrection, Descent into Hell. Russoan, beginning of the 16th century. National Gallery, Prague;
acquired from a private collection in Prague. Inv. No. DO-2725. Among the Icons in Czechoslovakia,
16th century, Christ grasps, with his hands the wrists of both Adam and Eve to raise them up out of their
graves.
113. Post, A History Of Spanish Painting, vol. X, pp.95-7, fig. 27.
114. Sheila D. Campbell, Editor, The Malcove Collection, (Toronto: University of Toronto, Press, 1985),
pp. 216-17, #306. Italo-Byzantine, 16th c., M82.327, The descent. Other crosses of this kind date back to
the mid-16th cent., Athens and Berlin (Volbach cat. 287), p. 115, 793, s. 109), and # 307.
115. Himmel H�lle Fegefeuer, Das Jenseits im Mittelalter, 1994, Schweizerisches Landesmuseum,
Zurich, Wilhelm Fink Verlag, Munchen, on p.314, kat. 115, Abb. 130; Albrecht Durer, Hollenfahrt.
Kupferstich, 1512. Basel, Offentliche Kunstsamming; see also: Marcelle Auclair, & others, Christ's
Image, (New York: Tudor Pub., Co.), p. 129.
116. Post, A History of Spanish Painting, vol. IX, Part I, pp.526-7, fig. 198.
117. Himmel H�lle Fegefeuer, Das Jenseits im Mittelalter, 1994, op. cit., p. 365, Abb. 133.
118. Hoogewerff, 1937, p.376, Afb. 181. Corn. Buys. Christus verlost de Aartsvaders. Verzameling
Quittner, Weenen.
119. J.E. Gillet, Tres pasos de la [Passion] y una Egloga de la Resurreccion, Publications of the Modern
Language Association of America, XLVII, 1932, pp. 949 ff. See also Miss King's article in the Art
Bulletin, XVI (1934), 298; A History Of Spanish Painting, by Chandler Rathfon Post, Vol. VI, Part II,
p.394, fig. 164, & pp.392, 412, 414-15, fig. 174, & pp. 448-9, fig. 190, in this one, an interesting hand
clasp is also seen, for it follows the same types of hand grips that are often seen in depictions of the
descent. Christ's left hand is raised up above his head, while his right hand is down so that a old man,
(perhaps Adam), can clasp Christ's right hand. The old man right hand thumb clasps in the middle of
Christ's right hand, almost as if he is feeling the nail mark wounds left by the nail from the cross. For
after all, Christ was wounded for our salvation, (Isa. 53). The old man's left arm and hand are held in
front of his own mid section with his palm up and fingers curled up. There are different types of hand
grips in the different art works on the descent. To see the same type of wound clasping grip similar to the
one mentioned here see: Early Christian Art, op. cit., fig. 83; Lowrie, Art in the Early Church, pl.100; &
Gothic Painting I, p. 48. Other depictions of Christ presenting the redeemed to his Mother is seen in A
History Of Spanish Painting, Post, vol. XI, pp.172-3, fig. 64; Vol. X, pp.122-3, fig. 40. A number of
works present this traditions in art until about the 17th century A.D. And even though the visit of Christ
and the redeemed to the Virgin Mary is not found in the scriptures, the traditions seems to have been
based on Matthew 27:52-3. Traditions say that the virgin Mary retired to her chamber to wait for her
son's resurrection. She prayed earnestly saying: "Thou didst promise, O my most dear son, that thou
wouldst rise again on the third day. Before yesterday was the day of darkness and bitterness; and, behold,
this is the third day. Return then to me, thy mother. O my son, tarry not, but come!" As she prayed a host
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of angels surrounded her, and waved palms, and sang a Easter hymn: "Regina Coeli Laetare, Alleluia!"
Soon after this, Christ entered the chamber, bearing the standard of the cross, and he was followed by the
patriarchs and prophets whom Christ had released from Hades. They all knelt before Mary, and thanked
her, because their deliverance had come through her. She desired to hear the voice of her son, and He
raised his hand in benediction, saying, "I salute thee, O my mother!" And she embraced him exclaiming,
"Is it thou indeed, my most dear son?" Jesus then presented his wounds, and bade her be comforted since
He had triumphed over death and hell. Mary knelt and thanked him that she had been his mother, they
talked a little and then Christ left to show himself to Mary Magdalene. (Clara Erskine Clement, A
Handbook of Legendary And Mythological Art, (Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., The
Riverside Press Cambridge, 1871 & 1881), pp. 197-8, see also pp. 199-209, on the death and assumption
of the Virgin Mary).
Traditions, and art works show how Christ presented his wounds to Mary so that she could recognize
him. Earlier, as noted in a number of art works depicting the descent from the cross, while Christ's dead
body was being taken down, Mary clasped the nail mark wounds with her hands. One depictions shows
the clasp being accomplished with the aid of an angel. Mary's right hand thumb rest on wound in the
middle of Christ's right hand. Another work shows the moment before the clasp, for Mary's right hand
pointer finger is about to touch the nail mark wound in middle of Christ's right hand, while her thumb
seems to be about to feel the other side. Another shows her clasping Christ's right hand with her right,
and she bends forward as though to take a closer look at the wound. And so when Christ appeared along
with the host of other saints of old, she embraced him and wanted to make sure that it was her son, and
upon seeing and feeling Christ's wounds, she knew that it was her son. Eventually, Christ showed her the
mysteries and rites of passage by which she would be able to also ascend into heaven too. This may be
why later Christian traditions and art works show different aspects & symbols of the mysteries when they
show the risen Lord's embrace with Mary, and when they show Christ displaying his wounds by making
different gestures with his arms. But also, in numberous depictions of the death, assumption into heaven,
the coronation, and glorification of Mary in heaven all seem to suggest that she had been shown this
would happen when Christ had appeared to her. For numerous works mention or depict the assumption
and coronation of Mary as a rite of passage into heaven, she is anointed, clothed in royal garments and
robes, crowned, ascends to heaven to grasp the hand of her Son who waits to greet her, after which she is
enthroned, glorified and deified. (See: Hart, Art, vol. 1, p. 327, fig. 410, Benedetto Antelami (c. 1150-
1230 A.D.), Descent from the Cross, Relief, 1178, Cathedral of Parma, Italy; Franz Unterkircher, A
Treasury of Illuminated Manuscripts, pl. II, pp. 54-5, & 58, lower portion, Antiphonary of St. Peter's
Salzburg, c. 1160, p. 630; W.G. Thomson, A History of Tapestry, From the Earliest Times until the
Present Day, 3rd Ed., with revisions edited by F.P. & E.S. Thomson, EP Pub. Lim. First ed. 1906, this
ed., 1973, see p. 237, this version of the descent from the cross is after Salviati. Florence; Great Centers
of Art, Prague, Allantleld and Schram Montclair, Pub. by George Prior, 1970, Edition Leipzig London, p.
246, fig. 173, the risen Lord's embrace with Mary, from the Passional of Abbess Kunhuta. Prague.
1314-1321, see also p. 81, from a collection of mystic tracts by Dominican Friar Kolda of Koldice,
written for Kunhuta, abbess at Benedictine Convent at St. George's in Prague Castle. State Library of
Czech Socialist Republic XIV A 17, fol. 16V; See also: The Churches and Abbeys of Ireland, by Brian
De Breffny and George Mott, Pub. by W. W. Norton, & Co., N.Y., CR 1976 Thames and Hudson LTD.,
Lon., p. 87, tomb-niche at Strade, Co. Mayo. About the 13th-14th centuries A.D. In the north wall of the
Dominican friary a tomb has an engraving of 4 people on it. One is of Christ with both hands raised up as
he displays his wounds. The other three are said to be the three magi, however, they can't be satisfactorily
identified as such. A closer quess might be based on the fact that this a tomb carving, & the fact that
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Christ is displaying his wounds, suggest that these may be some of the Old Testament time kings who
were raised up by Christ during the ascension up out of limbo or hades. They also have positioned their
arms in ways which might remind us of the different sacramental gestures, and two of them could be
holding in their hands sacramental items. Also one has his royal robe on the right shoulder, while another
has his on his left shoulder.
See also: Mary Portrayed, by Vincent Cronin, Pub. by Darton, Longman & Todd, 1968, London, pp.3,
16-17, fig.6, p.20-1, fig.8, pp.24-5, fig. 10, p.28, fig. 13, pp.31-2, 34-5, 38, figs. 20-1, pp.44, 53-5, fig.28,
pp.88-9, fig. 47, pp.92-4, 99, 116-7, fig. 65, pp.128-9, fig.83, & p.156; History of Art, H. W. Janson, Pub.
by Harry N. Abrams, Inc., N.Y., first printing Oct., 1962, 19th printing Dec. 1973, pp.178, fig. 289,
p.252, fig. 402, p. 262, figs. 414-15, p.268, figs. 426-7, pp. 270-1, fig.431, fig. 463, pp.324-5, fig. 495-6,
& p.380, fig.562; Fra Angelico, by John Pope-Hennessy, Pub., by Phaidon Press, 1952, p. 173, fig. X,
p.200, figs. XXXIX & XL., p.203, fig. XLVII; Fra Filippo Lippi, by Jeffery Ruda, Pub. by Harry N.
Abrams, 1993, Phaidon Press, pp.56-7, pl.22, p.66, pl.28, pp.84, 87, pl.44, pp.90-1, pl.47, pp.136-153,
pls.76-83, pp.297-9, pls.169 & 171, p.368, pl.200, etc.; Western Civilizations, Burns, op. cit., Vol.1, page
in between pp. 224-5, Sienese Madonna and Child, Byzantine School, 13th century A.D. (National
Gallery; Mary crowned, 14th c., ivory from Louvre, Paris. Mary as the "Queen of Heaven"; Civilisation
(A Personal View), by Kenneth Clark, 1969, Harper & Row, Pub., N.Y., & Evanston, vii, #9 in color &
47 in black and white, pp.68-71; Mary being crowned queen of heaven during heavenly coronation
ceremony. See: Textiles in Daily Life in the Middle Ages, by Rebecca Martin, Pub. The Cleveland Muse.
of Art, Cleveland Ohio, 1985, pp.20-1, fig. 7, The Coronation of the Virgin. Embroidery. Italy, Florence,
1st half of the 15th c. CMA 53. 129 (cat. no. 5), And fig.8, Lorenzo Monaco, Italian, 1370/71-1425.
Panel, 1414. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence; Medieval Europe (A Short History), Hollister, 1968, pp.
334-336; Another Altarpiece, from the Dominican convent of San Vincenzo di Annalena, The Virgin and
Child enthroned. The coronation. "CA. 1430-1440"; Fra Angelico, (Biographical and Critical Study) by
Giulio Carlo Argan, Pub. The World Pub., Co., p.61-2, The Coronation, Louvre, Paris. ENTHRONED,
1437, CONVENT OF SAN MARCO, FLORENCE; Argan, ibid., pp.90-1. A number of art works during
13-17th centuries show Mary crowned, the dates to some of these are 1249, 1320-30, 1430s, & 1616
A.D., while others shows her as if she is one of the members of the Godhead, as she is under going the
coronation ceremony in heaven. One dates back to 1453-4, another to 1516 A.D. (Art, by Frederick
Hartt, Vol. II, Pub. by Harry N. Abrams, N.Y., 1976, pl.21, Renaissance. Enguerrand Quarton.
Coronation of the Virgin. Panel Painting, Musee de l'Hospice, Villeneuve-les-Avigon, France; Art
Treasures in Germany, Monuments, Masterpieces, Commissions of Collections, Gen. Eds. Bernard S.
Myers, N.Y., Terwin Copplestone, Lon., Pub. by Hamlyn Pub. Group Lim., 1970, p. 55, fig.73, pp.56-7,
fig.76, p.69, fig.96, p.70, fig.99, p.89, fig.126, & p.94, fig.135; Civilisation, Clark, pp.156-7, #22,
Holbein, Madonna of Bugomaster Meyer. Mary crowned. Another depiction, 1st half of the 16th c.
shows Mary & Christ enthroned; Treasures From The Kremlin, (An Exhibition from the State of
Museums of the Moscow Kremlin at the Metropolitan Musesum of Art), N.Y., May 19-Sept.1979, and
Grand Palais, Paris, Oct. 12, 1979 & Jan. 7, 1980, Pub. by Metro. Mus., of Art, N.Y., Distrib. by Harry
N. Abrams, Inc., p.32, pl.5, & p.140. In 1560s, from the chapel of the Assembly of the Virgin in the
Cathedral of the Annunciation, Moscow Russia. The "Virgin and Child in the "circles" of glory", the
lower portion shows groups of people, some of which depict "monks praising the Virgin." Treasures
From The Kremlin, op. cit., pp.33-36, & 140, #7. The Synaxis, or Assembly, of the Virgin. Inv. no. 5062,
Provenance: Side chapel of the Assembly of the Virgin in the Cathedral of the Annunciation, Moscow
Kremlin, Moscow School, 1560s. Crowned and enthroned along side Christ. Heaven: A History, pp.136,
161, pl.30, dated 1575 A.D., Antonino Polti, O.P., Della felicita suprema del cielo (Perugia: Rastelli,
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1575). Another depicts "the Virgin Enthroned with the Child" A.D. 1589; Treasures From The Kremlin,
op. cit., pp.58 & 157, pl.22, Gold reliquary diptych, front, inside, reverse. A gift from Czar Fedor
Ivanovich to Czaritsa Irina. Accessioned from the Monastery of the Ascension, Moscow Kremlin, in
1918 (Inv. no. 15400). Moscow, Kremlin workshop, 1589 A.D.
During the 19th century in England and Rome, the Virgin Mary was still believed to have been deified,
and raised up to divine rank even to the point were she was still being worshipped as a partaker of the
Godhead. See: The 2 Babylons, by Rev. Alexander Hislop, 1916, & 1959 ed., Pub. in Amer. by Loizeaux
Brothers, Inc., Neptune, N.J., pp.83 & 265-7.
See also: A History by Colleen McDannell & Bernhard Lang, Yale Un. 1988 pp. 83-4, etc., & Art, by
Frederick Hartt, Vol.2, Pub. Harry N. Abrams, NY 1976 see pl.21, the Virgin Mary Crowned, dated
1453-54. A.D.; Roman & Palaeo-Christian Painting, by Gerald Gassiot-Talabot, Trans. by Anthony
Rhodes, Pub. Funk & Wagnalls, N.Y., pp.92-3, depicting Saints with crowns; The Rothschild Canticles,
by Jeffrey F. Hamburger, fig. 106, 126-7; Byzantine Painting, by Andre Grabar, 1st Ed. 1953, this Ed.
1979, pp.54-5, depicting Martyrs with crowns, 6th cent. A.D. Russian Illuminated Manuscripts, by Olga
Popova, Trans., by Kathleen Cook, & others, 1984, Aurora Art Pub., Len. p.20, dated about the 15th
cent. AD.
For additional depictions of the risen Lord displaying his wounds, while making different types of
gestures, etc., see: The Early Italian Schools (Before 1400), (National Gallery Catalogues) by Martin
Davies, revised by Dillian Gordan, Pub. & CR by the National Gallery 1988 in London, see pl. 52,
Master of the Blessed Clare, Vision of the Blessed Clare of Rimini (No. 6503); The French Primitives
And Their Forms (From their Origin to the End of the 15th Century), by Albert C. Barnes & Violette De
Mazia, Pub. by Barnes Foundation Press, Merion, PA., USA, 1931, p. 271; Gothic and Renaissance Art
in Nuremberg 1300-1550 by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, N.Y., & Germanisches Nationalmuseum,
Nuremberg, CR 1986 Philippe de Montebello, Director, see p. 151, fig. 28, Master of the Bamberg
Altarpiece, showing Christ as the man of sorrows, has his left hand raised, while his right arm is down
and is extended out, he is being embraced by the Virgin Mary. See also: Italian Renaissance Sculpture,
by John Pope-Hennessy, Pub. by Phaidon Press in London, 1958, fig. 81, Verrocchio: Christ displays his
wounds, see also detail in fig. 57, San Michele, Florence. See also: Book Illumination In The Middle
Ages, by Otto Pacht, pp. 34-5, figs. 32-33; Carolingian Art (A study of early Medieval painting and
sculpture in Western Europe), by Roger Hinks, Pub. Ann Arbor Paperbacks 1962, The Un. of Michigan
Press, p. 167, fig. a & b. XVI Ivory panels with liturgical scenes, for a 10th century depiction of the
celebration of the mass which depicts a number of people around the altar making different gestures,
some of which are the same, if not similar to the gestures of Christ when he as he displayed his wounds.
The sign of the cross was also said to be a "sacramental gesture" plus a rites of passage gesture which
traditions say Adam use to pass by the angel who guarded to gaits to paradise, after He and a host of
others had been rescued by Christ out of hell. Christ is said to have showed them these rites of passage
hand clasp, and the sign of the cross for this very reason. (See: Society And The Holy In Late Antiquity,
by Peter Brown, Pub. by Un. of Calif., Press, Berkeley, & L.A., 1982, p. 258, & note 30, see G. Millet,
Les Iconoclastes et la Croix. A propos d'unc inscription de Cappadoce. Bulletin de correspondance
hellenique XXXIV (1910): 96-109. See also: The Lost Books of the Bible and the Forgotten Books of
Eden, op. cit., pp. 86-88; In the "Discourses of the Apostles" Jesus says that he went down and spoke
with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and the other old times fathers and declared to them how that they might
be raised up by his right hand. Hinting here to the hand clasps so often seen in the art works. He said
"with my right hand I gave them the baptism of life and release and forgiveness of all evil, even as I do to
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you here and to all who believe on me from this time on." See: Mormonism and Early Christianity,
Nibley, op. cit., note 119; Schmidt, Gesprache Jesu, 315; cf. 317-18; John 3:22-26; 4:1).
During other post-resurrection appearances, such as to some of the apostles, Christ had his followers feel
the nail mark wounds, and other wounds too, as he had with his Mother. Christ went on to show them the
mysteries or ordinances with it's rites of passage hand grips that were types of the wounds he had
received from the nails while on the cross, and plus other gestures which were types of his suffering, for
after Christ had opened the scriptures and helped them to understand what had happened. And after He
had departed from them, they worshiped him and returned to Jerusalem and "were continually in the
temple, praising and blessing God" (Luke 24:13-53; Acts 1:3). Thomas became a witness of the risen
Lord and touched Christ's wounds too (John 20:24-31). Later artist have depicted Thomas' hand being
grasped by Christ, while he feels the wound in Christ's side. See: German Painting, XIV--XVI Centuries,
by Alfred Stange, Pub. by The Hyperion Press, N.Y., Paris & Lon., p. 92, Master Of the St.
Bartholomew's Altar, St. Thomas Altar. Central Panel. 1501, Cologne, Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, with
his right hand, Christ grasps the right wrist of Thomas and helps him feel the wound in his chest area. In
some ways these different types of hand and wrist grips were based on the nail mark wounds, plus other
wounds which Christ received when he was crucified. Another work shows Christ, with his right hand,
grasping the right wrist of Thomas as he feels the wound mark in Christ's side (Christ Lore, Hackwood,
op. cit., p. 172).
Another post-resurrection appearances say that while some of the disciples were fishing at the sea of
Tiberias, Jesus appeared on the shore and told them to cast their net in a certain area, and when they
started to bring in the net it was full of fish, and it was then that they knew that it was the risen Lord.
Peter jumped in the water naked and swam towards Christ (John 21:1-14). For in the art works, Christ
raise up Peter from the water by taking a hold of his hand, this must have reminded the Christians of the
hand clasps which were done in their mysteries and sacraments. Ephrem, of the Syrian Church, was born
at Nisibis in Mesopotamia about 306 A.D., and died about 378 A.D. In a work entitled: The Pearl, Or,
Seven Rhythms On The Faith, Ephrem Syrus (Ephraim Syrus) presented a number of types for baptism,
the mysteries and he may have hinted to the descent of Christ. The sea was a type of baptism and tomb
which divers came up from. Divers were also a type of those who went through the mysteries, for they
put on Christ, were anointed with oil, took off garments to be clothed in raiments of glory and light, and
were crowned. "The naked men in a type saw thy rising again by the seashore; and by the side of the lake
the Apostles, truly naked, saw the rising again of the Son of thy Creator.... The diver arose from the sea
and put on his garments; and from the lake also Simon Peter came swimming, and put on his garments;
each was clad, as with clothes, with love for both of you." (The World's Orators, Editor in Chief, Guy
Carleton Lee, Ph.D., University Edition, G.P. Putnam's Sons, N.Y., & London, The Knickerbocker Press,
1900, pp. 193-214; The Nicene And Post-Nicene Fathers, Vol. XIII, pp. 293-301). In the New
International Illustrated Encyclopedia Of Art, (General Editorial Consultant, Sir John Rothenstein,
C.B.E., Ph.D., LL.D., Greystone Press, N.Y., MCMLXVII, etc.), in Vol. 2, pp. 402-3, it shows the panel
altar of Saint Peter, church of Santa Maria in Tarrasa, near Barcelona, Spain. The art work was by Luis
Borassa, early 15th century A.D. Peter is half way in & out of the water as Christ clasps, with his left
hand, the right hand of Peter to raise him up. This, may have reminded the Christians of similar
depictions of the descent, and may have been considered a type for baptism.
The 4th century Christian Father S. Cyril of Jerusalem talked about the ritualistic types of Christ's
suffering which the Christians passed through while going through the Christian mysteries: "...we did not
really die, we were not really buried, we were not really crucified and raised again; but our imitation was
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but in a figure, while our salvation is in reality. Christ was actually crucified, and actually buried, and
truly rose again; and all these things have been vouchsafed to us, that we, by imitation communicating in
His sufferings, might gain salvation in reality.... Christ received the nails in His undefiled hand and feet,
and endured anguish; while to me without suffering or toll, by fellowship of His pain He vouchsafes
salvation." (Library of Fathers, Vol. II, pp. 260-66, Lec. XIX-XX, Cyril on the Mysteries, Pub. by John
Henry Parker, Oxford, London, MDCCCXXXIX). An early Christian apocryphal work of John says that
the Lord secretly showed John the torment, the piercing, the blood, and the wounding of the logos, "then
you shall know the Lord; and thirdly the man, and what he has suffered..." [thus] the Lord had performed
everything as a symbol and a dispensation for the conversion and salvation of man." (The Other Bible,
pp. 419-21, Revelation of the Mystery of the Cross, from Christian Apocrypha, The Acts of John, Ed. by
Willis Barnstone, CR 1984, Pub. by Harper & Row, San Francisco, Calif.) See also: La Resurrection du
Christ, dans L'Art Chretien Du IIe Au AIIe Siecle, Quarante - Huit Planches Hors - Texte, by Jeanne
Villette, published in Paris, by Henri Laurens, Editeur, 1957, pl. XLII, Christ's descent into limbo,
showing the clasp made with right hands with the thumb resting on the middle of the hand as though the
redeemed was feeling the nail mark in Christ's hand, and as though Christ was showing the wounds
which had brought about salvation. These different clasps were rites of passage hand grips which were
often seen in the depictions that show different ones passing in and out of the different realms of
existences. See also ibid., plates XLIV-XLVIII; Art In The Early Church, Lowrie, op. cit., p. 164
mentions a work that depicts "Christ's ascent from Hades", pl. 100-a, shows same depiction of Christ's
descent into limbo as Villette shows, see also pp. 184-7; La Resurrection Du Christ, Dans L'Art Chretien
Du IIe Au VIIe Siecle, by Jeanne Villette, Pub. by Henri Laurens, Editeur, Paris, 1957, pl. XLII, Decente
aux Enfers. Colonne du Ciborium de Saint-Marc a Venise (cl. Osvaldo Bohm); Early Christian Art,
Volbach, op. cit., figs. 83, & 93, etc; Monuments of Romanesque Art, Swarzenski, op. cit., pl. 15, fig. 35,
& pl. 66, fig. 151; Art of The Illuminated Manuscript, by David M. Robb, 1973, A.S. Barnes & Co.,
Cranbury, N.J., pp. 200-1, fig. 135; Classical Inspiration In Medieval Art, Oakeshott, op. cit., pl. 80; Art
of the Christian World A.D. 200-1500, Christe, etc., op. cit., p. 60, fig. 68, p. 95, fig. 195, p. 365, fig.
504, & p. 372, fig. 542.
Irenaeus, [A.D. 120-202], says that after Christ had descended to the place of the dead in the lower parts
of the earth to preach the gospel there, Christ then afterwards rose up "in the flesh, so that He even
shewed the print of the nails to His disciples, He thus ascended to the Father". (Monumental Christianity,
Lundy, 1882, op. cit., pp. 264-5, note 1 Lib. v. c. 31, iii c. 20, of Har. Also, Harvey's Creeds, Vol. I. pp.
333-4). Leo the Great saw in the mysteries a number of types of Christ, for their own ascension into
heaven was patterned after Christ's ascension. Citing the apostle Peter, Leo says that Christ suffered for
us, leaving you an example that ye should follow His steps." Further on he mentioned how Christ had
appeared to his Apostles and opened the secrets of the Holy Scriptures and showed them his wounds. He
also suggested that in their mysteries, there were imitations or types of Christ's suffering, resurrection
and ascension, for "the Lord's Resurrection and Ascension did not pass by in uneventful leisture, by great
mysteries (Sacramenta--mysteria) were ratified in them, deep truths revealed." (See: The Nicene and
Post-Nicene Fathers, Vol. XII, pp. 163-69, & 176, 179. 182-3, 188, & 190, Leo the Great). In a
depictions of the ascension of Mary into heaven, Christ, with his right hand, shakes the right hand of
Mary (Deutsche Malerei, Des Funfzehnten Jahrhunderts, Die Malerei Der Spatgotik, by Werner R.
Deusch, Pub. by Kurt Wolff Verlag, 1936, Berlin, pl. 81, Johann Koerbecke, Himmelfahrt Mariae. 1457
Lugano, Sammlung Baron Thyssen-Bornemisza). Another shows Mary clasping Christ left hand during
her ascension. (See: Romanian Folk Painting on Glass, by Juliana and Dumitru Dancu, 1979, see 123).
These types of hand and wrist grips were ritualistic symbols for how the souls was to be raised up from
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the grave, limbo, hades, etc., & during the ascension into paradise and heaven. Thus, there also seems to
be possible connections between these different types of hand and wrist grips and seem to center on
Christ wounds, and nail marks in his hands, and the symbols found in the middle of later Christian
gloves, the "monial on the glove". Plus, some art works, stone monuments, etc., show a number of later
Christians with gloves on in the act of grasping hands in the same types of ways as in works on the
descent, etc. Grave carvings and monuments also show these symbols in the gloves, and rings, plus
numerous tomb stones depict hand grips, plus angels at curtains or veils might suggest possible
connections with earlier to later symbols of the descent and resurrection which focus on the nail mark
wounds of Christ, and rites of passage hand grips and wrist grasps. (See: Macklin's Monumental Brasses,
(Including a bibliography and a list of figure brasses remaining in churches in the United Kingdom),
re-written by John Page-Phillips, first pub. in 1969, see 2nd edition 1972, London, George Allen And
Unwin LTD., pp. 50 & 53, William Ermyn, rector, 1401, Castle Ashby, Northants; Skulptur Und
Grabmal Des Spatmittelalters In Rom Und Italien, Akten Des Kongresses, Scultura E Monumento
Sepolcrale Del Tardo Medioevo A Roma E In Italia (Rom, 4--6. Juli 1985), Herausgegeben von Jorg
Garms Und Angiola Maria Romanini, Verlag Der Osterreichischen Akademie Der Wissenschaften, Wien
1990, fig. 14 shows an angel holding a curtain (the veil?) with the right hand raised up, while the left
hand rest on the middle of the chest area. See also Figures 14, 15, Abbs. 5, 15, 27, 32, p. 265, fig. 3, Figs.
26-27, 29, p. 272, fig. 33, Abb. 12-13, p. 393, abbs. 1-2, Abb. 3 of Mailand. S. Gottando, Grabmal des
Azzo Viseonti, Liegefigur, show a hand clasp. See also Abbs 9-10, Abb 4, fig. 5; See also: The Tomb
And The Tiara, (Curial Tomb Sculpture in Rome and Avignon in the Later Middle Ages), by Julian
Gardner, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1992, figs. 18-19, 25-6, 66, 74-5, 81-2, 108, 111-12, 125-7, 144, 204,
220, & 224-7; The Picture Book of Brasses in Gilt, by Henry Trivick, 1971, 5 Royal Opera Arcade Pall
Mall London SW I, John Baker, p. 17, u, soul on garment, 169, 172, 198-99; The Last Judgment in
Sixteenth Century Northern Europe, by Craig Harbison, Garland Pub. Inc., N.Y., & London, 1976, p.
316, fig. 8 of Martin Schaffner, The Blessed, fragment of a Last Judgment, (Pfullendorf Altar), panel, c.
1500, Freiburg, Diozesanmuseum, (inv. no. Mla/D), the glove symbol is seen on a religious leader who is
clasping the wrist of a naked soul about to enter into paradise. See also: Werner R. Deusch Deutsche
Malerei Des Dreizehnten Und Vierzehnten Jahrhunderts, Die Fruhzeit der Tafelmalerei, Genius Verlag,
Berlin, 1940, see 57 Nachfolger Des Theodorich Von Prag um 1375, two religious leaders with gloves
on, as they meet, one is one his knees, the other standing has grasped, with his right hand, the wrist of the
other leader's left wrist. See also: Czech Gothic Painting 1350 - 1450, by Antonin Matejcek & Jaroslav
Pesina, Pub. Melantrich Praba 1950, see figs. 31, 74, 76, & 80; German Painting, XIV--XVI Centuries,
Stange, op. cit., p. 54, lower section, School of Theoderic of Prague, Votive Picture of Ocko Von Vlasim,
A.D. 1380, Prague, Gemaldegalerie, showing a hand clasp between two religious leaders.
The Illustration Of The Heavenly Ladder of John Climacus, by John Rupert Martin, Princeton Un. Press,
1954, p. 43, XIV, 64. Fol. 187 v: Tranquillity, Princeton, Univ. Lib. Garrett MS 16, showing Christ
raising up a monk out a sarcophagus by grasping, with his right hand, the right hand of the monk. "The
half-figure of Christ leans forward from above to grasp his right hand; his left is clutched by a small
black demon... while other demons in the sarcophagus cling to his feet." A verse from Psalm 113:7 was
paraphrased; `the Lord lifteth up the needy from the earth, and from the dung-hill of his passions raiseth
up the poor man, him that is humble in heart.' The author's definition of tranquillity is said to be "the
resurrection of the soul before that of the body". "The picture has, accordingly, been adapted from the
Anastasis--Christ's descent into Hell to raise up Adam and other righteous persons of the Old
Testament." (Ibid., Martin, p. 43).
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For hand clasps on grave stones see: Stones, by Betty Willsher and Doreen Hunter, 1978, Pub. in 1979 by
Taplinger Pub. Co., N.Y., pp. 14-15, 16a, & p. 53; Early American Gravestone Art In Photographs, by
Francis Y. Duval & Ivan B. Rigby, 1978, Pub. by Dover Pub. Inc., N.Y., pp. 124-5; Of Graves And
Epitaphs, by Kenneth Lindley, Pub. Hutchinson of Lon., 1965, grave marker of Withington,
Gloucestershire shows a hand extended to clasp the hand of a soul who is ascending to heaven. See also:
Arte Paleocristiano, En Espana, Por Pedro de Palol, Ediciones Poligrafa, S. A., pp. 146-151, fig. 88,
Sogenannter Auferstenhungs - Sarkophag. Krypta von Santa Engracia. Zaragoza. An orant recieves the
hand of God; A Lithuanian Cemetery (St. Casimir Lithuanian Cemetery in Chicago, Ill.) Pub. Lithuanian
Photo Library and Loyola Un. Press, Chicago, 1976, p.65, fig. 15, shows a hand clasp under the cross on
a tomb stone.
120. Jan Bialostocki, The Art of the Renaissance in Eastern Europe, Hungary, Bohemia, Poland, (Ithaca,
New York: Cornell University Press, 1976), fig. 211, Georg Penez: Painted wings of the silver altar,
1531-8. Cracow, Wawel Cathedral, Sigismund Chapel.
121. William Barclay, The Apostles' Creed For Everyman, (Evanston; New York: Harper and Row,
1967), pp. 119-133.
122. Weitzmann, The Icon, 1982, pp. 342-3, the Harrowing of hell, Longin Bilateral icon with the
ascension on the other side. 1572-3. Monastery of Decani, Serbia.
123. Maria-Gabriele Wosien, Sacred Dance, Encounter with the Gods, (Thames & Hudson, 1974),
pp.124-5. Christ resurrected. Detail of icon, Russia, c. 1700, National- museum, Stockholm. Another
source dates this work as being from the late 16th century. The icon is painted in several registers,
portraying Christ's descent into hell, and his resurrection. Sheila D. Campbell, Editor, The Malcove
Collection, (University of Toronto Press, 1985), p.258, fig.351.
124. Art and Archaeology, The Art Throughout the Ages, vol. XXI, Jan., 1926, Number 1, pp.26 & 32;
Vol.II, June, 1916 #6.
125. Masterpieces of Ivory, pp. 134-5, fig. 214. Harrowing of Hell and Saints. Ivory panel, Russian
(Byzantine style), 16th--17th cent.
126. Andre Deguer, Museo Rieder, Ikonen, Icons, Icones, Icone, (Verlag Munchen 19: Bewrghaus,
1962), p.92, fig. 38. Hollenfahrt Christi, rumanisch, datiert 1763. The descent into hell, Roumanian.
127. Treasures From The Kremlin, An Exhibition from the State of Museums of the Moscow Kremlin at
the Metropolitan Museum of Art, N.Y., May 19-Sept.1979, and Grand Palais, Paris, Oct. 12, 1979 & Jan.
7, 1980, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, Distributed by Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1980),
pp.84-85, & 173, pl.54. Altar Gospels, Inv. no. 19594, text Moscow, 1681; cover Moscow, 1772. "The
Descent into Hell".
128. Janson, History of Art, see fig.758, dated 1868-70 A.D., by Paul Cezanne, after Sebastiano del
Piombo.
129. Peter Clayton, Treasures of Ancient Rome, (Gallery Books, Bison Books, 1986), p. 68, "Baptism by
immersion led, in North Africa, to elaborate baptismal tanks being provided with steps leading down into
them..." The font has steps on both sides. See also: Arte Paleocristiano, En Espana, por Pedro de Palol,
Ediciones Poligrafa, S. A., p. 41, figs. 22-24, & p. 166, figs. 104-5.
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130. Yves Bonnefoy, Mythologies, (Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1991), vol.
2, p. 653; Alfred Loisy, [1857-- 1940], The Birth Of The Christian Religion, (University Books, CR
1962), pp. 235-37; Ferguson, Encyclopedia Of Early Christianity, p. 411.
131. Richard Temple, Icons, And The Mystical Origins of Christianity, pp. 132, & 135.
132. Library of Fathers, (Oxford, London: John Henry Parker, MDCCCXXXIX), vol. II, pp. 260-66,
Lectures XIX-XX, Cyril on the Mysteries.
133. John P. Lundy, Monumental Christianity, p. 388, the white baptismal garments is mentioned on p.
389.
134. The Nicene And Post Nicene Fathers, vol. 7, S. Cyril of Jerusalem, Intro. Catechetical Instruction,
xi--xxxv; Select Writings And Letters, of Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria, by Archibald Robertson, pp.
49-50, Incarnation of the Word, 25, the cross and how Christ's hands were spread out on the cross, this
was a type of how Christ spread his hands out to draw in the ancient people and those from the Gentiles.
135. The Nicene And Post Nicene Fathers, vol. 7, S. Cyril of Jerusalem, Intro. Catechetical Instruction,
xi--xxxv; Select Writings And Letters, of Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria, by Archibald Robertson, pp.
49-50, Incarnation of the Word, 25, the cross and how Christ's hands were spread out on the cross, this
was a type of how Christ spread his hands out to draw in the ancient people and those from the Gentiles.
See also: The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 2, p. 215. Clement of Alexandria, A.D. 153--193--217, in his
The Instructor, book I, chapter v, hints to the hand clasp when he wrote how that Christ "has stretched
forth to us those hands of His that are conspicuously worthy of trust." And how that on p.231, in Book I,
chapter 9, in the ritualistic afterlife passing over into paradise, the dangers of passing, though real, are not
done without the help of Christ who is there with his angels to offer protection against the fallen angels
who seek to cause the soul to slip and fall. Hence, after being anointed, and clothed in the robe of
immortality: "They shall call Me," He says, "and I will say, Here am I." [Isa. lviii.9]. Thou didst hear
sooner than I expected, Master. "And if they pass over, they shall not slip," [Isa. xliii.2], saith the Lord.
For we who are passing over to immortality shall not fall into corruption, for He shall sustain us." (The
Ante-Nicene Fathers, 2, p. 231). In the art works, the way in which the faithful and righteous, who had
endured to the end are supported and sustained, and drawn into heaven and paradise, is through different
hand and wrist grasps. The art works also show the demons in the air attempting to get those who are
"passing over" to fall. See for example: Caroline Walker Bynum, Jesus as Mother, Studies in the
Spirituality of the High Middle Ages, (Berkeley; Los Angeles; London: University of California Press,
1982 & 1984), see art work before title page, and the credit to it on the next page after the title page.
Ladder of Virtues, from Hortus Deliciarum, 12th century. See also: Anna D. Kartsonis, Anastasis, The
Making of An Image, (Princeton University Press, 1986); Mercury Books, Italy, History-Art-Landscape,
(Florence: Mercury Books, Edizioni Mercurio, 1954--1957), pp. 200--201, 14th century, the triumph of
death, and the battle of the angels of God with the demons, over the ascending souls. Amedeo Storti,
Venice, inside and out, (Italy: Edizioni Storti Venezia, 1979), pp. 26, note the second art work in the arch
over from the left going right. Outside art work on St. Mark's Basilica, the west or main fa�ade: upper
portion. Christ's descent into hell, grasping, with his right hand, as he lifts souls out of the hell. See also
pages 44, top portion, 2nd over from the left going right. Art works in St. Mark's Basilica, High Altar.
The Pala d'Oro (Golden Altarpiece). See also page 57, H. Bosch: Purgatory, showing angelic guide
helping souls ascend through the tunnel to paradise.
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136. The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, vol. 4, pp. 49--50, � 25:3--6, Athanasius, Bishop of
Alexandria, A.D. 298 to 373, De Incarnatione Verbi Dei (Incarnation of the Word).
137. Library of Fathers, (London: Oxford, John Henry Parker, MDCCCXXXIX), vol. 2, pp. 260-269,
Lectures On the Mysteries, XIX-XXI, S. Cyril of Jerusalem, Archbishop, 4th cent. A.D. See also:
Library of Fathers, vol. 2, pp. 267-9; Ephesians 6:10-19; The Westminster Dictionary of Christian
Theology, Edited by Richardson and Bowden, p. 22, see Anointing, by J. Martos, "An anointing with oil
which signified the reception of the Holy Spirit very early became part of the rite of baptism..." See also:
Powel Mills Dawley, Our Christian Heritage, Church History and the Episcopal Church, (New York:
Morehouse-Barlow Co., 1959, 3rd ed., 1960), pp. 49-50; Adam, 1977, Baptism For The Dead, p. 48;
Willis Barnstone, The Other Bible, (San Francisco, California: Harper & Row, 984), "The Gospel of
Philip" [2nd half of the 3rd cent. A.D.], p.96; Joseph C. Muren, The Temple And Its Significance,
(Ogden, Utah: Temple Publications, 1973, 3rd printing), pp. 208-9, & saying No. 95; Philip Schaff, D.D.
LL.D., The Teaching of The Twelve Apostles Or, The Oldest Church Manual The Didache and Kindred
Documents in the Original, (New York: Funk & Wagnalls, Pub., Astor Place, 1890), pp. 275-6; The
Nicene And Post Nicene Fathers, (2nd Series, reprinted Aug. 1979), vol. 10, St. Ambrose, On the
Mysteries, chapters 6--8, pp. 321-3; see also vol. 5, p. 321, Gregory, Bishop of Nyssa, 4th cent., and pp.
269-71, Ephraim Syrus, in the 15 Hymns for the feast of the Epiphany, translated by Rev. A Edward
Johnston, B.A., see Hynm III; & pp 518-25, Gregory of Nyssa; vol. 12, pp. 152-3, see note 6; New
Catholic Encyclopedia, (Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America, 1967), vol. I, pp. 567-8). In
earlier centuries the anointing ritual was often connected with baptism, which was a ritualistic type of
death, burial and the resurrection. (Colossians 2:12; Romans 6:2-6; Basil, De Baptismo; Chrysostom,
Hom. xxv, In Joannem; Hom. xl., In Epist. ad Rom.; Adam, Baptism For The Dead, pp. 9-10, & 48-9,
etc.) Perhaps as time went by this type may have become part of the "Extreme Unction" which was given
to a person who was sick, etc., and who was believed to be near death. Even though baptism had been the
ritualistic type of death, burial and resurrection; the extreme unction was often given to those who were
believed to be facing, not the ritualistic type of death, but the real thing. Consequently, the dying person
would be anointed on the eyes, mouth, nose, ears, hands and feet. (See: David Ayerst & A.S.T., Fisher,
CR Basil Blackwell, Records of Christianity, (New York: Harper & Row, Inc., & Barnes & Noble
Books, 1977), vol. II, (Christendom), p. 225.
138. Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Prince of Darkness, (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press,
1988), p.122.
139. Clara Erskine Clement; Editor, Katherine E. Conway, A Handbook Of Christian Symbols And
Stories Of The Saints As Illustrated In Art, (Boston & New York: Houghton Mifflin Company; The
Riverside Press Cambridge, 1871, 1881, 1886), p. 108.
140. Charles T. Wood, The Age of Chivalry, Manners and Morals 1000--1440, (New York: University
Books, CR 1970 in London, England by George Weidenfeld & Nicolson LTD). See also: Ayerst, Fisher,
Blackwell, 1977, Records of Christianity, vol. II, pp. 130-1; Ottfried Neubecker, etc., Heraldry, Sources,
symbols & Meaning, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1976; St. L. San. Fran. Montreal, etc.), p. 69;
Wormald, The Winchester Psalter, fig. 27; Kartsonis, The Anastasis, fig. 19; Batterberry, Art of the
Middle Ages, p. 76, fig. VII-14; Diringer, The Illuminated Book, 3, 14b; Russell, Lucifer, The Devil in the
Middle Ages, p. 150.
141. E. Baldwin Smith, The Dome, A Study in the History of Ideas, (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton
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University Press, 1950, 1978), pp. 4, 13-- 25, 36--37, 65--94, etc., see especially p. 56, see also notes
43--47, especially note 47: R. Krautheimer, "Introduction to an 'Iconography of Mediaeval Architecture,"
Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, v. 1942, 27--33. St Paul, S. Basil, S. Augustine,
Hilarius of Poitiers, the Pseudo-Augustine, Leo Magnus, and Anselm of Canterbury were among some of
the Church Fathers who likened baptism unto a reexperience of Christ's death and resurrection. See also:
Roger Adam's 1977 Doctrinal Thesis, Baptism for the Dead.
142. Library of Fathers Of The Holy Catholic Church, (Oxford: John Henry Parker; J. G. F. Rivington;
London: MDCCCXXXIX), vol. 2, pp. 264-5, The Catechetical Lectures of S. Cyril, Archbishop of
Jerusalem, (A.D. 386), Lec. XX, On the Mysteries II, On the Rites of Baptism, verse 5.
143. Roger J. Adam, Baptism for the Dead, (Salt Lake City, Utah: The Church of Jesus Christ of
Latter-day Saints, Historical Library, Archives: Call slip # Res; M234. 62, R216), Doctrinal Thesis,
1977), pp. 20--21, Fig. 1. Hand clasp of baptism, third century wall painting, Rome, Crypt of Lucina.
144. John Beckwith, Ivory Carvings In Early Medieval England, (New York: New York Graphic Society
LTD, Harvey Miller & Medcalf, 1972), Fig.20. This art work is said to be an Anglo-Saxon work dated
back to the 8th century A.D. And can be seen in the London, Victoria & Albert Museum [Cat.5]. See
also: Les Ivories Gothiques, pl. LVI, No. 220. Berlin. coll. du Prof. Weisbach; pl. CXLVI, No. 823
bislyon, coll Baboin; pl. CLIV, No. 858, Londers, Victoria and Albert Museum; pl. CLXVII, No. 955; pl.
CLXVIII, No. 959; Ikonen, by Konrad Onasch, 1961, Guterslocher Verlashaus Gerd Mohn, #73 & 39;
Art and Archaeology, The Arts Throughout the Ages, vol. XXVII, p.82, Feb. 1929, Number 2,
Neopalimaya Kupina, The Unconsuming One, shows, among other scenes, the descent, in which Christ,
with his right hand grasps the right hand of a person being raised up. See also: Early Christian And
Byzantine Art, #713, 705, 612, lxxx, pp. 122-139, showing the descent of Christ, or the harrowing, with
different types of clasps, some on the wrist, others on the hand. See also: Robert Huges, 1968, Heaven
and Hell in Western Art, pp. 180-191; See also: La Resurrection Du Christ, Dans L'Art Chretien Du IIe
Au VIIe Siecle, Villette, plates XLIV-XLVIII; See also: Edgar Waterman Anthony, Romanesque
Frescoes, (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1951), intro. p. 47, & p. 190, fig. 470,
Chaldon, SS. Peter and Paul. W. Wall. Ladder of Salvation, showing souls ascending a ladder, etc., plus
the descent of Christ into hell in which the souls coming forth clasps Christ's right hand. See also fig.
132, S. Angelo in Formis, Church. N. Wall of Nave. New Testament Scenes, depicting Christ's descent,
in which he is in the act of lifting a person up by grasping, with his right hand, the person's right hand
wrist. See also figs. 49 & 51. Rome, S. Clemente, Lower Church, Nave. Descent into hell, etc. Christ
clasp the right wrist of a person with his right hand. See also fig. 40. London, British Museum. Ms. Cott.
Tib. c. VI (Psalter), fol. 14 ro. Harrowing of Hell, showing satan bound as souls come forth from the
jaws of hell to be blessed and grasped by the hand by a giant Christ. See also: O'Reilly, Studies in the
Iconography of the Virtues and Vices in the Middle Ages, pp. 356-7, where it mentions depictions of
Christ from the iconography of the Anastasis "where He grasps Adam and Eve to deliver them from
Hell". Another depictions shows Christ grasping "the soul who has struggled up the rungs [of a ladder]
just as He seizes Adam and Eve to deliver them from the jaws of Hell in scenes of the Anastasis." See
also: Gustav Davidson, 1967, A Dictionary Of Angels, Including the Fallen Angels, (New York: The Free
Press; London: Collier-Macmillan Lim., 1967), p.25; Propylaen Kunstgeschichte In Achtzehn Banden,
Band 3, Byzanz Und Der Christliche Osten, Von Wolfgang Fritz Volbach Und Jacqueline
Lafontaine-Dosogne, 1968, Propylaen Verlag Berlin, fig. 15, X, & 47; Legenda Aurea: Sept Siecles De
Diffusion, Editions Bellarmin, Montreal 1986, etc., p. 236, showing the soul exiting the body at the
moment of death. The soul reaches out to clasp the hand of one of the angelic guides. Another sources
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shows a right hand shake between an angel and a person about to ascend. See: McDannell & Lang,
Heaven: A History, p. 187, pl. 34, J. Flaxman, 1784 A.D.
Lundy mentions an early resurrection monument of Christ "ascending a hill with a roll in one hand, while
the other is grasped by the hand of the Eternal Father, as it is seen reaching down out of heaven. It is an
ivory carving, and said to belong to the fifth or sixth century. It is at Munich." (Lundy, Monumental
Christianity, p. 268, see Mrs. Eastlake in Mrs. Jameson's "History of our Lord," Vol. II. p. 263. 2nd Ed.
Lond. 1865). See also: Text, W.F. Volbach, Photos, Max Hirmer, Early Christian Art, (New York: Harry
A. Abrams), fig. 93, Munich, Bavarian National Museum, dated in this source "c. 400". In a 10th century
work of Christ's ascension into heaven, the right hand of the Father extends out of heaven to clasp
Christ's right hand (New International Illustrated Encyclopedia Of Art, vol. 15, pp. 3054-55). A similar
clasp is seen in: Walter Cahn, Romanesque Bible Illumination, (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University
Press, 1982), pp. 210-11, fig. 171. See also: Hanns Swarzenski, Monuments of Romanesque Art, (2nd
ed.), 1967), pl. 66, fig. 151, 10th century ascension, showing an angel clasping the hand of Christ, while
the Father clasps Christ's wrist. In a 11th century depiction of the parable about Lazarus, angels come to
Lazarus' soul, one clasps his hands while the other angel lifts him up, while the ritch man is taken hold of
by dark demons who have come to take his soul away. (Jeffery Burton Russell, The Prince of Darkness,
Radical Evil And the Power of Good In History, (Ithaca, New York: Cornell Un. Press, 1988), p.134,
Manuscript illumination from the Pericope Book of Henry II, Germany).
145. Lilian M. C. Randall, Images In the Margins of Gothic Manuscripts, (Berkeley and Los Angeles,
California: University of California Press, 1966), plate XXXIX, figure 188. Fool: Burney 345, f. 70.
146. Anna D. Kartsonis, Anastasis, The Making of An Image, (Princeton: Princeton University Press,
1986), p.72, etc. Albert E. Bailey, The Gospel In Art, (Boston & Chicago: Pilgrim Press, 1916),
pp.382-385; Loisy, The Birth of the Christian Religion, pp. 260-1, Christ "became man that he might
deliver men from their bondage to death and lead them forth into immortality" [see Hebrews 2:5-18]. See
also: The Golden Legend of Jacobus de Voragine, (Trans. and adapted from the Latin by Granger Ryan
and Helmut Ripperger), (New York: 1941, Arno Press, A Publishing and Library service of the New
York Times, 1969), p. 293.
147. The Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers, vol. 9, pp.72-3, chapter. 29, John of Damascus, Exposition of
the Orthodox Faith, translated by the Rev. S. D. F. Salmond, D.D., F.E.I.S.
148. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, 2: p.231, Clement of Alexandria, The Instructor, book 1, chapter 9.
149. Psa.20:6, 28:2, 68:18, 88:1-14; Isa.41:13, 42:6-7, 43:2, 51:14, & Eph.4:7-10.
150. The Ante Nicene Fathers, 2: p.231, Clement of Alexandria, The Instructor, book 1, chapter 9. Italics
emphasis added.
151. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, 2:265, Clement of Alexandria, The Instructor, book 2, chapter 11.
152. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, 2:217, 265--66, 452--54, Clement of Alexandria, The Instructor, book 1,
chapter 6, book 2, chapter 11; The Stromata, or Miscellanies, book 5, chapter 6.
153. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, 2:215, Clement of Alexandria, The Instructor, book 1, chapter 6.
154. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, 2:490-2, Isa. 42:6-7.
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155. The Human Story, Europe In The Middle Ages, by Michel Pierre, Morgan -- Antoine Sabbagh, Pub.
by Sliver Burdett Press, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1988, see p. 34, originally published in 1986 by
Casterman, under the title: L' Histoire des Hommes: L' Europe du Moyen Age.) An Illustrated Cultural
History Of England, by F.E. Halliday, 1967-8, A Studio Book, The Viking Press, N.Y., p.47 & p.68:
"Opus anglicanum. English ecclesiastical embroidery was recognized as the finest in medieval Europe.
Detail from the Syon Cope, c. 1280. The Gospel Of Philip, by R. Mcl. Wilson, Pub., A.R. Mowbray,
London, p.179; Art in the Early Church, by Walter Lowrie, Pub. by Phatheon Books, Wash., Sq., N.Y.,
N.Y., 1947, pl.121 a, top portion; The Horizon History of Christianity, by the Ed. of Horizon Mag.,
Marshall B. Davidson, written by Roland H. Bainton, 1964- A.H.P.C.; The March Of The Cross, by
Leonard W. Cowie, 1962, (First Pub. in Great Britain by Weidenfeld & Nicolson LTD. 1962), & firts
pub. in the USA by McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., N.Y., Toronto, & Lon., 1962, p.58, fig.61; Studies In
Classical & Byzantine Manuscript Illumination, p.272; The Life Of Our Lord In Art, (With Some
Account Of The Artistic Treatment Of The Life Of St. John The Baptist), by Estelle M. Hurll, 1898,
Boston & N.Y., Houghton, Mifflin & Co., The Riverside Press, Cambride, MDCCCXCVIII, p. 314,
XXVII, The Descent into Limbus. According to the "Latin Gospel of Nicodemus, Christ was occupied
with the liberation of the souls of the patriarchs and prophets of the old dispensation. In the typical
composition Christ carries the resurrection banner, and standing on a higher level reaches out a helping
hand to the company of long-bearded old men who flock eagerly towards him with lifted faces and
outstretched arms." See also: Monumente Istorice Bisericesti Din Mitropolia Moldovel Si Sucevei, 1974,
p. 41, figs. 23-4.
156. Kartsonis, Anastasis, The Making of An Image, p.72, etc. Gothic Painting I, p.48; Christian Art,
C.R. Morey, p.86.
157. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, 2: p.462, Clement of Alexandria, The Stromata, or Miscellanies, book 5,
chapter 11.
158. Dr. Huge W. Nibley, What is a Temple, (IDE-T), The Idea of a Temple in History, reprinted by
F.A.R.M.S., from: The Millenial Star, 120 (Aug. 1958), pp.228-237, see pages 234, & 249, foot notes 52,
& 56. R. Akiba, cited by S. A. Horodezky, in Monatsschr.f. Gesch. u. Wins. des Judentums LXXII. 505.
Huge Nibley tells us that R. Akiba, cited by S. A. Horodezky who says the Jew once taught this.
159. Butler's Lives of the Saints, (New York: P. J. Kenedy & Sons, 1956), revised edition by Herbert
Thurston, S.J., and Donald Attwater, vol. 3, July . August . September, pp.678-9; See also: Alfred
Stange, Karl Robert Langewiesche Nachfolger, 1965, Deutche Spatgotische Malerei, 1430-1500, p. 14.
160. Colleen McDannell & Bernhard Long, Heaven, A History, (New Haven & London: Yale University
Press, 1988), p. 187. Pl. 34. John Flaxman, The Sea Shall Give up the Dead, Sarah Morley Memorial,
1784. Gloucester Cathedral, England. Angel descend and clasp right to right hands of Sarah being raised
up to heaven. See also: Donald W. Parry, Temples of the Ancient World, Ritual and Symbolism, (Salt
Lake City and Provo, Utah: F.A.R.M.S., & Deseret Book Co., 1994), p. 456, William J. Hamblin, Temple
Motifs in Jewish Mysticism, chapter 16; Ian Wilson, The After Death Experience, (New York: Quill
William Morrow, 1987), pages in between pp. 142 & 143, see the 15th century Flemish depiction of
angelic guides through a tunnel into paradise. Hieronymus Bosch's Ascent into the Empyrean from the
Doge's Palace, Venice. Alice K. Turner, The History of Hell, (New York; San Diego; London: Harcourt
Brace & Co., 1993), p. 95. 15th century fresco in Sta. Maria in Piano, Italy. An angel helps a soul not fall,
by extending a helping hand, which is clasped by a soul passing over dangerous waters in hell, and a very
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narrow bridge over a river. See also pp. 130--131, 15th century purgatory, French Book of Hours, shows
an angel clasping the hand of two souls about to be rescued from the fires of purgatory. Page 131 show
Bosh's work. See also: Charles De Tolnay, 1965, Hieronymus Bosch, (Holle Verlag); Himmel H�lle
Fegefeuer, Das Jenseits im Mittelalter, 1994, Schweizerisches Landesmuseum, Zurich, Wilhelm Fink
Verlag, Munchen. This source shows numerous examples of hand and wrist grasping angelic guides out
of purgatory, hell, limbo, hades, into paradise and heaven.
161. Horton and Marie-Helene Davies, Holy days and Holidays, The Medieval Pilgrimage to
Compostela, (London and Toronto: Lewisburn, Bucknell University Press, 1982), p.147, see also
pp.140-49. An interesting depiction of Christ's descent shows Christ clasping the wrists of Adam and
Eve, but also angels descend down into an open pit, perhaps to also raise souls up out of the underworld.
(Handbuch Der Ikonenkust, Slavisches Institut Munchen, 1966, p.71, see also pp. 125, 144, 157, & 308.
162. Robert Huges, 1968, Heaven and Hell in Western Art, pp. 180-191; Encyclopedia Of World Art,
(New York, Toronto; London, England: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1960), vol. 3, pl. 12.
163. Joan Comay, Who's Who in the Old Testament, (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1971), p.
383. An old anointing horn was found at Megiddo, dating back to 2000 B.C.
164. The Book of Mormon, Ether 9:14-15.
165. Powel Mills Dawley, Our Christian Heritage, Church History and the Episcopal Church, (New
York: Morehouse-Barlow Company, 1959, 3rd ed., 1960, pp.49-50.
166. Henry Bettenson, The Early Christian Fathers, A Selection from the writings of the Fathers from
St. Clement of Rome to St. Athanasius, (London; New York; Toronto: Geoffrey Cumberlege, Oxford
University Press, 1956), p. 198. Tertullian, De Resurrection Carnis, 8.
167. Kurt Weitzmann, Editor, Age of Spirituality, Late Antique and Early Christian Art, Third to Seventh
Century, (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1979). C. 610--630, on a Byzantine
silver dish, excavated on the island of Cyprus, there is a depiction of the anointing of David by Samuel,
who holds a horn filled with oil, over David's head. See also: The New Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 1, p.
566.
168. Robert Fossier, Editor, Translated by Janet Sonheimer, The Middle Ages, The Cambridge Illustrated
History of the Middle Ages I, 350-950, (Cambridge University Press, 1989), p. 434. See also: George
Holmes, Editor, The Oxford Illustrated History of Medieval Europe, (Oxford University Press, 1988), p.
84.
169. John Beckwith, The Art of Constantinople, An Introduction to Byzantine Art 330--1453, (Greenwich
- Connecticut: Phaidon Publishers Inc., Distributed by New York Graphic Society, 1961), p. 72, fig. 86.
A.D. 920-30, in the Bible of Leo the Patrician, made at Constantinople, is a depiction of The Anointing of
David, for over his head is held a horn filled with anointing substance. Vatican, Reg. gr. I, fol. 263r.
170. Morris Bishop, Norman Kotker, Editor in charge, Middle Ages, The Horizon Book of The Middle
Ages, (USA: American Heritage Magazine, 1968), p. 39. On p. 16, there is mention of the baptism of
Clovis, and the oil used for the ceremony. A.D. 962, Duke Otto of Saxony was anointed imperator et
augustus by the pope.
171. John W. Bernhardt, Itinerant Kingship And Royal Monasteries In Early Medieval Germany, c.
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936--1075, (New York, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993), pp. 48--49.
172. John W. Bernhardt, Itinerant Kingship And Royal Monasteries In Early Medieval Germany, c.
936--1075, (New York, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993), pp. 48--49.
173. Eve Borsook, Messages In Mosaic, The Royal Programmes of Norman Sicily (1130--1187),
(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990), pp. 2--3.
174. Albrecht Durer, Lucas Cranach, Hans Holbein, & Pieter Bruegel, Great Artists Of The Western
World, The Northern Renaissance, (London; New York; Sydney: Marshall Cavendish, 1985 & 1988,
Reference Edition published in 1988).
175. Eve Borsook, Messages In Mosaic, The Royal Programmes of Norman Sicily (1130--1187),
(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990), p. 3, see also foot notes 35 & 36.
176. Nigel Morgan, Early Gothic Manuscripts 2, 1250-1285, (London: Harvey-Miller, 1988), figures 6
& 7. Coronation of King Arthur. 6. Manchester, Chetham Lib., 6712, f. 53 (cat. 96); 7. Coronation of
Richard I. Manchester, Chetham Lib., 6712, f. 141 (Cat. 96). Showing coronation ceremonies in which
Kings are being anointed on their heads.
177. Ellen Badone, The Appointed Hour, Death, Worldview, and Social Change in Brittany, (Berkeley;
Lost Angeles, USA; London, England: University of California Press, 1989), p. 53.
178. Darell D. Thorpe, The Garments Of The First And Second Adam: [The Symbolical Meanings Of
Garments In Early To Later Christendom], (Salt Lake City, Utah: Religious, Historical and Polemical
Studies, Oct. 1993); William Henry Paine Hatch, Greek & Syrian Miniatures in Jerusalem, (Cam.,
Mass.:The Medieval Academy of America, 1931), p.68-9, pl.12, the baptism. Greec, xi, fol.172. See also:
G. de Jerphanion, Les eglises rupestres de Cappadoce (Paris: Geuthner, 1925-28,), pl.78, 89, 103, & 119;
Robert P. Bergman, The Salerno Ivories, Arts Sacra from Medieval Amalfi, (London, England: Harvard
University Press, 1980 & Fellows of Harvard Col.), fig., 169, Baptism, ivory plaque, Lugano,
Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection; Walter Lowrie, Art in the Early Church, (Washington Square, New
York, New York: Phatheon Books, 1947), pl.121 a, top portion. Marshall B. Davidson, written by
Roland H. Bainton, The Horizon History of Christianity, Editors of Horizon Mag., 1964- A.H.P.C.; Art &
Mankind, Larousse Encyclopedia of Byzantine & Medieval Art, General Ed., Rene Huyghe, Prof. in the
Col. of France, Pub. by Prometheus Press, N.Y., 1958- Auge, Gillon, Hollier-Larousse, Moreau et Cie
(Librairie Larousse, Paris, this ed., 1963- Paul Hamlyn LTD, Lon. p.240, fig. 501, baptismal font in
Hildesheim cathedral. See also p.237, fig.497, detail from the baptismal font in St. Bartholomew, Liege;
Art of the Medieval World, by George Zarnecki, Pub. by Harry N. Abrams, Inc. N.Y., fig.154, depicting
the baptism of Christ. Gospels of Etchmiadzin, 6th century A.D. Matenadaran Library (Ms. 2374),
Erevan; The Book of Art (A Pictorial Encyclopedia of Painting, Drawing, & Sculpture) Origins of
Western Art, texts by Dr. Donald E. Strong & others, Prof. Giuseppe Bovini, & Prof. David Talbot Rice,
Peter Laske, Prof. G. Zarnecki & George Henderson, Pub. by Grolier Inc., N.Y., Montreal, Mexico City
& Sydney, p.104, A. Metz School. Ivory casket, depicting baptism, 10th century A.D., Brunswick,
Herzog Anton Ulrich Mus.; The Art of Byzantine Empire (Byzantine Art In The Middle Ages), by Andre
Grabar, Tarns., by Betty Forster, 1st Ed., pub. in 1963, Holle Verlag G.M.B.H., Baden-Baden, Germany.
English Trans., 1966, by Methuen & Co., LTD., Crown Pub., Inc., N.Y., p.125, pl.27, the baptism, a
mosaic at the Hosios Lucas in Phocias, ca, 1000. Cf., p.124; Byzantine Painting (Historical & Critical
Study) by Andre Grabar, Pub. by Skira Rizzoli, New York, 1979, first pub. in 1953. Page 116, in the
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Nave, Church of Daphni; Studies In Classical & Byzantine Manuscript Illumination, by Kurt Weitzmann,
Ed. by Herbert L. Kessler, Pub. by The Un. of Chicago Press, Chic. & Lon., 1971, page 272, fig. 261,
Vatican, Biblioteca. Cod. gr. 1613, p.299, Baptism of Christ; another baptismal depiction is seen on page
273, fig. 262 (Baltimore, Walters Art Gallery. Cod. W 521, fol. 38r. This is very similar to the other one
mentioned. See also page 274, fig. 263, (Mount Athos, Dionysiu. Cod. 587, fol. 141v. Page 282 fig. 275
Paris, Bib. Nat. Cod. gr. 74, fol. 169r. Page 308 fig. 305 Mount Sinai, St. Catherine's Icon. 12 Feast, pp.
309, 312, fig. 308, Mount Sinai, St. Catherine's Icon. Deesis & 12 feasts. Studies In Classical &
Byzantine Manuscript Illumination, Weitzmann, op. cit., p.272, fig. 261, p.274, fig.263, p.282, fig. 275,
p.308-9, fig. 305, & p.312, fig.308; Iconography of Christian Art, by Gertrud Schiller, Vol.1, trans., by
Janet Seligman, 1966 & 77, New York Graphic Soc. Greenwhich, Conn., #364., dated c.1170 Hortus
Deliciarum; Monuments of Romanesque Art, by Hanns Swarzenski, 1954 & 1967, Un. of Chic., pl.113,
fig. 253 & 258, see also: Art of the Medieval World, by George Zarnecki, Pub. Harry N. Abrams, N.Y.,
1975, dated "1107-1118" A.D. The baptismal font of Renier de Huy, Church of St. Barthelemy, Liege.
See also: 1 Kings 7:23-4; Jer.52:20; Schiller, op. cit., #374, Manuscript Illumination, c. 1200. Lower
Saxony, Codex, Trier Cath; Classical Inspiration In Medieval Art, by Walter Oakshott, 1959, Frederick
A. Praeger, Pub., N.Y., Pl.III, fig., A, the Liege font, with medieval art works dated back to the 12-13th
century A.D., see also: pl.III, fig.B; The Icon, by Kurt Weitzmann, & others, 1982, by Arnoldori Editore,
pub. Alfred A. Knopf, N.Y., p.170. Greek work at Ohrid Tempera on wood. The Church of the Virgin
Peribleptos, cent. 1300. Gallery of icons in the church of St. Clement, Ohrid, Macedonia; The Art of the
Copts, by Pierre M. Du Bourguet, S. J. (Translated by Caryll Hay-Shaw) 1967 & 1971. Pub. Crown Pub.
Inc. New York. pp. 176-7; La Peinture Byzantine, by Paul Muratoff, (Pub. Paris A. Weber,
MCMXXXV). Plate CXXIV; Pl. CXCI; Episodes de L'Historie de S. Jean Baptiste Detail du Tableau d'
autel - Art Neo-Hellenistique (1250-1270) Academie, Sienne, pl. CCXLVII, Pl. CCXLVIII; Iconography
of Christian Art, op. cit., #365; Jerusalem A History, by E.O. James, Pub. by G.P. Putnam's Sons, N.Y.,
Ed. by J. Boudet, p.131, the Baptism of Jesus, Barna, 14th century A.D., fresco at San Gimignano;
Frescoes of the Church of the Assumption At Volotovo Polye, Text by M.V. Alpatov, & others, pub. by
Moscow Iskusstvo 1977, fig.96, baptism, Fresco on the southern wall about 1380 A.D.; Byzantine
Painting, Grabar, op. cit., p.190-1, this art work is part of a 6 part depiction, 2nd down on the right, "SIX
OF THE GREAT FEASTS OF THE YEAR." Dated back to the 14th century A.D. Portable mosaic,
Opera Del Duomo, Florence; The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, by Edward Gibbon, Vol.III,
1185-1453 A.D., page 437, Pub. by The Modern Library, New York, see also footnote 57 on p.437.
"Framea scutoque juvenem ornant. Tacitus, Germania, c. 13." St. Gregory the Great mentions the white
vestment (birrum) in which a person was clothed when he rose from the font. St. Ambrose calls the
garments of the mysteries the chaste veil of innocence. While S. Cyril of Jerusalem in his lectures on the
mysteries called it the garment of salvation, and said that is was a type of the cloth that Christ's body was
covered in while his body was in the tomb. (See: The Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers = (TN&PNF)
Vol.13. p.3 Ep.6; (TN&PNF) Vol.x, pp.321-3, chap.6-7; Library of Fathers, Vol.2, pp.260-66, Lec.
xix-xx); Art in the Early Church, Lowrie, pl.121; Iconography of Christian Art by Gertrud Schiller,
Vol.I, fig.376. Zech.3:1-4. Behold the Christ, Bainton, p.79, fig.76. Rev.7:14-17 & Christ Lore, by
Fredk. WM. Hackwood, p.117. Baptism For the Dead, Roger Adam, pl.16, p.29, see his note 23, from
"Cote, Archaeology, 53." Ad Fabiolam, Ep.cxxvii. Baptism for the Dead, Adam, op. cit., p.57-9 & 61).
And: Textile Art in the Church, by Marion P. Ireland, 1966, 67, & 1971, Pub. Abingdon Press., Nashville
& N.Y., p. 73; The Toledo Museum Of Art European Paintings, (The Toledo Mus. of Art, Tol. Ohio.,
Dist. by Penn. State Un., Press, 1st printing 1976, Designed by Harvey Retzloff, p.389. Acc. no. 48.74.
"SPIRIDION CHRYSOLORAS 17th Century. Cretan. The Baptism of Christ."; Treasures From The
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Kremlin, (An Exhibition from the State of Museums of the Moscow Kremlin at the Metropolitan
Musesum of Art, N.Y., May 19-Sept.1979, and Grand Palais, Paris, Oct. 12, 1979 & Jan. 7, 1980), Pub.
by Metro. Mus., of Art, N.Y., Distrib. by Harry N. Abrams, Inc., pp.70 & 166, pl.39.
179. Rev. Dr. Charles Francis Potter, The Lost Years of Jesus Revealed, From the Dead Sea Scrolls and
the Nag-Hammadi discoveries, (Greenwich, Conn.: A Fawcett Gold Medal Book, Fawcett Publications,
Inc., 1958, 1962), pp. 35--36.
180. Powel Mills Dawley, Our Christian Heritage, Church History and the Episcopal Church, (New
York: Morehouse-Barlow Co., 1959, 3rd ed., 1960), pp.49-50.
181. Willaim N. Guthrie, D.D., The Forgotten Books of Eden, (USA, Newfoundland: Alpha House, Inc.,
1927; World Bible Publishers, Inc.), Introduction, pp. vii-viii.
182. Edited by Rutherford H. Platt, Jr., Assistant Editor J. Alden Brett, The Forgotten Books of Eden,
The First Book of Adam & Eve, pp.8-10, 12--13, 33, 37-42, 68-74; Included in with this collection of
books, is one entitled: "The Book of the Secrets of Enoch". (Slavonic version). God says to Michael to
anoint Enoch and cloth him in a garment of glory. (p.89). etc.
183. Dr. Huge Nibley, Old Testament And Related Studies, The Collected Works of Huge Nibley, (Salt
Lake City and Provo, Utah: Deseret Book Co., SLC., Ut., & F.A.R.M.S., 1986), vol. 1, pp.152-3.
184. Geoffrey Barraclough, The Christian World, (London: Thames & Hudson, LTD., 1981; New York:
Harry N. Abrams, Inc.,), p.119.
185. Roger J. Adam, Baptism for the Dead, (Thesis located in the SLC LDS Church Lib., 1977),
pp.46-50, etc.
186. Roger J. Adam, Baptism for the Dead, 1977, pp.51, & 61, see also note 5- "Danielou, Liturgy, 13,
citing Theodore's commentary on the sacrament of baptism.
187. See: Archaeological Discoveries, (Relative to the Judaeo-Christians), Historical Survey by Ignazio
Mancini, O.F.M., Pub. of the Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, Collection minor #10, Jerusalem, 1970,
pp.165-170, & fig.39, on p.166, "Adam under Calvary in a medieval miniature of Valenciennes, with
detail of Adam. (from LTS 1965, p. 278)"; Byzantine and Russian Painting, Kostas Papaioannou,
Translated by Janet Sondheimer, Pub. by Funk & Wagnalls, N.Y., pp.82-3, & 90-1; Christ Lore (Being
the Legends Traditions Myths Symbols Customs & Superstitions of The Christian Church, by Fredk.
WM. Hackwood, F.R.S.L., Pub. in Lon. 1902, Elliot Stock, repub. by Gale Research Co. Book Tower,
Detroit, 1969, p.117, "Washing in the Blood of Christ. From an old Florentine tract in defense of
Savonarola." And: The Encyclopedia Of Visual Art, Biographical Dictionary of Artists, by Limburg
Brothers - Francisco Ribalta, Pub. by Encyc. Britannica Intern., LTD., Lon., Vol.6, see "Attavante degli
Attavanti: Crucifixion, a leaf from the missal illuminated for Thomas James, Bishop of Dol; 1483.
Nouveau Musee des Beaux-Arts, Le Havre". This art work shows a number of things of interest. The
soul or spirit of one of the persons to Christ's right, who was also crucified along side of him, & who had
acknowledged Christ & asked Him if He would remember him when he had entered His kingdom. (Luke
23:32-43). This person's spirit, upon this person's death, is depicted in the arms of an angel. While dark
colored demons come to take away the soul or spirit of the other malefactor who had railed on Christ, &
who was crucified to the left hand side of Christ. (See also: The Encyc. Of Vis. Art, Vol.6, p.32.) At the
foot of the cross, is a scull, which may perhaps be a traditional symbol for the tradition of Adam's grave.
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See also: Ivory Carvings In Early Medieval England, by John Beckwith, 1972, Harvey Miller & Medcalf,
p.84, fig. 152. "Deposition. English (Hereford), about 1150. London, Victoria and Albert Museum [Cat.
88]". Another scull is depicted here at the foot of the cross. See also: Zech. 9:11-12, chap. 3, Isa.
22:21-25, 42:6-7, 49:8-9, 51:14, 63:9, Ezra 9:5-8. Heb. 10:16-22, 11:13-40; 1 John 2:20-29, 3:2-3. Rev.
3:5, 6:11. Psa. 16:8-10, Acts 13:35, 18:50, 20:6, 25:14, 68:18, Eph.4:7-10, 73:23-24, 82:1, 6, 88:1-12,
104:1-2, 132:17, 133:2, 136:23, 138:7, 139:8, 142:7, 143:6-12, etc.; The Ante-Nicene Fathers, = (TANF)
Vol. 1, pp.12, 17, 27, 33-4, 39, 50, 56, & 62. (TANF) 1: p.474, 488-90, 493-4, 497, 499-500, 506,
509-10, 521-26, 532, 540-44, 550, 560, 567, 572-3, 576-7, (TANF) 2: p.174, 178, 196-200, 202-6,
209-13, 215-19, 222-4, 230-1, 234, 253-6, 263, 265-6, 270-4, 291, 293, 302, 312-13, 349, 351, 357, 364,
374-8, 409-22, 426-441, 444-447, 452-63, 490-509, etc.).
188. Rev.1:6; 2:17; 3:4-5, 12, 21, 10:7; Rom.16:25; 1 Cor.2:7; 4:1; Col.2:1-3; 1 Tim.3:8-9. & Historical
Commentaries on the State of Christianity, Dr. Johann L. Mosheim, 1854, Vol.1. pp.77, 127, 373, 391,
Vol.2 p.472. Gen.3:21; Ex.28:2; 29:4-30; 40:7-16; Lev.14:14-29; Num.18:8; Isa.1:16-18; 22:21-3; 52:15;
Ezk.36:24-27; 41:1-23; 42:14; 44:17-21 etc. Christian Envy of the Temple, Nibley; Ancient Israel Myths
& Legends, Angelgo S. Rappoport, Vol.1, pp.1, & 164-9. Josephus Complete Works, pp.73-5. The
Horizon Book of Great Cathedrals, pp.284-5. The Christian World by Geoffrey Barraclough 1981
Thames & Hudson Lon., p.119. The Other Bible, p.13. Heaven: A History, p.40, Rev.6:11.
189. Curry, A History of the Baptists, pp.274-5.
190. Elizabeth Hough Sechrist & Janette Woolsey, Its Time For EASTER, (Philadelphia: Macrae Smith
Co., 1961), pp. 21, & 24-5.
191. R. Mcl. Wilson, B.D., Ph.D., The Gospel Of Philip, pp.87-91; The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol.2,
pp.165-169, 215-219, 230-1, 253-254, 263, 265-6, 453-4, & 582-3, etc.
192. The Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers, vol.5, pp.519-520, & 524; Gregory of Nyssa: Dogmatic
Treatises, etc. reprint June 1972, by WM. B. Eerdmans.
193. The Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers = (TN&PNF), vol. 13. p.3, Gregory The Great, Ep. 6.
194. Roger J. Adam, Baptism for the Dead, (Salt Lake City, Utah: The Church of Jesus Christ of
Latter-day Saints, Historical Library, Archives, call slip number Res; M234. 62, R216, an unpublished
thesis for the degree of Doctor, 1977), pp. 58, see note 26 on page 62, Gregory the Great, Ad Fabiolam,
Epistle cxxvii, 54.
195. St. Ambrose, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, vol. 10, pp.321-3, chapters 6-7.
196. Library of Fathers, vol. 2, pp. 260-66, S. Cyril of Jerusalem, Lectures 19 & 20.
197. Lowrie, Art in the Early Church, pl.121. Gertrud Schiller, Iconography of Christian Art, vol. I,
fig.376; Zech. 3:1-4. Bainton, Behold the Christ, p.79, fig.76; Rev.7:14-17 & Fredk. WM. Hackwood,
Christ Lore, p.117. Roger Adam, Baptism For the Dead, pl.16, p. 29.
198. Adam, Baptism for the Dead, cites in his note 23, from Cote, Archaeology, 53.
199. St. Jerome, Ad Fabiolam, Ep. cxxvii.
200. Roger Adam, Baptism for the Dead, pp. 57-9 & 61.
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201. Hanns Swarzenski, Monuments of Romanesque Art, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967),
pl. 20, fig. 45; pl 171, pl. 173, figs. 380 & 381, etc. Donald W. Parry, Temples of The Ancient World,
Ritual and Symbolism, (Salt Lake City, Provo, Utah: Deseret Book Company, and F.A.R.M.S., 1994),
see pp. 705--739, chapter 24 by Prof. Stephen D. Ricks, The Garment of Adam in Jewish, Muslim, and
Christian Tradition. See also: R. G. Hamerton-Kelly, Society For New Testament Studies, Monograph
Series, 21: Pre-existence, Wisdom & The Son of Man, A Study of the Idea of Pre-existence In The New
Testament, (New York, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1973), pp. 53, 99, & 146--149; M. F.
Hearn, Romanesque Sculpture, The Revival of Monumental Stone Sculpture in the 11th and 12th century,
(Ithaca, New York: 1981), p. 39, fig. 18. Angels descend out of heaven with robes to cloth martyrs in,
Late 11 century. Kurt Weitzmann, and others, The Icon, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1982), pp. 26--27,
30-31; The Encyclopedia of Visual Art, (Danbury, Connecticut, U.S.A: Grolier Educational Corporation),
vol. 3, p. 235. And angels descends to cloth the soul of St. Catherine of Alexandria in a white robe. She
is about to be martyred. A.D. 1354 work by Giovanni Da Milano.
202. Marion P. Ireland, Textile Art in the Church, (Nashville & New York: Abingdon Press, 1966, 1967,
& 1971), p. 73.
203. The Ante-Nicene Fathers = (TANF) 2: p.49-50, 54, 91-3, 104-5, 174, 198-200, 203-6, 209-11, 213,
215-219, 231, here Clement of Alex., mentions being anointed & clothed in a garment, symbolic of
Christ. He also made reference to "the robe of immortality." See also pp. 234, 253-56, 265-6, 271, 302-3,
312-13, 461-2, etc. Monuments of Romanesque Art, Hanns Swarzenski, 1954 & 1967, Un. of Chicago
Press, pl. 20, fig.45, pl.173, fig. 380, & 381, pl.173; Kartsonis, Anastasis, p.72, etc.; An Illustrated
History of England, by F. E. Halliday, 1967-8, The Viking Press, N.Y., p.47, an art work depicting souls
riding up on a garment in the hands of the angel ("St. Michael") towards God. (12th century A.D.
Shaftesbury Psalter.); The Painted Romanesque Ceiling Of St. Martin In Zillis, Text by Ernst Murbach,
Pub. by Frederick A. Praeger, N.Y., & Wash., 1967, English trans., see: J-II; The Toledo Museum of Art
European Paintings, Pub. by the Tol. Mu. of A., Toledo Ohio, Dist. by Penn. State Un., Press, 1976,
p.389, Spiridion Chrysoloras 17th century A.D., depiction of Christ's baptism with the traditional angels
with garments in their arms. To name a few sources to consider.
204. The Voices of the Cathedral, by Sartell Prentice, 1938, p.174; Byzantine Wall Painting In Asia
Minor, Plates II, by Marcell Restle 1967, pl.28, & pl.203; Italy, by Mercury Art Books, Florence:
Edizioni Mercurio 1954-7, p.231; The Other Bible, p.445-447 & 452-4; Ethiopia Illuminated
Manuscripts, by Otto A. Jager, Pub. by the NY Graphic Soc. & Unesco. pl.13.
205. Ludmila Kybalova, Coptic Textiles, (Artia, Prague: Paul Hamlyn Ltd., 1967), pp. 34, 68-69,
fig.15-16. Possible marks or symbols in Tunic, 4 or 5th century, Pushkin Museum, Moscow; Inventory #
5823. Purchased in Egypt by V.S Golenishchev.
206. Roger Adam, Baptism For the Dead, p.122.
207. Dr. Huge Nibley wrote that "The Testament of Job" tells us of an interesting prayer circle & healing
garments in that one of Job's daughter is said to have "recited the hymns, she let the spirit be marked
(kecharagmenon) on her garment." What ever this is suppose to mean, is unclear to me at this time, but
perhaps this may be another possible reference to markings on ritualistic garments. Mormonism & Early
Christianity, Nibley, pp.60-2, n.76, on p.62, & p.90, The Testament of Job according to the SV Text, by
Robert A. Kraft (Missoula, Mt.: Scholars Press, 1974), 3-111 on the various texts. Part of the Greek
version is also reproduced by F.C. Conybeare, "The Testament of Job & the XII Patriarchs," Jewish
New Temple Evidence
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Quarterly Review 13 (Oct. 1901): 111-13, The Testament of Job, 46:1-9; 47:3-12; 48:1-8; 49:1-3; 50:1-3;
1:1-5, etc.
208. Brigham Young University Studies, vol. 22, Winter 1982, #1 pp. 31-45, St. Ambrose, Hamman,
Traite des Mysteries in L' Initiation Chretienne, p.74.
209. Brigham Young University Studies, Vol. 22, Winter 1982, #1, pp.31-45. Heb. 10:16-22. Art &
Mankind (Larousse Encyc. Of Renaissance & Baroque Art), Gen. Ed., Rene Huyghe, Excal., Bk., N.Y.,
pp.49-50, fig.78; Signs & Symbols In Christian Art, by George Ferguson, p.209, XI. Frescoes Of The
Church Of The Assumption At Volotovo Polye, text by L. A. Alpatov, 66; The Nicene & Post-Nicene
Fathers = (TN&PNF) Vol. 7, p.91, etc.; The Art & Architecture of Russia, George Heard Hamilton, 1954
& 75, Penguin Bks., p.105; Origines sive antiquitates Ecclesiaticae, Bingham, Halle, 1727, vol.iii, p.215;
A Short History of Tapestry, by Eugene Muntz, p.56-8; The Painted Churches of Cyprus, by Andreas &
Judith A. Stylianou, p.131, fig.66, p.169, fig.92, p.200, fig.113, p.260, fig.151, p.291, fig.172, p.335,
fig.199, p.356-7, fig.s 211-12, p.450, fig.267.
210. Dr. Huge W. Nibley, Temple And Cosmos, pp.107-138; The Pilgrimage & Struggle of The Human
Family In & Through the Different Realms of Existences, by DaRell D. Thorpe, 1991. The Grand
Pilgrimage: Footnoting In & "Out of the Best Books" [D&C 88:118], by DaRell D. Thorpe, privately
pub. by (R.H.&.P.S.), Vol.1, part 1, based on issues 1-4, April- Aug. 1992, pp.3-4. Behold the Christ, by
Roland H. Bainton, 1974, p.79, fig.76. Coptic Textiles, Ludmila Kybalova, Pub. by Paul Hamlyn LTD.,
1967, pages 68-9, fig. 15 & 16, & p.34; Jewish Symbols in Greco-Roman Period, by Erwin R.
Goodenough, Vol.9, p.145; Heaven: A History, by Colleen McDannell & Bernhard Lang, Pub. by Yale
Un. Press, 1988, pp.137, 140-1, & pl.26; The Golden Age of English Manuscript Painting (1200-1500),
by Richard Marks & Nigel Morgan, 1981, Pub. by George Braziller, N.Y., see pages 60-1, pl.11; L'Art
Roman En Espagne, by Marcel Durliat, 1962, by Braun & Cie, Mulhouse-Paris-Lyon, fig. 219. Medieval
French Miniatures, by Jean Porcher, XXVII; Anglo-Saxon Art, by David M. Wilson, pp.186-7, fig.233;
The Encyclopedia Of Visual Art, Vol.3, p.235; Monuments of Romanesque Art, Hanns Swarzenski,
1954, & 1967, pl.20, fig.45, pl.173, fig.380, pl.209, fig.491, etc.
211. Nibley, Old Testament & Related Studies, 1, pp.156-7.
212. John 17:5; Eccl.12:7; Psa.73:23-5; 82:1, 6-7, Isa.41:13, 22-3; 2 Cor.5:1-10.
213. Temple & Cosmos, Dr. Huge Nibley, 1992, Pub. by Deseret Book, & F.A.R.M.S., p.108.
214. Nibley, Old Testament And Related Studies, vol. 1, pp.158-9.
215. R. Mcl. Wilson, The Gospel Of Philip, (London: A.R. Mowbray), p.179.
216. Ignazio Mancini, O.F.M., Archaeological Discoveries Relative to the Judaeo-Christians,
(Jerusalem: Publishers of the Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, Fran. Print. Press, 1970), p.165-170.
217. Anna D. Kartsonis, Anastasis, The Making of An Image, (Princeton University Press, 1986), p.72,
etc. Albert E. Bailey, The Gospel In Art, (Boston & Chicago: Pilgrim Press, 1916), commenting on Fra
Angelico, [1387-1455 A.D.], or Giovanni da Fiesole's fresco of Christ's descent into limbo, that shows
Adam clasping the hand of Christ, pp.382-385.
218. Frederick Hartt, History of Italian, Renaissance Art, Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, (New York:
Harry N. Abrams, A Times Mirror Company, fourth edition, 1994), p. 45, fig. 21: School of Pisa.
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Deposition, Lamentation, and Entombment, details of Cross No. 20. Parchment on panel. Pinacoteca.
Pisa. c. 1230. Three angels descend out of heaven with robes for the martyred Christ.
219. John Beckwith, The Art of Constantinople, An Introduction to Byzantine Art 330--1453, (Greenwich
- Connecticut: Phaidon Publishers Inc., Distributed by New York Graphic Society, 1961), p. 136, fig.
180. Early 14th century, Ivory relief. Constantinople. Berlin-Dahlem, Ehemals Staatliche Museen.Angels
descending out of heaven with robes for the 40 martyrs.
220. Clifford Davidson, Editor, The Iconography of Heaven, Early Drama, Art, and Music, Monograph
Series, 21, (Kalamazoo, Michigan: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1994),
p. 8.
221. Sir Herbert Read, Dr. Donald E. Strong, Professors David Talbot Rice and Giuseppe Bovini, and G.
Zarnecki, Peter Lasko, Dr. George Henderson, The Book of Art, A Pictorial Encyclopedia of Painting,
Drawing, and Sculpture, (Grolier Inc., 1965), vol. 1, Origins of Western Art, p. 138, A: The Dormition
of the Virgin, 10th century, Cologne, Schn�tgen Mus. Angel descend with cloth to cloth Mary's soul in,
as also seen in another section.
222. Sir Herbert Read, Dr. Donald E. Strong, Professors David Talbot Rice and Giuseppe Bovini, and G.
Zarnecki, Peter Lasko, Dr. George Henderson, The Book of Art, A Pictorial Encyclopedia of Painting,
Drawing, and Sculpture, (Grolier Inc., 1965), vol. 1, Origins of Western Art, pp. 132--33, C: The
Dormition of the Virgin: from the Winchester Psalter, about 1160. London, B.M., (MS. Cotton Nero C
IV, f. 2Ir.) Angels descending with garments or robes to cloth the soul of the Virgin Mary. Christ appears
with his apostles, at the moment of her death. The hand of God extends out of heaven to bless the
moment.
223. British Library Series No. 3: The Benedictines in Britain, (Great Russell Street, London: The British
Library, 1980), pp. 32-- 33, plate 16.
224. Clifford Davidson, Editor, The Iconography of Heaven, Early Drama, Art, and Music, Monograph
Series, 21, (Kalamazoo, Michigan: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1994),
p. 9, British Library, MS. Lansdowne 383, fol. 168v. Mid-12th century depiction of souls ascending to
heaven on a napkin in the hands of Michael the archangel. From a miniature in the Shaftesbury Psalter.
225. Donald Matthew, Atlas of Medieval Europe, (New York; Oxford: Facts on File, 1983, 1984, 1986,
1989), pp. 84--85. Hand clasping angelic guide and another with the robe for the ascending soul of a
hermit named Guthlac, A.D. 667--714, the hermit saint of Crowland, 12th century ink drawing. 2nd one
down on page 85.
226. F. E. Halliday, An Illustrated Cultural History Of England, (New York: A Studio Book, The Viking
Press, 1967--68), p.47 & p.68: "Opus anglicanum. English ecclesiastical embroidery was recognized as
the finest in medieval Europe. Detail from the Syon Cope, c. 1280." The Shaftesbury Psalter is also
shown here too.
227. Clifford Davidson, Editor, The Iconography of Heaven, Early Drama, Art, and Music, Monograph
Series, 21, (Kalamazoo, Michigan: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1994),
p. 9. For example, the sculpture on the Percy tomb at Beverley Minster. Or on tympana at Bourges
Cathedral and Reims Cathedral.
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228. Clifford Davidson, Editor, The Iconography of Heaven, Early Drama, Art, and Music, Monograph
Series, 21, (Kalamazoo, Michigan: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1994),
p. 9.
229. Clifford Davidson, Editor, The Iconography of Heaven, Early Drama, Art, and Music, Monograph
Series, 21, (Kalamazoo, Michigan: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1994),
p. 9.
230. Mit Beitr�gen von, Gabriele Atanassiu, Mariano d' Alatri, Stanislao da Campagnola, Servus Gieben,
Engelbert Grau OFM, Raoul Manselli, Raymond Oursel, Clemente Schmitt, Franz von Assisi, (Italy;
Stuttgart, Z�rich: Belser Verlag, 1990), 176--177, Meister der Stichkappen: Allegorie der Armut, um
1320. Assisi, Unterkirche, Gew�lbe �ber dem Hauptaltar. The arms of God extend out of heaven over a
wrist grasping marriage ceremony, above which an angel holds a vest or garment.
231. G. J. Hoogewerff, De Noord-Nederlandsche Schilderkunst, Door ('S-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff,
1936), page 109, Afb. 40. De Doop in den Jordaan. Miniatuur van Michiel van der Borch, 1332. Christ
baptism with an angelic personage extending out of heaven with the baptismal robe.
232. G. J. Hoogewerff, De Noord-Nederlandsche Schilderkunst, Door ('S-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff,
1936), page 291, Afb. 133. Schets van Victor de Stuers naar de muurschildering te Bathmen (Nederl.
Spectator). Souls riding up into heaven on a blanket.
233. G. J. Hoogewerff, De Noord-Nederlandsche Schilderkunst, Door ('S-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff,
1936), page 399, Afb. 196. Meester ,,Amoz". De Doop in den Jordan. Bijbel-miniatuur, Kon. Bibl. te
's-Gravenhage. One angel holds the baptismal robes in this cases.
234. G. J. Hoogewerff, De Noord-Nederlandsche Schilderkunst, Door ('S-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff,
1936), page 501, Afb. 274. Meester der H. Elisabeth. De Legende van de Heilige. Rijksmuseum te
Amsterdam. Portion showing soul riding up into heaven on a cloth.
235. Clifford Davidson, Editor, The Iconography of Heaven, Early Drama, Art, and Music, Monograph
Series, 21, (Kalamazoo, Michigan: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1994),
p. 9.
236. Art and Archaeology, The Arts Throughout the Ages, vol. 25, January, 1928, #1, article by Vicente
Castaneda, The Royal Academy of History In Spain, p. 25.The Martyrdom of San Cugat, painted by
Alfonso de Baena, now in the Museum of Barcelona. About 15th century? Soul rides a blanket to heaven,
while ascending with the two angels holding each end of it.
237. Clifford Davidson, Editor, The Iconography of Heaven, Early Drama, Art, and Music, Monograph
Series, 21, (Kalamazoo, Michigan: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1994),
p. 9.
238. Michel Pierre, Morgan -- Antoine Sabbagh, The Human Story, Europe In The Middle Ages,
(Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Sliver Burdett Press, 1988. Originally published in 1986 by Casterman,
under the title: L' Histoire des Hommes: L' Europe du Moyen Age.), p. 34.
239. Clifford Davidson, Editor, The Iconography of Heaven, Early Drama, Art, and Music, Monograph
Series, 21, (Kalamazoo, Michigan: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1994),
p. 9.
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240. Rutherford H. Platt, Jr., Assistant Editor J. Alden Brett, The Forgotten Books of Eden, (U.S.A.:
Alpha House, Inc., 1927),The First Book of Adam and Eve, p.34.
241. Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Prince of Darkness, (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press,
1988), p.122.
242. Dr. Huge Nibley tells us that R. Akiba, cited by S. A. Horodezky. See: Nibley, What is a Temple,
(IDE-T), The Idea of a Temple in History, (Provo, Utah: F.A.R.M.S.), from: The Millennial Star 120
(Aug. 1958), pp.228-237, see pages 234, & 249, foot notes 52, & 56. R. Akiba, cited by S. A.
Horodezky, in Monatsschr.f. Gesch. u. Wins. des Judentums LXXII. 505.
243. Michel Pierre, Morgan -- Antoine Sabbagh, The Human Story, Europe In The Middle Ages,
(Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Sliver Burdett Press, 1988), p. 34, originally published in 1986 by
Casterman, under the title: L' Histoire des Hommes: L' Europe du Moyen Age.
244. Anthony S. Mercatante, The Facts On File Encyclopedia Of World Mythology & Legend, 1988,
p.57; The World Of Giotto c. 1267-1337, p.189, etc. Italy,(Mercury Books, 1954-7), pp.200--01. Kurt
Weitzmann, The Place of Book Illumination in Byzantine Art, pp.40-1, figures 33--34; John Rupert,
Martin, The Illustration of the Heavenly Ladder Of John Climacus, (Princeton: Princeton University
Press, 1954), LIX, fig.179, etc.; Antione Bon, The Ancient Civilizations of Byzantium, p.144, etc.
Barraclough, The Christian World, pp.100-1, Olga Popova, Translated by Kathleen Cook, Vladimir
Ivanov and Lenina Sorokina, Russian Illumination Manuscript, (Leningrad: Aurora Art Publishing, 1984;
U.S.A.: Thames and Hudson, Inc.), # 42: The Ladder to Paradise of St John Climacus. The Ladder, f.2
Lenin Library, Moscow (Desnitsky collection, . 439, ms 21, 1 Moscow, dated first third part of the 15th
century Paper 20; 431 ff., 2 Collection of professor Vasily Desnitsky A.D. 1878--1958; 1962, MSS
Dept., of the Lenin Library, Moscow Russia, with the Desnitsky collection.
245. Ignazio Mancini, O.F.M., Archaeological Discoveries, Relative to the Judaeo-Christians,
(Jerusalem: Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, Fran. Print. Press Jer. 1970), p.165-170.
246. Roland H. Bainton, The Horizon History of Christianity, 1964, pp. 214-15; John Harthan, The Book
of Hours, 1977; Joseph Gantner & Marcel Pobe, Romanesque Art In France, (Thames & Hudson,
Publishing, 1956), p.64, pl.135; Richard Marks & Nigel Morgan, The Golden Age Of English Manuscript
Painting (1200-1500), (New York: George Braziller Inc., 1981), figure III. p.9; Kartsonis, Anastasis,
p.72, etc.
247. Richard Cavendish, Man Myth & Magic, vol. 9, p. 2479; Cottie Anthur Burland, Beyond Science,
(Grosset & Dunlap, 1972), pp. 120--21; Eric Maple, Witchcraft, (London: Octopus Books, 1973), p. 101;
Stolen Lightning.
248. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 1, pp.17--19, 1st Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians, chapters
xlv--liv.
249. Arthur Lyons, Satan Wants You, The Cult Of Devil Worship In America, (New York; London;
Tokyo: The Mysterious Press, 1988), pp. 44--61.
250. The Ante Nicene Fathers, vol. 1, p. 39.
251. See also: The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 2, p. 174, Clement of Alexandria, A.D. 153--193--217,
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Exhortation To The Heathen, chapter 1; p. 196, chapter 9; p. 198, chapter 10; pp. 203--04, chap. 11; pp.
209--10, The Instructor, Book I, pp. 213, chap. 5, p. 215, chap. 6, Book 3, chap. 1, p. 271, The Stromata,
Or Miscellanies, Book I, p. 374, Book 2, chap. 20; p. 409, book 4, chap. 1, p. 412, chap. 4, p. 433--41,
chapters 21--26, etc.
252. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 2, p.104, see also p.105, Theophilus of Antioch [A.D. 155-168-181],
Theophilus to Autolycus, Book 2, chap. 24, see also chapter 27.
253. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol.2, pp. 9--13, 18--19, 36--37, & 44--55; The Pastor, Book 1, Visions
1--3, & 4; Book 3, Similitude 5, chap. 5--7; Sim. 6, chapter 1--4; Sim. 9, chapters 3--33; Sim. 10, chap.
1--4.
254. Isaiah 1:15-19; 22:21-25, 64:4-8; Revelations 3:5, 11-22, 6:9-11, 7:9-17, 19:7-9; The Ante-Nicene
Father, vol. 2, pp.18-19, 28, 36, (note 10), 48-50, & 53-5.
255. Curtis Vaughan, Th. D., The New Testament from 26 Translations, (Grand Rapids, Michigan:
Zondervan Publishing House, Michigan, 1967), p.1231.
256. R. Mcl. Wilson, B.D., Ph.D., The Gospel Of Philip, pp.87-91; The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol.2,
pp.165-169, 215-219, 230-1, 253-254, 263, 265-6, 453-4, & 582-3, etc.
257. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 2, p.231, Clement of Alexandria, A.D. 153--193--217, The Instructor,
Book 1, chapter 9.
258. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 2, p.231, Clement of Alexandria, A.D. 153--193--217, The Instructor,
Book 1, chapter 9.
259. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 2, p.231, Clement of Alexandria, A.D. 153--193--217, The Instructor,
Book 1, chapter 9.
260. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 2, pp. 231, 234, The Instructor, book 1, chapters 9, 12; pp. 253--54,
Book 2, chap. 8; pp. 263--66, chapters 10-- 11; pp. 425--41, The Stromata, Or Miscellanies, book 4,
chapters 13--26; pp. 445--46, chap. 1; book 5, chapters 6.
261. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 2, p. 265, Clement of Alexandria, The Instructor, Book 2, chapter 11.
262. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 2, pp. 215--17, The Instructor, book 1, chapter 6; pp. 265--66, Book
2, chap. 11; pp. 452--54, The Stromata, Or Miscellanies, book 5, chap. 6.
263. Gregory of Nyssa, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, vol.5, pp.519--520, & 524, Gregory of
Nyssa: Dogmatic Treatises, etc. (reprint June 1972, WM. B. Eerdmans); St. Gregory the Great mentions
the "white vestment (birrum) in which a person was clothed in when they rose from the font. (The Nicene
& Post-Nicene Fathers, vol.13. p.3, Epistle 6; St. Ambrose calls the garments of the early Christian
mysteries "the chaste veil of innocence"; again suggesting that the garments were symbolic of
righteousness (The Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers, vol. 10, pp. 321-3, chapters 6-7).
264. Rutherford H. Platt, Jr., Editor, & J. Alden Brett, The Forgotten Books of Eden, (U.S.A.: Alpha
House Inc., 1927), First Book of Adam and Eve, chapters xlix--li, p.33.
265. Platt, Jr., The Forgotten Books of Eden, pp. 33--34, The First Book of Adam and Eve, chapters
LI--LII.
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266. The Forgotten Books of Eden, pp.36--37, The First Book of Adam and Eve, chapter LV.
267. The Forgotten Books of Eden, p.36, The First Book of Adam and Eve, chap. LV.
268. R. G. Hammerton-Kelly, Pre-Existence Wisdom & The Son of Man, (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1973), pp. 146--50; Blake Ostler, Clothed Upon: A Unique Aspect of Christian
Antiquity, (Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press, 1982), Brigham Young University Studies,
vol. 22, Winter 1982, #1, pp. 31--45.
269. Genesis 2:4--7;- 2 Corinthians 3:17-18; 5:1-10.
270. Rev. 3:5, 5:10, 6:9-11, 7:9, 14-15, McDannell & Lang, Heaven: A History, pp. 137--41, pl.26. Jean
Bellegambe, Paradise. Century 1526-30, a portion of The Last Judgment panel. Staatliche Museen, East
Berlin. And: The Encyclopedia of Visual Art, vol. 3, p.235; O.M. Dalton, Byzantine and Archaeology,
(New York: Dover Pub. Inc., 1961), pp. 409--10, fig. 240: Sheldon Cheney, Sculpture of the World, p.
305; David M. Wilson, Anglo-Saxon Art, 7th century A.D. to the Norman Conquest, pp. 186--87, fig.
233, from a psalter (Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, lat. 943, fol. 4 v.), (Woodstock; New York: Overlook
Press, Thames & Hudson, 1984): Showing the crucifixion of Christ, but also a depiction, showing the
hand of God extending down towards His Son, Jesus Christ. Angels descend out of heaven with garments
in their arms, perhaps to be ready to cloth Christ's spirit in the martyr's garment, when His spirit leave his
body at death. See also: Encyclopedia of World Art, vol. I, pl. 432, from a Gospel Book, Illumination,
end of the 12th century A.D., Venice, S. Lazzaro (Ms. 1635, fol. 284v), Armenian Art; Kurt Weitzmann,
The Icon, 1982, pp. 30--01. Here a 10th century depiction of the 40 martyrs shows angels coming with
garments to cloth the martyrs' souls in.
271. Walter Lowrie, Art in the Early Church, (Washington Square, New York, New York: Phatheon
Books, 1947), pl. 121 a, top portion.
272. Gabriel Millet, Membre de l' Institut, Recherches Sur L' Iconographie De L' �vangile, AUX XIVe,
XVe ET XVIe SI�CLES, D'APR�S LES MONUMENTS DE MISTRA, DE LA MAC�DOINE ET DU
MONT-ATHOS, DESSINS DE SOPHIE MILLET, DEUXI�ME �DITION, (Paris, France: �DITIONS
E. DE BOCCARD, RUE DE M�DICIS, 1960), fig. 3. Icone de Ch�mokm�di, en G�orgie. (Coll. H. �t.),
right side, Christ, standing in water up to his knees, on the banks of the river are two angels holding
garments, a third angel is behind them.
273. Estelle M. Hurll, The Life Of Our Lord In Art, With Some Account of The Artistic Treatment of The
Life of St. John The Baptist, (Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1898; Cambridge, The
Riverside Press), pp. 82--83. Baptism by pouring illustrated, laying on of hands, baptismal robes in the
arms of angels. River god down in water seen. "The office of these celestial attendants [the angels,] is
ostensibly to hold the Lord's garments". See pages 82--85.
274. G. J. Hoogewerff, De Noord-Nederlandsche, Door, ('S-Gravenhage, Martinus Nijhoff, 1936), p.
564, Afb. 318. Meesters ,,Zeno" en ,,Zenobius". De Doop in den Jordaan. Miniatuur in den bijbel te
Weenen. A version of Christ's baptism which shows Christ, in almost knee high water, while John pours
water over his head. One angel holds the baptismal garment.
275. Estelle M. Hurll, The Life Of Our Lord In Art, With Some Account of The Artistic Treatment of The
Life of St. John The Baptist, (Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1898; Cambridge, The
New Temple Evidence
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Riverside Press), pp. 82--83. Baptismal robes or garments.
276. Gabriel Millet, Membre de l' Institut, Recherches Sur L' Iconographie De L' �vangile, AUX XIVe,
XVe ET XVIe SI�CLES, D'APR�S LES MONUMENTS DE MISTRA, DE LA MAC�DOINE ET DU
MONT-ATHOS, DESSINS DE SOPHIE MILLET, DEUXI�ME �DITION, (Paris, France: �DITIONS
E. DE BOCCARD, RUE DE M�DICIS, 1960), p. 172, fig. 122, Chapelle pr�s de Toqale.
277. Gabriel Millet, Membre de l' Institut, Recherches Sur L' Iconographie De L' �vangile, AUX XIVe,
XVe ET XVIe SI�CLES, D'APR�S LES MONUMENTS DE MISTRA, DE LA MAC�DOINE ET DU
MONT-ATHOS, DESSINS DE SOPHIE MILLET, DEUXI�ME �DITION, (Paris, France: �DITIONS
E. DE BOCCARD, RUE DE M�DICIS, 1960), p. 173, fig. 123. T�tra�vangile de la Biblioth�que
Nationale (Copte 13). (Archives Photographiques - Paris). Christ in neck high water, bowing his head, as
if being immersed, while the hand of God extends out of heaven, and two angels descend out of heaven
with garments. See also fig. 124. �vangile de Saint-P�tersbourg (Petropol. 21 a). (Coll. H. �t.). Christ is
in water that flows up to his neck. Two of the three angels, hold garments in their arms. The Hand of God
extends down over this event from above. See also pp. 173--215, figures 125--178, showing different
types of water levels, versions of baptism, garments, robes, the hand of God extending down out of
heaven. John the Baptist laying his hand on Christ's head, demonic forces being crushed and defeated in
the waters, like unto descent into hell depictions, plus more.
278. Peter Lasko; Editors, Nikolaus Pevsner and Judy Nairn, The Pelican History of Art, (The Pelican
History of Art, Penguin Books, 1972), vol. 36, Ars Sacra: 800--1200, pp. xii--xiii, plate 49. An angel
hold the traditional baptismal robes or garments in its arms. Bottom area of cross. From the
Annumciation to the Virgin to the Baptism of Christ. Sancta Sanctorum Chapel of the Lateran, 817--824.
Rome, Museo Sacro Vaticano.
279. The Book Of Art, (Grolier, 1979), vol. 1, p. 165. About 980. London, British Museum, (MS Add.
49598, f. 25. The Baptism of Christ, from the Benediction of St. Ethelwold. The river Jordan flows up to
Christ's mid section. John has his right hand on Christ's head, while his left is raise up. On each side of
them are angels with garments in their arms, as well as two descending out of heaven with robes in their
arms too.
280. John Beckwith, The Art of Constantinople, An Introduction to Byzantine Art 330--1453, (Greenwich
- Connecticut: Phaidon Publishers Inc., Distributed by New York Graphic Society, 1961), p. 127, fig.
167. 12th century, in a copy of the Homilies of St. Gregory Nazianzen made at Constantinople, angels
holding the robes of Christ, and others, holding the traditional baptismal garments. Paris, Bibl. Nat. gr.
550, fol. 166v.
281. Anthony Rhodes, Art Treasures Of Eastern Europe, (New York: G. P. Putnman's Sons, 1940), p.
137.
282. Roger S. Wieck, Time Sanctified, The Book of Hours in Medieval Art and Life, (New York: George
Braziller, Inc., in Association with The Walters Art Gallery Baltimore, 1988), p. 132, fig. 122. Souls
Borne to Heaven. England. ca. 1460-70 (Philadelphia Museum of Art. '45-65-6, fol. 206v; Cat. No. 113).
283. Andr� Maurois, An Illustrated History of Germany, (London: The Bodley Head, 1965, 1966,
English translation, translated from French by Stephen Hardman), pp. 174--75, traditional garments worn
during consecrations and coronation ceremonies of Roman kings, handed down from earlier generations
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as relics used in these ceremonies.
284. Blake Ostler's article in Brigham Young University Studies,(Provo, Utah: Brigham Young
University Press, 1982), vol. 22, Winter 1982, #1, pp. 31--45, Clothed Upon: Unique Aspect of Christian
Antiquity.
285. DaRell D. Thorpe, The Garments Of The First And Second Adam: [The Symbolical Meanings Of
Garments In Early To Later Christendom], (Salt Lake City, Utah: R.H. & P.S., October 1993, an
unpublished research paper at this time).
286. Powel Mills Dawley, Our Christian Heritage, Church History and the Episcopal Church, (New
York: Morehouse-Barlow Co., 1959, 3rd edition, 1960), pp.49-50; Rutherford H. Platt, Jr., Assistant
Editor J. Alden Brett, The Forgotten Books of Eden, (U.S.A.: Alpha House, Inc., 1927), The First Book
of Adam & Eve, pp.8-10, see p.25, 30.
287. Leopold Wagner, Manners, Customs, & Observances, Their Origin & Signification, (Detroit;
London: Scripta Manent, William Heinemann, 1894), republished in Detroit: Gale Research Company,
Book Tower, 1968), pp.212--13; Robert J. Myers, CELEBRATIONS, The Complete Book of American
Holidays, (Garden City, New York: The Editors of Hallmark Cards, Doubleday & Company, 1972),
pp.108 & 156-7; Lillie Patterson, A Holiday Book, Easter, 1966, pp.21-22; Aileen Fisher, A Crowell
Holiday Book, Easter, (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1968), pages not numbered. See also:
Anthony S. Mercatante, The Facts On File Encyclopedia Of World Mythology And Legend, (Oxford;
New York: Facts On File, 1988), p.673; Raymond Jahn, Concise Dictionary of Holidays, (New York:
Philosophical Library, 1958), p.100; Leslie Dunkling, A Dictionary of Days, (Oxford, England: New
York, New York: Facts On File Publishers), p.131; Gilda Berger, Easter And Other Spring Holidays,
(New York; London; Toronto; Sydney: Franklin Watts, A First Book, 1983), p.38; Gilbert Thurlow,
Biblical Myths & Mysteries, (London: Octopus Books, 1974), p.64; Charles and Morfill, The Secrets of
Enoch; Angelo S. Rappoport, Ancient Israel Myths & Legends, (New York: Bonanza Books, 1987),
vol.1, page 23, & note 1; Walter Lowrie, Art in the Early Church, pl.121; Gertrud Schiller, Iconography
of Christian Art, vol. I, fig.376; Zechariah 3:1-4; Roland H. Bainton, Behold the Christ, p.79, fig.76;
Rev.7:14-17; Hackwood, Christ Lore, p.117; Roger Adam, Baptism For the Dead, (Salt Lake City, Utah:
LDS Archives, an unpublished research thesis for the degree of Dr., 1977) pl.16, p.29, 57--9 & 61; note
23, from Cote, Archaeology, 53; Ad Fabiolam, Ep. cxxvii; Marion P. Ireland, Textile Art in the Church,
(Nashville; New York: Abingdon Press, 1966, 1967, & 1971), p. 73; Elizabeth Hough Sechrist & Janette
Woolsey, Its Time For EASTER, (Philadelphia: Macrae Smith Company, 1961), pp. 21, & 24--25;
Michel Pierre, Morgan -- Antoine Sabbagh, The Human Story, Europe In The Middle Ages, (Englewood
Cliffs, New Jersey, Sliver Burdett Press, 1988, originally published in 1986 by Casterman, under the
title: L' Histoire des Hommes: L' Europe du Moyen Age), p. 34; F. E. Halliday, An Illustrated Cultural
History Of England, (New York: A Studio Book, The Viking Press, 1967--68), p. 47 & p.68: Opus
anglicanum. English ecclesiastical embroidery, medieval Europe. Detail from the Syon Cope, c. 1280; R.
Mcl. Wilson, The Gospel Of Philip, (London: A.R. Mowbray), p.179; Nibley, Old Testament & Related
Studies, vol. 1, pp.156-7; Nibley, Temple & Cosmos, (Salt Lake City and Provo, Utah: Deseret Book, &
F.A.R.M.S., 1992), p. 108; Gospel of Truth 23:33, 24:7, in NHLE, 41; cited in Temple & Cosmos,
pp.122, see notes 67-8, on p.136.
288. Powel Mills Dawley, Our Christian Heritage, Church History and the Episcopal Church, (New
York: Morehouse-Barlow Co., 1959, 3rd edition, 1960), pp.49-50; Rutherford H. Platt, Jr., Assistant
New Temple Evidence
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Editor J. Alden Brett, The Forgotten Books of Eden, (U.S.A.: Alpha House, Inc., 1927), The First Book
of Adam & Eve, pp.8-10, see p.25, 30.
289. Peter Watkins & Erica Hughes, 1981, Here's the Year, (Great Britain: Camelot Press,
Southhampton; New York; Julia MacRae Books, 1981), p. 90.
290. DaRell Don Thorpe, GOD MAKERS MAKING GOD MAKERS, MORMONISM'S VERSION OF
DEIFICATION IN LIGHT OF HISTORIC CHRISTENDOM'S VERSIONS, (Salt Lake City, Utah:
Religious, Historical & Polemical Studies, May 2, 1998, an unpublished research paper). Thorpe, "YE
ARE GODS...CHILDREN OF THE MOST HIGH." [A STUDY OF "THE LATTER END" OF THE
PILGRIMAGES OF THE HUMAN FAMILY AND OUR POSSIBLE RETURN TO GLORY] PART
OF A SERIES BEING THE STUDY OF: THE PILGRIMAGES & STRUGGLES OF THE HUMAN
FAMILY IN AND THROUGH THE DIFFERENT REALMS OF EXISTENCES, [ALSO A STUDY OF
DEIFICATION IN THE SCRIPTURES, EARLY JEWISH & CHRISTIAN, WRITINGS, RITUALS,
ART WORKS, SYMBOLS, & LATER TRADITIONS, ETC. PLUS IN MODERN NEAR DEATH
EXPERIENCES]. THE FINAL & ULTIMATE END OF THE JOURNEY IN THE PILGRIMAGES OF
THE SOULS, (Salt Lake City, Utah: R.H. & P.S.); Keith Edward Norman, Dept. of Religion, Duke Un.,
1980, Deification: The Content Of Athanasian Soteriology, (Duke Univeristy, thesis for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy, an unpublished manuscript, pp.30-1, & note 1 on p. 31 & p.256, Der
Ubermensch-Begriff in der Theologie der alten Kirche, TU 77 (1961): p.147; Sunstone Magazine, Winter
1975, article by Keith Norman, entitled: Divinization: The Forgotten Teaching of Early Christianity; The
Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol.5, p.518, & note 13; Mormon Issues #2, 1991, Van Hale & Bill Forrest, p.3,
Issues & Answers, "Ye Shall Be As Gods", by Don Bradley, citing Giovanni Papini, The Devil, (New
York: E. P. Dutton & Co., 1954), pp. 44-6; The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol.1, p.262;.419 & 522; Vol.2,
pp.206, 215, 374, & Vol.3, pp.480, & 608; Vol.4, p.509; Vol.5, p.518, 631; The Homilies of St. Jerome,
(Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University Press, 1964), pp.106-7 & 353. The hand clasp, in many
cases, in early to later Christianity, became a symbol of deification. In that God the Father, or Christ, or
in other cases an angel would clasp the hand of the person ascending up into heaven were they would be
received into glory. David seems to hint to this in the words: "Nevertheless I am continually with thee:
thou hast holden me by my right hand. Thou shalt guide me with thy counsel, and afterwards receive me
to glory." (Psalm 73:23-24, italics added).
The Old Testament Prophet Daniel wrote: "And they that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the
firmament; & they that turn many to righteousness as the stars for ever." (Daniel 12:3); Richard
Laurence, The Book of Enoch The Prophet, 1892, pp. 84--89; J. R. Dummelow, The One Volume
Commentary, (New York, 1908), p.698; Damascus Document 2:7ff.; Prof. Daniel C. Peterson & Prof.
Stephen D. Ricks, Offenders For A Word, [How Anti-Mormons Play Word Games to Attack the
Latter-day Saints], (Salt Lake City, Utah: Aspen Books, 1992), p.78, see also notes 243-4, p.222, Peter
Hayman, "Monotheism-- A Misused Word in Jewish Studies?" Journal of Jewish Studies 42 (Spring
1991): 4-5; cf. 11-12; Alan F. Segal's Paul the Convert: The Apostolate & Apostasy of Saul the Pharisee.
New Haven: Yale, 1990, 34-71; cf. 22; John 17:17-24, 17:22 & 23, Matt.5:48; Luke 6:40; Luke 14:11;
Romans 8:16-18; Matthew 25:34-40; Colossians 3:24-25; 1 Cor.15:35-43; 2 Cor.3:17-18; Matt.13:43;
Col.1:27-28; 1 John 2:3-11, 18-29; 1 John 3:2-3; Colossians 3:4; 2 Tim.3:15-17; Heb.2:7, 9, 10; Isa.9:2,
14:9-19, 23:17-22, 41:10-16, 22-23, 42:5-7; 49:5-10, 51:14, 18, 52:1-3, 53:8-12, Psa.68:18; Eph.3:1-16,
4:7-13; Col.1:12-22, 1 Pet.3:17-22, 4:5-6; 5:4, 6; 1 Cor.15:23-28, 35-57; Anna D. Kartsonis, Anastasis
The Making of An Images, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986), p.72, etc.; J.A. Herbert,
Illuminated Manuscripts, pp.166-7, pl. XX. Pre-Existence, Wisdom & The Son Of Man, by R.G.
New Temple Evidence
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Hammerton-Kelly; The Pre-existence: Our Pre-earth Life as Spirits In A "Family In Heaven", by DaRell
D. Thorpe, 1993, an unpublished manuscript at this time. Byzantine Art & Archaeology, by O.M. Dalton,
1911, p.663, fig.420; etc. Isa.1:16-20; Heb.10:16-22; 1 Cor.6:9-11; Isa.41:22-23; Rev.3:21; 2 Tim.4:7-8,
Rev. 19:10; Phil.2:5-12; 1 Pet. 1:3-11, also see verses 12-16; 2 Pet.1:2-11; Ephesians 4:10-13;
Matt.25:21, 23, etc.
291. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 2, pp. 48--55, 67--68, 71--74, 91, 93, 104--05, 198--99, 202-- 06,
209--17, 222, 265--66, 418--19, 426--30, 576; Roland H. Bainton in The Renaissance, Six Essays, (New
York: Harper Torchbooks, The Academy Library, Harper & Row Publishers, 1962. Originally published
by The Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1953 under the title: The Renaissance: A Symposium), pp.
77--96, see essay IV Man, God, And The Church In The Age Of The Renaissance, Bainton.
292. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 2, pp. 48--55, 67--68, 71--74, 91, 93, 104--05, 198--99, 202-- 06,
209--17, 222, 265--66, 418--19, 426--30, 576; Roland H. Bainton in The Renaissance, Six Essays, (New
York: Harper Torchbooks, The Academy Library, Harper & Row Publishers, 1962. Originally published
by The Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1953 under the title: The Renaissance: A Symposium), pp.
77--96, see essay IV Man, God, And The Church In The Age Of The Renaissance, Bainton.
293. Thomas Cooper, in The Mystery of Witchcraft, may have heard of these things as an outsider, and
thus may have presented a biased outsider's view point. Rossell Hope Robbins, The Encyclopedia of
Witchcraft and Demonology, (New York, New York: Bonanza Books, Crown Publishing, MCMLIX),
pp.370-1, see heading: Pact with the Devil.
294. Raymond Buckland, Witchcraft From the Inside, (Saint Paul, Minnesota: Llewellyn Publishing,
1971, 1975), pp.58--64.
295. Russell, The Prince of Darkness, p. 117.
296. Russell, The Prince of Darkness, pp.117--18.
297. Russell, The Prince of Darkness, p.119, Abbey church of Souillac, 12th century A.D.
298. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 2, p. 291, Clement of Alexandria, A.D. 153--193--217, The
Instructor, Book 3, chapter 11, under the heading Love and the Kiss of Charity, see notes 1--2. The
apostolic ordinances included shaking hands. This traditional hand clasping ordinances eventually
became a tradition called the kiss of peace. This tradition eventually passed down through the ages and
became a greeting. There is also indication here in note 1 that the early Christians were to guard
themselves in making the holy kiss of peace unholy. Thus, even during the early days of the primitive
Church, there may have been those who were performing Satan's counterfeit of this rite. (See also: De
Maistre, Soir�es, ii. p. 199, ed. Paris, 1850; Bunsen, Hippol., iii. p. 15).
299. Michael Batterberry, Art of the Early Renaissance, (Milan Italy: Fratelli Fabbri, 1961--64, 1968),
pp. 120--21, pl. 130, Jacopo Bellini, 1395--1471. Christ's descent into limbo, showing Adam on his
knees giving the hand clasping homage and kiss of peace greeting to Christ, the King of Kings, and
banner bearer.
300. Albert E. Bailey, The Gospel In Art, (Boston & Chicago: Pilgrim Press, 1916), pp. 382--85, John
Pope-Hannessy, Fra Angelico, (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1952 & 1974), pl. 70.
301. Albert E. Bailey, The Gospel In Art, (Boston & Chicago: Pilgrim Press, 1916), pp. 382--85, John
New Temple Evidence
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Pope-Hannessy, Fra Angelico, (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1952 & 1974), pl. 70.
302. Thorpe, The Christ in Santa Unmasked, (Salt Lake City, Utah: R.H. & P.S., 1996); Thorpe, Who's
That Behind The Mask of Legends, (Salt Lake City, Utah: R.H. & P.S., 1997).
303. C.T. Lewis & C. Short, A Latin Dictionary (Oxford: Clarendon, 1890), s.v; Isaiah 42:6-7; The
Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 4, p.488, Origen Against Celsus; DaRell D. Thorpe, The Pilgrimage &
Struggles of the Human Family In & Through the Different Realms of Existences (Salt Lake City, Utah:
R.H. & P.S., 1991, an unpublished research file and manuscript); Nibley, Mormonism & Early
Christianity. In an anti-Mormon tract, Sacred Ceremony Secret Ritual or Sinister Trap? (Park City, Utah:
HIS Ministries), the author cites a number of references in which different types of hand clasps and grips
are done in the occult. What this author seems to ignore is the fact that historic Christianity also has hand
clasping too. See also: Mortan Smith, The Secret Gospel, The Discovery & Interpretation of the Secret
Gospel According to Mark, (New York: Harper & Row, 1973), pp. 72--123; Stephen Benko, Primitive
Romans and The Early Christians, (Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1984), pp.1--162; F.A. Wright,
Fathers of the Church (London: George Routledge & Sons, 1928), pp. 26--51; R. Joseph Hoffmann,
Celsus On The True Doctrine, A Discourse Against the Christians, (Oxford University Press, 1987), pp.
95--96; Robert M. Grant, David Noel Freedman, etc., The Secret Sayings of Jesus, (Garden City, New
York: Doubleday & Company, 1960), pp.17--187; DaRell D. Thorpe, Jesus Christ's "Everlasting
Gospel" & Ancient "Patternism," [Being: A study in Early Christian History on into Later Ages of the
Great Apostasy. Also the Retrogression of the early Christian Doctrines. Also a study of Early Christian:
Baptism for the living & Dead, Christ's Descent into the realms of the spirits to preach the gospel,
baptismal fonts, The horn for anointing oil, Washing & Anointings, garments & the white robes, the New
Name, The pre-existence, Oaths or vows, handclasps, prayer gestures, circles, the veil, the embrace,
deification or becoming gods, 3 in the godhead, marriage, In both early Christian writings & Art works,
Also Modern critics & the early anti-Christians, etc.], (Salt Lake City, Utah: Religious, Historical,
Polemical Studies, 1990); Thorpe, Early Christianity In the Ancient Americas & Old & New World
Parallels, (Salt Lake City, Utah: R.H. & P.S., 1990); Thorpe, The Ancient & Modern Anti-Christs
Against the Early Saints & the "Latter-day Saints" (Salt Lake City, Utah: R.H. & P.S., 1990, revised
1992, 1996 & 1997); DaRell D. Thorpe, June 2, 1991, KTKK, OR K-"TALK" Radio 630 AM, radio, in
Utah. Martin Tanner "Religion on the Line". Thorpe on KTKK, May 18, 1991, with Joe Sanders. Thorpe
on KTKK, June 28, 1991, with Jim Kirkwood. See also: By Study and Also By Faith, vol. 1: William J.
Hamblin, Provo Utah, Aspects of an Early Christian Initiation Ritual; Todd M. Compton, Los Angeles,
California, chapter 24, The Handclasp & Embrace as Tokens of Recognition, p.611-42, (Salt Lake City,
& Provo, Utah: Deseret Book and F.A.R.M.S., 1990). See also: Nibley, The Message of the Joseph Smith
Papyri, an Egyptian Endowment, (Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Books, 1975). Nibley, The Early
Christian Church in the Light of Some Newly Discovered Papyri from Egypt, (Provo, Utah: F.A.R.M.S.,
Nibley 1985), Tri-Stake Fireside, March 3, 1964; Joseph Gantner & Marcel Pobe, Romanesque Art In
France, pl.135 & p.64; Bainton, The Horizon History of Christianity, pp.214-5; The Ante-Nicene
Fathers, vol.1 p.200, chapter 11 & p.207 chapter 26, Justin Martyr, Dialogue With Trypho. And:
Weitzmann, The Icon, pp.170, 225, 282--83, 342--43; Lowrie, Art in the Early Church, pl.100; Gothic
Painting I p.48; The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 3, pp. 157--58, Tertullian: An Answer to the Jews, &
Palms 73:23-4; Gilles Quispel Professor, 1979, The Secret Book of Revelation, p.48; Kurt Weitzmann
1979, Age Of Spirituality, # 438: left; Ernst Kjellberg & Gosta Saflund, Greek & Roman Art, p.208 fig.
192; George Ferguson, Signs & Symbols in Christian Art, p. 42; William Henry Paine Hatch 1931, Greek
& Syrian Miniatures in Jerusalem, pl. lxviii, pp.124-5; Russell, Satan, The Early Christian Tradition,
New Temple Evidence
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1981, pp.118--22, citing Tertullian, Res. 44; Palms 16:8-10; 17:4-7; 20:6; 24:3-10; 25:4-5; 68:18 &
Ephesians 4:7-10; "Nevertheless I am continually with thee: thou hast holden me by my right hand. Thou
shalt guide me with thy counsel, & afterward receive me to glory." (Psalms 73:23-4; Psalms 89:13;
118:16-21; & Psalm 23; Robert Huges, 1968, Heaven & Hell in Western Art, pp. 190--01; Lundy,
Monumental Christianity, pp. 26--27; Hackwood, Christ Lore, p.5; Acts 20:29-30; Roman 16:18; 1
Corinthians 1:10-13; 14:23-33; 2 Corinthians 11:13-15; Gal.2:4; Ephesians 4:11-32; 2 Thess. chapter 2; 1
Peter 3:15-16; 2 Peter 2:1-3, 18-22; 1 John 2:18-19; Jude 4; etc. Stephen Benko, Pagan Rome and The
Early Christians, p.54, also see n.1 & 2, on p.74, Frend, Martyrdom & Persecution In The Early Church,
pp. 187-8; Pellistrandi, Early Christian Civilization, pp. 180-199; H. Spencer Lewis, F. R. C., Ph.D., The
Secret Doctrines of Jesus, (San Jose, California: Rosicrucian Library, Supreme Grand Lodge,
A.M.O.R.C., 1937 & 1965), vol. 4, pp. 23, 25-9, 84 & 146; H.P. Blavatsky 1877, Isis Unveiled,
(Pasadena, California: Theosophical University Press, 1988), vol.2: Theology, p.204; Doane, Bible
Myths, fig. No. 27, taken from the work of Gorrio (Tab XXXV.), & p.344; The Ante-Nicene Fathers,
vol. 4 pp.583-4, Origen Against Celsus, book 6, chapters 22--24; A. S. Garretson, Primitive Criticism
and Early Christianity, (Boston: Sherman, French and Company, 1912), pp. 71--73. Etc.
304. John 10:30-38; Psalms 82:6; Isa.41:22-3; The Homilies of Jerome, (Washington, D.C.: The Catholic
University of American Press, 1964), pp.106-7, & p.353; DaRell D. Thorpe, God Makers Making God
Makers, Mormonism's Version Of Deification In Light Of Historic Christendom's Versions, (Salt Lake
City, Utah: R.H. & P.S., May 2, 1998). Justin Martyr, The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 1, p. 262, chapter
cxxiv, Dialogue With Trypho; p. 419 & 522; Iren�us; vol. 2, pp. 206, 215, 374, 437, Clement of
Alexandria; vol. 3, pp. 480 & 608, Tertullian; vol. 4, p. 509, Origen; vol. 5, pp. 263--64, 518, Thascius
Cyprian, A.D., 200--258; p. 631, Novatian, a Roman Presbyter, A.D. 210--280; The Nicene and
Post-Nicene Fathers, vol.4, pp. 65, 159, 311, 328-9, 385, 405-6, 411, 413, 415, 477, 572, 576, 578-9;
vol. 7, pp. I, xi, 2; Keith Edward Norman, Deification: The Content of Athanasian Soteriology, (Duke
University, Department of Religion, thesis for degree of Doctor of Philosophy, 1980), pp. 241--42, &
note 1 on p. 214.
305. Justin Martyr must have also been aware of this belief amongst the different Jewish sects, when he
made a response to the Jews in his Dialogue With Trypho, The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol.1, pp. 199, 213,
220-4, 228-30, 232 & 264; Garretson, Primitive Christianity and Early Criticisms, pp. 47--55; Seaich,
Ancient Text & Mormonism, preface iii-iv; E. A. Wallis Budge, The Gods of The Egyptians or Studies In
Egyptian Mythology, (London: Methuen and Company, 1904), vol. 2, pp.140--02.
306. Justin Martyr must have also been aware of this belief amongst the different Jewish sects, when he
made a response to the Jews in his Dialogue With Trypho, The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol.1, pp. 199, 213,
220-4, 228-30, 232 & 264; Garretson, Primitive Christianity and Early Criticisms, pp. 47--55; Seaich,
Ancient Text & Mormonism, preface iii-iv; E. A. Wallis Budge, The Gods of The Egyptians or Studies In
Egyptian Mythology, (London: Methuen and Company, 1904), vol. 2, pp.140--02.
307. Will Durant, 1944, The Story of Civilization, Part 3: Caesar and Christ, vol. 3, pp. 226--67, 256,
260, 268--69, 274, 280, 291--92, 309, 388, 430, 432, 523, 623, 640--01, 646, see deification in the index
on p. 716.
308. Charles Norris Cochrane, Christianity and Classical Culture, (Clarendon Press, 1940; Paperback
Oxford University Press, 1957), pp. 266--67.
309. Hoffmann, Celsus On The True Doctrine, pp. 58-60, & 65
New Temple Evidence
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310. Pellistrandi, The Early Christian Civilization, pp. 180-199.
311. Durant, The Story of Civilization: Part 3, Caesar & Christ, vol. 3, pp. 226-7, 256, 260, 268-9, 274,
280, 291-2, 309, 388, 430, 432, 523, 623, 640-1, 646, & index: "deification," p.716; Justin Martyr 1st
Apol. cited by Lyon, Apostasy to Restoration, pp. 77-8.
312. Durant, The Story of Civilization: Part 3, Caesar & Christ, vol. 3, pp. 226-7, 256, 260, 268-9, 274,
280, 291-2, 309, 388, 430, 432, 523, 623, 640-1, 646, & index: "deification," p.716; Justin Martyr 1st
Apol. cited by Lyon, Apostasy to Restoration, pp. 77-8.
313. Allen Richardson, An Index of Biblical Polemics, (Kearns, Utah: an unpublished research paper
given to me 1985 or 86), p.83; Kersey Grave's World's 16 Crucified Saviors, & Higgins, Anac., Vol. I,
p.378; Volney, Ruin of Empires, p.169. H. Spencer Lewis, The Mystical Life of Jesus, 1929, p.83 & 134;
T.W. Doane 1882, 7th ed. 1910, Bible Myths, pp. 211--14, 124--25; Garretson, Primitive Criticism and
The Early Christians, pp. 214--27; Hoffmann, Celsus On The True Doctrine, p.57, 66--67; Lundy,
Monumental Christianity, pp. 68-70; The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 1, p.181, 1st Apology, chapter LIV,
Justin Martyr.
314. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 1, p. 233, chapter lxix, Justin Martyr, Dialogue With Trypho, and
p.185, 1st Apology, chapter LXVI, Justin Martyr; Alfred Firmin Loisy, The Birth of the Christian
Religion & the Origins of the New Testament, (University Books, 1962), pp. 206--07; Wilken, The
Christian As The Romans Saw Them, pp.19--21; Francis Legge, Forerunners and Rivals of Christianity,
(New Hyde Park, New York: University Books, 1964), vol.2, p.247, & n.4; Benko, Pagan Rome and The
Early Christians, pp. 10--11, 54-6, 60-78.
315. Lundy, Monumental Christianity, p.66, citing from Tertullain's De Pras. Haret. c.40; Everett
Ferguson, & others, Encyclopedia of Early Christianity, (New York; London: Garland Publishing, 1990),
pp. 609--10, see: Mithraism, also: Justin, 1 Apol. 66; Tertullian, Praescr. 40.
316. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol.1, pp.184-- 85, 1st Apology, chapter LXIV, Justin Martyr; Benko,
Pagan Rome and The Early Christians, p.64; Lyon, Apostasy to Restoration, pp. 58--59, & 108--09.
317. Hoffmann, Celsus On The True Doctrine, pp. 21-22, & n.27 on p.47.
318. Lyon, Apostasy to Restoration, pp. 58--59, & 108--09.
319. Todd Compton, By Study & Also By Faith, vol.1, pp. 619--20; Legge, Forerunners and Rivals of
Christianity, vol. 2, pp. 244--45.
320. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 4, pp. 177--79, Minucius Felix, A.D. 210, The Octavius Of Minucius
Felix, chapters IX; and pp. 583--87, & book 6, chapters 22-31, Origen Against Celsus; Legge,
Forerunners And Rivals of Christianity, vol. 2, pp. 244--45; Compton, By Study and Also By Faith, vol.
1, chapter 24, pp. 633, note 23, p. 635, note 48.
321. Allen Richardson, An Index Of Biblical Polemics, (Kearns, Utah: not dated, unpublished, copy
given to me by Richardson around 1985 or 1986?) p.58; Harold Willoughby, Regeneration, p.26; Hunter,
The Gospel Through the Ages, pp. 34-- 35; Nibley, The Message of the Joseph Smith Papyri, an Egyptian
Endowment, explanation xxi; Seaich, Ancient Texts & Mormonism, pp.106--07.
322. Doane, Bible Myths, pp. 344, fig.27, Gorrio Tab. 35; Giovanni Becatti, The Art of Ancient Greece &
New Temple Evidence
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Rome, 1968, p.345 fig.327; Ed. Charles Osborne & others, The Emergence of Man, 1975 Time-Life,
p.118; Ernesto Vergara Caffarelli & Giacomo Caputo 1966, The Buried City, pp. 42--43, & 58;
Compton, By Study and Also By Faith, vol. 1, chapter 24, pp. 633, note 23, p. 635, note 48.
323. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 1, pp. 181, The First Apology, Justin Martyr, chapter LIV; Yves
Bonnefoy, Mythologies, (Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1991), volumes 1 & 2.
324. DaRell D. Thorpe, Ancient & Modern Anti-Christs Against The Early Saints & "The Latter-day
Saints" (Salt Lake City, Utah: R.H. & P.S., 1990).
325. DaRell D. Thorpe, Ancient & Modern Anti-Christs Against The Early Saints & "The Latter-day
Saints" (Salt Lake City, Utah: R.H. & P.S., 1990).
326. Garretson, Primitive Christianity and The Early Christians, p. 8; The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 4,
pp. 422-3, book 1, chapter lx, Origen Against Celsus; Hoffmann, Celsus On The True Doctrine, p.77;
Hippolytus, Elenchos 5.17.1-2 & 8, as quoted in II, 230; Joseph Campbell, The Mythic Image, (Princeton
University Press, 1974), pp. 298--99, & foot note 15, on p. 298, as found on p.507, see also p.299 or IV.
299; Nibley, Temple & Cosmos, pp.159--60, fig.39-E.
327. DaRell D. Thorpe, Ancient & Modern Anti-Christs Against The Early Saints & "The Latter-day
Saints" (Salt Lake City, Utah: R.H. & P.S., 1990).
328. Wilken, The Christians As The Romans Saw Them, pp. 18--25; Lyon, Apostasy to Restoration, pp.
110--11; F.A. Wright, Fathers of the Church, (London: 1928), p.37; Benko, Pagan Rome and The Early
Christians, pp.10-13, 54-78; Pellistrandi, The Early Christian Civilization, pp. 180-199; Note: 10. For a
discussion of libertine Christian groups as well as a translation of key texts, see Stephen Benko, Pagan
Criticism of Christianity during the First Two Centuries A.D., Aufstieg und Niedergang der romischen
Welt, ed. H. Temporini & W. Haase (Berlin, 1980), 23.2: 1081-89. Also Benko's article, The Libertine
Gnostic Sect of the Phibionites according to Epiphanius. Vigilae Christianae 21 (1967): 103-19; The
Octavius of Marcus Minicius Felix, Ancient Christian Writers, no. 39 (New York: 1974), p.221 ff. Trans.
by G. W. Clarke, Octavius 9.5-6; Celsus On The True Doctrine, pp.16--17; Athenagoras, Legatio 3.1;
31-32.
329. Lyon, Apostasy to Restoration, pp.107--08, 119-121; The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, vol. 13,
pp. 20, 82-3, Gregory the Great, Bishop of Rome, writings to Quirius, Epistle lxvii; Gregory to
Marinianus, Bishop of Ravenna (Ep. lxxix); Will Durant 1944, Caesar & Christ, pp. 600, & notes 28-29;
Acts 8:14-17; 19:1-6; Catholic Encyclopeida IV, 217-8.
330. The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, vol. 7, pp. 104-114, Cyril of Jerusalem, Lecture 15, & p.1 of
Intro., pp. 144--57, Five Catechetical Lectures, Lectures XIX--XXIII; The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 1,
p.165, 181 & 190, Justin Martyr, 1st Apology, chapter 9, chapter LIV, & 2nd Apology, chapter v.
331. The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd series, vol. 7, p. 110, Cyril of Jerusalem, Lecture 15:18.
332. The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd series, vol. 7, p. 110, Cyril of Jerusalem, Lecture 15:18; 2
Thess. 2:7.
333. The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd series, vol. 7, p. 114, Cyril of Jerusalem, Lecture 15:33.
334. The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd series, vol. 5, pp. 518-24, Gregory of Nyssa, On The
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Baptism of Christ. See also: By Study & Also By Faith, vol.1, pp. 620--23, Lowrie, Art in the Early
Church, pl.100; Early Christian Art, fig.83; The Lost Books of the Bible, pp. 86-8; Christ's Image, pp.
129; Isa.42:6-7; The ABC's Of The Bible, (Reader's Digest), Ed. Kaari Ward, & many others, 1991,
p.139, & 219; Art of the Early Renaissance, pp. 78, 80-1, 184, fig.79.
335. The Nicene and Post-Nicene Father, 2nd series, vol. 10, Ambrose, p. xiii, III. Historical Summary &
Chronological Tables, & pp.315-325; pp. 411-22, see Ep.18:30-32, on p.421, Ambrose reply (Ep.17, 18)
has been dated about 384, according to the III. Historical Summary & Chronological Tables, on p. xiii of
Prolegomena of St. Ambrose.
336. The Nicene and Post-Nicene Father, 2nd series, vol. 10, Ambrose, p. xiii, III. Historical Summary &
Chronological Tables, & pp.315-325; pp. 411-22, see Ep.18:30-32, on p.421, Ambrose reply (Ep.17, 18)
has been dated about 384, according to the III. Historical Summary & Chronological Tables, on p. xiii of
Prolegomena of St. Ambrose.
337. The Nicene and Post-Nicene Father, 2nd series, vol. 10, Ambrose, p. xiii, III. Historical Summary &
Chronological Tables, & pp.315-325; pp. 411-22, see Ep.18:30-32, on p.421, Ambrose reply (Ep.17, 18)
has been dated about 384, according to the III. Historical Summary & Chronological Tables, on p. xiii of
Prolegomena of St. Ambrose.
338. DaRell D. Thorpe, The Mystery Behind The Mysteries, Ritualistic Realm Pilgrims In Early to Later
Christian Mysteries, (Salt Lake City, Utah: R.H. & P.S., an unpublished research paper for a college
class. HIS 190-01 Spec. Studies. Instructor: Marianne McKnight. Student: DaRell D. Thorpe, Winter
1997, Salt Lake Community College, Winter Quarter, 1997).
339. DaRell D. Thorpe, Upon Them Hath The Light Shined, (Salt Lake City, Utah: Religious, Historical
and Polemical Studies, 1993--96); Anna D. Kartsonis, Anastasis, The Making of An Image, (Princeton:
Princeton University Press, 1986).
340. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 3, pp. 157--58, Tertullian, An Answer To The Jews, chapter 7.
341. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 7, p. 111, Lactantius, The Divine Institues, Book IV, chapter XII.
342. DaRell D. Thorpe, Christ, The World Wide Wounded Wanderer, (Salt Lake City, Utah: R. H. & P.
S., 1997, 2001).
343. James Harvey Robinson, PH.D., CR 1902, 1903, 1916, 1918, 1919, Medieval And Modern Times,
(Boston, New York, etc., The Athenaeum Press, Ginn and Co., Proprietors, Boston, U.S.A.) pp. 75-76,
see also fig. 23. CHARLEMAGNE.
344. Gertrude Hartman's The World We Live In and How It Came To Be, (A Pictured Outline of Man's
Progress from the Earliest Days to the Present), (CR 1931 Hartman; New York: The Macmillan Co.,
1961): Chapter IX, In Feudal Days; pages 127-142.
345. Hayes, Moon, & Wayland, World History, p. 319.
346. Hartman, The World We Live In and How It Came To Be, pp. 132-33.
347. T. W. Doane, Bible Myth, And Their Parallels In Other Religions, (New York: The Truth Seeker
Company, 1882 & 1910), p. 358, etc.
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348. Mireille Mentre, Cr�ation et Apocalypse, L' imaginaire m�di�val, Historie d'un regard humain sur
le divin, (Paris: O.E.I.L.,), p. 115. Premi�re image du cycle de la Creation: le Verbe Cr�ateur, la colombe
de l'Esprit Saint sur les eaux originelles. Le Createur est dans un medaillon perle (mandorle de gloire).
Both of Eve's hands, clasped together, rest in the left hand palm of Christ or God, who pulls her out of
the sleeping Adam's right side. George Robinson, Commentary, Photos, David Finn, The Florence
Baptistery Doors, (New York: A Studio Book, The Viking Press, 1980), pp. 197, & 222, 226--27, Panel
1. Genesis: Ghiberti's representation of the beginnings of the human family on the earth. Portion showing
the creation of Adam, in which God, or pre-incarnate Christ, with his right hand raised up, grips, with his
left hand, the left hand of Adam.
349. John Pope-Hennessy, Italian Renaissance Sculpture, (London: Phaidon Press, 1958), fig. 110, see
also fig. 116. Grotte Vaticane, Rome. Marble carving, Giovanni Dalmata. Eve is raised up out of the
sleeping Adam side by God, who grips, with his left hand, the right wrist of Eve.
350. Dr. E. S. Drower, The Secret Adam, p. 24.
351. F. De Noble, Les Ivories Gothiques Francais, (Paris: 1968), plate 10, # 26, (2). Adam and Eve,
covered up by some of the plants in the Garden of Eden, make gestures, perhaps as they are shown them
by the pre-incarnate Christ. Adam, standing with up-lifted hands, the traditional historic Christian prayer
gesture. Christ, perhaps instructing Adam in the next series of ritualistic gestures, stand near by with his
right hand raised, while by his side in front of his mid section, his left hand is held with the palm up.
352. Creation et Apocalypse, p. 94, Olim Strasbourg, Bibl. de la Ville, Hortus, fol. 17, Herrade de
Landsberg, Hortus Deliciarum. Hohenbourg, XIIes. (dessin du XIXe s.) Creation de l' homme et de la
femme. Dieu doona la vie au corps d' Adam: puis lui insuffle l' esprit: llcree ensuite Eve, et place Adam
et Eve dans l'Eden, aupres de l' arbe de la connaissance du bien et du mal. Christ enthroned, grips, with
his left, the right hand of Adam, and with his right, he grips Adam's left wrist. Another portion shows,
Eve, with up lifted hands, perhaps in a prayer gesture, being created from Adam's rib. In another portion,
Adam and Eve are being spoken to by God, or perhaps the pre-incarnate Christ, who is grasping, with his
left hand, the right wrist of Adam. Eve, standing next to Adam, has her right hand raised up, perhaps
performing an oath or vow gesture.
353. Jay Jacobs, Editor in Charge, The Horizon Book of Great Cathedrals, (USA: American Heritage
Pub., English edition, 1968), pp. 284--85. 13th century depiction of the creation drama. Mosaics in the
atrium of St. Mark's, showing different events: An Angel, with up-lifted hands, besides the pre-incarnate
Christ, helps in the creation, separating the light from the darkness. Three angels, or perhaps two angels
with the pre-incarnate Christ, make other gestures during the creation drama, for the two angels lift up
their right hands and extend their left hands out at mid level with their palms up. Centuries earlier, the
third century early Christian apologist, Origen, in response to the early anti-Christian, Celsus, wrote how
that they teach that "wisdom will not enter into the soul of a base man nor dwell in a body that is
involved in sin," [Wisdom of Solomon I:4], we say, Who ever has clean hands, and therefore lifts up
holy hands to God, and by reason of being occupied with elevated and heavenly things, can say, "The
lifting up of my hands is as the evening sacrifice," [citing Psalm 141:2]. He goes on to invite those who
have repented of their sins to be "initiated in the mysteries of Jesus," (The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 4,
pp. 487--88, Origen Against Celsus, book 3, chapters LIX & LX, citing also Psalm 141:2. Prayer
gestures, with up-lifted hands, and oath gestures, with one hand raised up, were common in early
Christian iconography and art works. See: Andr� Grabar, Christian Iconography, (New York, New York:
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Bollingen Series XXV. 10, & Princeton University Press, 1968, by the Trustees of the National Gallery
of Art, Washington D.C.), pp. 9--10, 32--34, 211, figures 13, 15--16, 57, 59, 60 & 232; Andr� Grabar,
Byzantine Painting, Historical & Critical Study, (New York: Skira Rizzoli, 1979, first published in
1953); Grabar, translation by Stuart Gilbert and James Emmons, The golden age of JUSTINIAN, From
the Death of Theodosius to the Rise of Islam, (New York: Odyssey Press, 1967, arrangement with
Editions Gallimard); Grabar, The Great Centuries of Painting, Byzantine Painting, Historical and
Critical Study of Andre Grabar, Albert Skira (Editor), (Geneva, Switzerland: 1953); Grabar, Early
Christian Art, From the Rise of Christianity to the Death of Theodosius, translated by Stuart Gilbert and
James Emmons, (New York: Odyssey Press, 1968); Wolgang Fritz Volbach, Early Christian Art, figures
8 & 10. Kurt Weitzmann, The Place of Book Illumination in Byzantine Art, pp. 100--01, fig. 2. Third day
of creation, showing three angels with the pre-incarnate Christ, or God. Copy made for N. Peirese after
Cotton Genesis miniature. Paris, Bibliotheque National. cod. fr.9530, fol. 32. After Omont. J. J. Tillanen
notes the close relationship between the 13th century creation cycle of scenes of Genesis in San Marco
and in the miniatures of the 5th and 6th century Bible in the British Museum once owned by Sir Robert
Cotton. He announced his findings in a 1888 article. See also: DaRell D. Thorpe, The Pilgrimage and
Struggles of the Human Family In and Through the Different Realms of Existences, (Salt Lake City,
Utah: Religious, Historical & Polemical Studies = R.H. & P. S., 1991); Thorpe, The Grand Pilgrimage:
(Footnoting In & "Out of the Best Books"), (SLC. Utah, R. H. & P. S., 1992), vol.1, Part 1, Issues 1-4,
April-Aug, 1992; Thorpe, The Pre-existence: Our Pre-earth Life As Spirits In A "Family In Heaven"
(SLC., Utah, R.H & P.S., 1992; Thorpe, The Garments Of The First And Second Adam: [The Symbolical
Meanings Of Garments In Early To Later Christendom], (SLC., Utah, October 1993); Rutherford H.
Platt, Jr., Editor, The Forgotten Books of Eden, (USA, Newfoundland: Alpha House, 1926), pp. 3--81;
Dr. Huge W. Nibley, Old Testament and Related Studies, (Salt Lake City and Provo, Utah: Foundation
for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies & Deseret Book Co., 1986), pp. 77--79, 136--169, 173--214.
354. H. Th. Musper, Gotische Malerei n�rdlich der Alpen, (Germany: Verlag M. DuMont Schauberg,
K�ln, 1961), fig. 168. Meister Bertram, Grabower Altar, rechter Flugel, Hamburg, Kunsthalle. As God,
or perhaps the pre-incarnate Christ, creates Eve from a rib pulled out of the side of the sleeping Adam.
She greets him with up-lifted hands as if in praise or prayer. Another portion shows Adam and Eve
before the pre-incarnated Christ, who make finger gestures to bless and instruct them. Adam's right hand
is raised up, while Eve's is too, with the palm of her right hand facing outward. Her left hand is down
across her mid section.
355. Edith Rothe, Mediaeval Book Illumination in Europe, The Collection of the German Democratic
Republic, (Berlin, Germany: Union Verlag (VOB), 1966; this edition (London: Thames & Hudson; New
York: W. W. Norton & Company), see top half portion of a two part scene. Fig. 23. Otto von Freising:
Universal chronicle. Adam and Eve. Schaftlarn, 1157--77., p. 191. The hand of God extends out of
heaven during the creation of Eve, while she exits out of Adam's side with up lifted palms, one of which
may be reaching up to clasp the hand of God, for in other depictions, her hand or wrist is grasped by
Deity. Another portion, show an angel, armed with a sword, banishing them from the Garden. As they
leave they make gestures by holding the fig leave covering in front of them, with their left hands, while
their right hands are raised up.
356. The Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers, 1972 reprint, vol. 5, pp. 518--524, see especially p. 524,
Gregory of Nyssa, On The Baptism of Christ.
357. Jay Jacobs, Editor in Charge, The Horizon Book of Great Cathedrals, (USA: American Heritage
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Pub., English edition, 1968), pp. 284--85. 13th century depiction of the creation drama. Mosaics in the
atrium of St. Mark's, showing different events. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 4, pp. 487--88, Origen
Against Celsus, book 3, chapters LIX & LX, citing also Psalm 141:2. Andr� Grabar, Christian
Iconography, (New York, New York: Bollingen Series XXV. 10, & Princeton University Press, 1968, by
the Trustees of the National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.), pp. 9--10, 32--34, 211, figures 13, 15--16,
57, 59, 60 & 232; Kurt Weitzmann, The Place of Book Illumination in Byzantine Art, pp. 100--01, fig. 2.
Third day of creation, showing three angels with the pre-incarnate Christ, or God. Copy made for N.
Peirese after Cotton Genesis miniature. Paris, Bibliotheque National. cod. fr.9530, fol. 32. After Omont.
J. J. Tillanen notes the close relationship between the 13th century creation cycle of scenes of Genesis in
San Marco and in the miniatures of the 5th and 6th century Bible in the British Museum once owned by
Sir Robert Cotton. He announced his findings in a 1888 article. See also: DaRell D. Thorpe, The
Pilgrimage and Struggles of the Human Family In and Through the Different Realms of Existences, (Salt
Lake City, Utah: Religious, Historical & Polemical Studies = R.H. & P. S., 1991); Thorpe, The Grand
Pilgrimage: (Footnoting In & "Out of the Best Books"), (SLC. Utah, R. H. & P. S., 1992), vol.1, Part 1,
Issues 1-4, April-Aug, 1992; Thorpe, The Pre-existence: Our Pre-earth Life As Spirits In A "Family In
Heaven" (SLC., Utah, R.H & P.S., 1992; Thorpe, The Garments Of The First And Second Adam: [The
Symbolical Meanings Of Garments In Early To Later Christendom], (SLC., Utah, October 1993);
Rutherford H. Platt, Jr., Editor, The Forgotten Books of Eden, (USA, Newfoundland: Alpha House,
1926), pp. 3--81; Dr. Huge W. Nibley, Old Testament and Related Studies, (Salt Lake City and Provo,
Utah: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies & Deseret Book Co., 1986), pp. 77--79,
136--169, 173--214; The Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers, 1972 reprint, vol. 5, pp. 518--524, see
especially p. 524, Gregory of Nyssa, On The Baptism of Christ..
358. Kurt Weitzmann, Age of Spirituality, Late Antique and Early Christian Art, 3rd to 7th century, (New
York: New York Metropolitan Museum of Art, exhibited No. 19, 1977 through Feb. 12, 1978), p. 413, #
371, marble, A. D. 300--310, showing a person praying with up-lifted hands, and the marriage of Adam
and Eve, clasping each others' right hands.
359. Hanns Swarzenski, Monuments of Romanesque Art, The Art of Church Treasures in North-Western
Europe, (London: Faber & Faber, 1954, 2nd edition, 1967), fig. 222. Initial I. Adam and Eve before God,
them being banished, clothed in garments making gestures with their arms. Stavelot, end of the 11th
century. Their right hands are up by their chest area, while their left hands are raised up, a little above
their mid section, palms facing out. Edith Rothe, Mediaeval Book Illumination in Europe, The Collection
of the German Democratic Republic, (Berlin, Germany: Union Verlag (VOB), 1966; this edition
(London: Thames & Hudson; New York: W. W. Norton & Company), see top half portion of a two part
scene. Fig. 23. Otto von Freising: Universal chronicle. Adam and Eve. Schaftlarn, 1157--77., p. 191. The
hand of God extends out of heaven during the creation of Eve, while she exits out of Adam's side with up
lifted palms, one of which may be reaching up to clasp the hand of God, for in other depictions, her hand
or wrist is grasped by Deity. Another portion, show an angel, armed with a sword, banishing them from
the Garden. As they leave they make gestures by holding the fig leave covering in front of them, with
their left hands, while their right hands are raised up.
360. Jay Jacobs, Editor in Charge, The Horizon Book of Great Cathedrals, (USA: American Heritage
Pub., English edition, 1968), pp. 284--85; DaRell D. Thorpe, The Pilgrimage and Struggles of the
Human Family In and Through the Different Realms of Existences, (Salt Lake City, Utah: Religious,
Historical & Polemical Studies = R.H. & P. S., 1991); Thorpe, The Grand Pilgrimage: (Footnoting In &
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"Out of the Best Books"), (SLC. Utah, R. H. & P. S., 1992), vol.1, Part 1, Issues 1-4, April-Aug, 1992;
Thorpe, The Pre-existence: Our Pre-earth Life As Spirits In A "Family In Heaven" (SLC., Utah, R.H &
P.S., 1992; Thorpe, The Garments Of The First And Second Adam: [The Symbolical Meanings Of
Garments In Early To Later Christendom], (SLC., Utah, October 1993); Rutherford H. Platt, Jr., Editor,
The Forgotten Books of Eden, (USA, Newfoundland: Alpha House, 1926), pp. 3--81; Dr. Huge W.
Nibley, Old Testament and Related Studies, (Salt Lake City and Provo, Utah: Foundation for Ancient
Research and Mormon Studies & Deseret Book Co., 1986), pp. 77--79, 136--169, 173--214; Anna D.
Kartsonis, Anastasis, The Making of An Image, (Princeton University Press, 1986), p. 72, etc Thorpe,
Upon Them Hath The Light Shined, (S L C. Utah, R. H. & P. S. 1995; Thorpe, "Ye Are Gods... Children
of the Most High," (S L C., Utah: R. H. & P. S., 1993, revised 1994--1996).
361. Roger Adam, 1977 Thesis, Baptism for the Dead, pp. 38--147, 51; note 5 on p. 61; Danielou,
Liturgy, 13, citing Theodore's commentary on the sacrament of baptism. DaRell D. Thorpe, Upon Them
Hath The Light Shined, (Salt Lake City, Utah: R. H. & P.S., 1995); Henry Ansgar Kelly, The Devil at
baptism: Ritual, Theology, and Drama, (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1985).
362. Roger Adam, 1977 Thesis, Baptism for the Dead, pp. 38--147, 51; note 5 on p. 61; Danielou,
Liturgy, 13, citing Theodore's commentary on the sacrament of baptism. DaRell D. Thorpe, Upon Them
Hath The Light Shined, (Salt Lake City, Utah: R. H. & P.S., 1995); Henry Ansgar Kelly, The Devil at
baptism: Ritual, Theology, and Drama, (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1985).
363. DaRell D. Thorpe, The Pilgrimage and Struggles of the Human Family In and Through the
Different Realms of Existences, (Salt Lake City, Utah: Religious, Historical & Polemical Studies = R.H.
& P. S., 1991); Thorpe, The Grand Pilgrimage: (Footnoting In & "Out of the Best Books"), (SLC. Utah,
R. H. & P. S., 1992), vol.1, Part 1, Issues 1-4, April-Aug, 1992; Thorpe, The Pre-existence: Our
Pre-earth Life As Spirits In A "Family In Heaven" (SLC., Utah, R.H & P.S., 1992; Thorpe, The
Garments Of The First And Second Adam: [The Symbolical Meanings Of Garments In Early To Later
Christendom], (SLC., Utah, October 1993); Rutherford H. Platt, Jr., Editor, The Forgotten Books of
Eden, (USA, Newfoundland: Alpha House, 1926), pp. 3--81; Dr. Huge W. Nibley, Old Testament and
Related Studies, (Salt Lake City and Provo, Utah: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies
& Deseret Book Co., 1986), pp. 77--79, 136--169, 173--214.
364. Jaroslav Pelikan, The Illustrated Jesus Through the Centuries, (New Haven and London: Yale
University Press, 1997), see also John 1:3, 14.
365. Robert Huges, 1969, Heaven and Hell in Western Art, p. 77; Art and Mankind, p. 27, fig. 31. Italian.
Guglielmo of Modena. Creation of Eve hand clasp.
366. Gilbert Thurlow, All color book of Biblical Myths & Mysteries, (London; New York, New York:
Octopus Books Limited; Distributed in USA by Crescent Books a division of Crown Publishers Inc.,
N.Y., 1974), p. 18. 12th century, in the illuminated Winchester Bible, a page illustrates the creation of
Eve, & showing the pre-existing Christ, grasping, with his left hand, the right wrist of Eve, as he pulls her
out of the sleeping Adam's right side.
367. Robert Hughes, Heaven & Hell in Western Art, (New York, New York: Stein & Day, 1968), p. 76.
A. D., 1125, in a Romanesque fresco, from the Church of the Holy Cross, Maderuelo, Spain. Prado,
Madrid. Adam's left wrist is grasped by the pre-incarnate Christ's left hand as he raises him up from his
knees.
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368. The Encyclopedia of Visual Art, Volume Eight, Biographical Dictionary of Artists, Limburg
Brothers -- Francisco Ribalta, (London, England: Encyclopaedia Britannica International, LTD.), vol. 8,
p. 490, 1138, Niccol�, fl. c 1120--50, a Romanesque sculptor, shows, in one of six scenes of Genesis, the
creation of Eve. Here, she is being pulled out of the sleeping Adam's right side by her right wrist that is
grasped by what could be the pre-existing Christ's right hand. South side of the main portal of S. Zeno,
Verona, A.D. 1138.
369. Mit Beitr�gen von, Gabriele Atanassiu, Mariano d' Alatri, Stanislao da Campagnola, Servus Gieben,
Engelbert Grau OFM, Raoul Manselli, Raymond Oursel, Clemente Schmitt, Franz von Assisi, (Italy;
Stuttgart, Z�rich: Belser Verlag, 1990), 176--177, Meister der Stichkappen: Allegorie der Armut, um
1320. Assisi, Unterkirche, Gew�lbe �ber dem Hauptaltar. The arms of God extend out of heaven over a
wrist grasping marriage ceremony, above which an angel holds a vest or garment. See also figures
233--35, crowning of saint in a heavenly coronation ceremony, encircled by angels, some of which are
making the prayer gesture, with hands placed together in front of them, their fingers pointing upward.
See also: Mikl�s Boskovits & Serena Padovani, The Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, Early Italian
painting 1290--1470, (London: Sotheby's Publication, Philip Wilson Publishers Ltd, 1990; General
Editor, Irene Martin), pp. 34--37, #4: The Madonna and Child enthroned with a female martyr, St John
the Baptist and four angels. Bartolomeo di Messer Bulgarino (or Bulgarini) A.D. 1300/10--1378. Pages
56--57, Cenni and Giovanni de Biondo worked together on the panel that depicts St. John the Evangelist
enthroned (Florence. Accademia, no. 444). Pages 96--97, #15, The Coronation of the Virgin and four
angels. Giovanni da Bologna, 1377--89. Pages 114--117, #18: The Madonna and Child enthroned with
six angels. Lorenzo Monaco, late 1380's; died 1426. Pages 140--141, 158--159, #25: The Coronation of
the Virgin with five angels. Master of 1355, active 1325--75. Etc.
370. Jennifer O'Reilly, Oct. 1972, Studies in the Iconography of the Virtues and Vices in the Middle
Ages, A Garland Series Outstanding Thesis In The Fine Arts from British Universities, (New York &
London: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1988), graphics after page 240, see fig. 18a.
371. Virginia Chieffo Raguin, Stained Glass In 13th Century Burgundy, fig. 8, Auxerre 51:7--12. 13th
century, on stained class, in Burgundy, showing the creation of Eve, God, with his left hand, grips the left
wrist of Eve to raise her out of the sleeping Adam's right side.
372. Virginia Chieffo Raguin, Stained Glass In 13th century Burgundy, (Princeton: Princeton University
Press, 1982), fig. 8, Auxerre 51:7-12, Creation window, creation of man and woman. The pre-incarnate
Christ clasping, with each hand, the hands of Adam.
373. Virginia Chieffo Raguin, Stained Glass In 13th century Burgundy, (Princeton: Princeton University
Press, 1982), fig. 8, Auxerre 51:7-12, Creation window, creation of man and woman. The pre-incarnate
Christ clasping, with each hand, the hands of Adam. In another section, Eve, with her right hand raised
up, and Adam, extending his right hand, perhaps before the clasp, are both being blessed by the
pre-incarnated Christ who makes finger and arm gestures.
374. Propylaen Kunstgeschichte, fig. 272, Das erste Elternpaar Fruchte, Wandmalerei, Gurk, Karnten,
Domum 1260--70. The pre-incarnate Christ, making gestures as though talking with Adam and Eve, also
watches them both perform gestures. Adam's right hand is raised up, while his left is down over by his
right side, the palm is down. Eve's right hand is raised up by her right ear, while her left hand is in the
middle of her mid section below her breasts.
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375. Gabriel Bise, text, G. Ivins & D. MacRae, translator, The Illuminated Naples Bible, (Old Testament)
14th Century Manuscript, (Cresent Books, etc.), p. 18.
376. G. J. Hoogewerff, De Noord-Nederlandsche Schilderkunst, Door ('S-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff,
1936), page 59, Afb. 15. De Scheppingsdagen. Miniatuur door Michiel van der Borch in Maerlant's
Rijmbijbel. A.D. 1332. Museum Meermanno-Westreenianum te 's-Gravenhuge. Showing series of art
works that depict the creation drama. One shows what could be pre-existing souls taking part in the
creation. Others sections show the pre-existing Christ creating different things. The last section on this
particular page shows Christ grasping, with his left hand, the right hand of Eve, as he pulls her out of the
sleeping Adam's side.
377. Miniature Fiorentina Del Rinascimento 1440--1525, Un Primo Censimento Acura di Annarosa
Garzelli II Illustrazioni Giunto Regionale Toscana La Nuova Italia, CR 1985, Firenze, Museo dell'Opera
del Duomo, Corale D.f. 2v., Monte di Giovanni. 1440--1525, in the middle portion of a work by Monte
de Giovanni, different scene of the creation drama are depicted, some of which show the Father pulling
Eve out of Adam's side, while another shows Adam and Eve clasping each others' right hands, perhaps in
marriage.
378. Walter Bosing, Hieronymus Bosch, c. 1450--1516, Between Heaven And Hell, (Germany: Benedikt
Taschen Verlag GmbH Hohenzollerniring, 1991; London: Thames and Hudson Ltd., 1973), p. 36.
379. Walter Bosing, Hieronymus Bosch, c. 1450--1516, Between Heaven And Hell, (Germany: Benedikt
Taschen Verlag GmbH Hohenzollerniring, 1991; London: Thames and Hudson Ltd., 1973), pp. 36 & 54,
Garden of Earthly Delights (Triptych), Madrid, Museo del Prado. Christ clasps Eve's wrist.
380. Linda J. Ivanits, Russian Folk Belief, (New York; London, England: M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 1989), p.
131.
381. Rev. Dr. Charles Francis Potter, The Lost Years of Jesus Revealed, From the Dead Sea Scrolls and
the Nag-Hammadi discoveries, (Greenwich, Conn.: A Fawcett Gold Medal Book, Fawcett Publications,
Inc., 1958, 1962), p. 21.
382. Rev. Dr. Charles Francis Potter, The Lost Years of Jesus Revealed, From the Dead Sea Scrolls and
the Nag-Hammadi discoveries, (Greenwich, Conn.: A Fawcett Gold Medal Book, Fawcett Publications,
Inc., 1958, 1962), p. 35.
383. The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, (Grand Rapids, Michigan: WM. B. Eerdmans Publishing
Company, reprinted, August 1979), vol. 4, p. 524, Gregory of Nyssa, A.D. 331--395, On The Baptism of
Christ.
384. Augustus Le Plongeon, Sacred Mysteries, Among the Mayans And The Quiches, (New York, New
York, U.S.A.: Macoy Publishing and Masonic Supply Company, 1909), p. 40.
385. G. J. Hoogewerff, De Noord-Nederlandsche Schilderkunst, Door ('S-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff,
1936), page 30, Afb. 7: Verluchting van het Sacramentarium van Utrecht. Staatsbibliotheek te Berlinjn.
Hand extending down out of heaven.
386. Thomas Cahill, Desire of the Everlasting Hills, The World before and after Jesus, (New York;
London; Toronto; Sydney; Auckland, Nan A. Talese, Doubleday, 1999), p. 49.
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387. Richard Lloyd Anderson's article: Discovery, The Ancient Practice of Crucifixion, published in The
Ensign, (Salt Lake City, Utah: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, July 1975), pp. 32-33.
Jehohanan's remains are said to have been found in one of the tomb-caves which were discovered near
Jerusalem in 1968. They were reported in 1970 in the Israel Exploration Journal. V. Tzaferis dates the
find to about 1 cent. B.C. -- 1 cent. A.D.
388. Gabriel Millet, Membre de l' Institut, Recherches Sur L' Iconographie De L' �vangile, AUX XIVe,
XVe ET XVIe SI�CLES, D'APR�S LES MONUMENTS DE MISTRA, DE LA MAC�DOINE ET DU
MONT-ATHOS, DESSINS DE SOPHIE MILLET, DEUXI�ME �DITION, (Paris, France: �DITIONS
E. DE BOCCARD, RUE DE M�DICIS, 1960), p. 173, fig. 123. T�tra�vangile de la Biblioth�que
Nationale (Copte 13). (Archives Photographiques - Paris). Christ in neck high water, bowing his head, as
if being immersed, while the hand of God extends out of heaven, and two angels descend out of heaven
with garments. See also fig. 124. �vangile de Saint-P�tersbourg (Petropol. 21 a). (Coll. H. �t.). Christ is
in water that flows up to his neck. Two of the three angels, hold garments in their arms. The Hand of God
extends down over this event from above. See also pp. 173--215, figures 125--178, showing different
types of water levels, versions of baptism, garments, robes, the hand of God extending down out of
heaven. John the Baptist laying his hand on Christ's head, demonic forces being crushed and defeated in
the waters, like unto descent into hell depictions, plus more.
389. Gabriel Millet, Membre de l' Institut, Recherches Sur L' Iconographie De L' �vangile, AUX XIVe,
XVe ET XVIe SI�CLES, D'APR�S LES MONUMENTS DE MISTRA, DE LA MAC�DOINE ET DU
MONT-ATHOS, DESSINS DE SOPHIE MILLET, DEUXI�ME �DITION, (Paris, France: �DITIONS
E. DE BOCCARD, RUE DE M�DICIS, 1960), p. 222, fig. 186.-- Copte 13. The Hand of God extends
down out of heaven during Christ's transfiguration.
390. John McManners, Editor, The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, (Oxford; New York:
Oxford University Press, 1990), see item #32480, depicting the hand of God extending a crown to the
Emperor Constantine.
391. Leonard W. Cowie, The March Of The Cross, (Great Britain: First Pub. in Great Britain by
Weidenfeld & Nicolson LTD. 1962 & in the USA: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., N.Y., Toronto, &
London, 1962), p.53, fig.56.
392. Jennifer O'Reilly, Oct. 1972, Studies in the Iconography of the Virtues and Vices in the Middle
Ages, A Garland Series, Outstanding Thesis in the Fine Arts from British Universities, (New York &
London: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1988), art work after p. 338, see also the hand and wrist grasping in
the graphics before p. 241, fig. 18b, 256, art works after p. 348, figures 26, 27, p. 356--57, art works after
p. 370, fig. 31a & 31b, & p. 391.
393. Peter Lasko; Editors, Nikolaus Pevsner and Judy Nairn, The Pelican History of Art, (The Pelican
History of Art, Penguin Books, 1972), vol. 36, Ars Sacra: 800--1200, pp. Xii, plate 32. Illustration of
Psalm 26, c. 820--830, from the book cover of the Prayer of Charles the Bald, c. 850--860. Z�rich,
Schweizerisches Landesmuseum. David is greet, with a hand shake, at the foot of the stair to a building
by a person, perhaps the Lord. Up above, the hand of the Father extends down out of heaven.
394. Walter Oakshott, Classical Inspiration In Medieval Art, (New York, New York: Frederick A.
Praeger Inc., 1959), plate 69. The Carolingian mid 9th century. The hand of God extends to give the Law
to Moses, see The Vivien Bible and The Moutier-Grandval Bible.
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395. Robert S. Nelson, The Iconography of Preface and Miniature in the Byzantine Gospel Book, (New
York: New York University Press, 1980), Fig. 46. Florence, Bibl. Laur. Plut. VI.32, f. 7v. Moses receives
the law from the hand of God. See also: Iconographie De L'Art Chr�tien par Louis R�au, Tome II
Iconographie de la Bible I Ancient Testament, (Paris, France: 1956), p. 97, fig. 5. Eglise De
Moutiers-Saint-Jean. Hand of God extends out of heaven. Joachim E. Gaehde, Carolingian Painting,
(New York: George Braziller, 1976), plate 43, p. 116 & 117. Bible of San Paolo Fuori Le Mura, fol. 50
(lxviiii)v: Frontispiece to Deuteronomy. (Deut. 1-32). Die Illustrierten Handschriften Der
Burgerbibliothek Bern, Die Vorkarolingischen Und Karolingischen Handschriften, Otto Homburger.
Bern 1962, LII, 119. Cod. 264, Prudentius, Passio Romani, p. 135: Verh�r des M�rtyers- p. 149:
Verurteilung und Tod, ein Engel tr�gt die personifizierte Seele gen Himmel.
396. Peter Lasko; Editors, Nikolaus Pevsner and Judy Nairn, The Pelican History of Art, (The Pelican
History of Art, Penguin Books, 1972), vol. 36, Ars Sacra: 800--1200, p. xii, plate 34: Ascension in to
heaven, in which the right hand thumb of the Father's hand, rests on the first knuckle of Christ's right
hand, as they clasp hands. Ivory Panel, c. 830. Vienna, Kunsthistorissches Museum.
397. John Beckwith, Early Christian and Byzantine Art, (Penguin Books, 1970. 1979), p. 206, fig. 172.
940, in the Bible of Leo the Patrician, is a pages that shows the hand of God extending out of heaven to
give a tablet to Moses, on which is written the Law. MS. Reg. Gr. I, fol. 155 verso. Constantinople, c.
940. Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica.
398. John McManners, Editor, The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, (Oxford; New York:
Oxford University Press, 1990), p. 107, the hand of God extends out of heaven to crown the Emperor
Otto III.
399. Art and Archaeology, The Arts Throughout the Ages, vol. 28, #5, November 1929, pp. 164--165, the
hand of God in a 11th century stone work, at Romsey.
400. Peter Lasko; Editors: Nikolaus Pevsner and Judy Nairn, The Pelican History of Art, (Australia, etc.:
Penguin Books, 1972), vol. 36, Ars Sacra: 800--1200, p. xv, plate 111, Bronze doors from St. Michael's.
1015. Hildesheim Cathedral. The hand of God.
401. Andr� Maurois, An Illustrated History of Germany, (London: The Bodley Head, 1965, 1966,
translated from French by Stephen Hardman), pp. 52--53. Coronation of Henry II, work dated A.D.
1019--1029.
402. C. R. Dodwell; Editors: Nikolaus Pevsner and Judy Nairn, The Pelican History of Art,
(Harmondsworth, Middlesex; Baltimore, Md.; Ringwood, Victoria, Australia: Penguin Books, 1971),
vol. 34, Painting in Europe 800 to 1200, p. xv, plate 130. Ripoll: The Valley of Dry Bones, from the
Farfa Bible. Mid 11th century. Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. Arm of God extending out of
heaven.
403. C. R. Dodwell; Editors: Nikolaus Pevsner and Judy Nairn, The Pelican History of Art,
(Harmondsworth, Middlesex; Baltimore, Md.; Ringwood, Victoria, Australia: Penguin Books, 1971),
vol. 34, Painting in Europe 800 to 1200, p. xiv, plate 105. Mont-Saint-Michel: Ascension of the Virgin,
from a Sacramentary. 1070/1100. New York, Pierpont Morgan Library. A hand extends down during the
ascension of the Virgin who is in a mandorla.
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404. C. R. Dodwell; Editors: Nikolaus Pevsner and Judy Nairn, The Pelican History of Art,
(Harmondsworth, Middlesex; Baltimore, Md.; Ringwood, Victoria, Australia: Penguin Books, 1971),
vol. 34, Painting in Europe 800 to 1200, p. xiv, plate 108. Saint-Ouen, Rouen: St. John, from a Gospels.
1070/1100. London, British Museum. A hand extends through parted curtains.
405. Robert Oertel, Early Italian Painting to 1400, (New York & Washington: Frederick a. Praeger,
1966), #94, "AMBROGIO LORENZETII Admission of St. Louis of Toulouse into the Franciscan Order .
Siena, San Francesco."
406. Gina Pischel, A World History of Art, (New York: Newsweek Books, 1966), 2nd revised edition by
Gina Pischel, 1978. Pages 268 & 269. 11th -- 13th century is the date given for a fresco of the hand of
God extending out from the middle of circular designs. Fresco from St. Clement of Tahull, Museum of
Catalan Art, Barcelona.
407. F. M. Godfrey, Christ and the Apostles, (London: The Studio Limited, 1957), pp. 47 & 131, plate
65. Monreale Cathedral, Palermo. In a 12th century mosaic of The Agony in the Garden, an angel
descends from heaven reaching out his right hand to Christ, who is reaching out too. Could this be before
the clasp?
408. Donald Matthew, Atlas of Medieval Europe, (New York; Oxford: Facts on File, 1983, 1984, 1986,
1989), pp. 84--85. Hand clasping angelic guide and another with the robe for the ascending soul of a
hermit named Guthlac, A.D. 667--714, the hermit saint of Crowland, 12th century ink drawing. 2nd one
down on page 85.
409. J. Boudet, Editor, Jerusalem A History, (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1965. Editions Robert
Laffont, & 1967 by Paul Hamlyn Ltd). Pentecost (tenth-century Winchester Ponifical, Rouen, France).
410. Peter Lasko; Editors: Nikolaus Pevsner and Judy Nairn, The Pelican History of Art, (Australia, etc.:
Penguin Books, 1972), vol. 36, Ars Sacra: 800--1200, p. xvii, plate 181. Crucifixion. Ivory panel
mounted on the back of a Gospel Book from St Gereon, Cologne, c. 1130--1140. Darmstadt, Hessisches
Landesmuseum. The hand of God extends down over Christ on the cross.
411. C. R. Dodwell; Editors: Nikolaus Pevsner and Judy Nairn, The Pelican History of Art,
(Harmondsworth, Middlesex; Baltimore, Md; Ringwood, Victoria, Australia: Penguin Books, 1971), vol.
34, Painting In Europe: 800--1200, p. xviii, plate 211. Liessies: St John, from the Wedric Gospels. 1146.
Avesnes, Soci�t� Arch�ologique. The hand of God is seen in two sections of this work.
412. Peter Lasko; Editors: Nikolaus Pevsner and Judy Nairn, The Pelican History of Art, (Australia, etc.:
Penguin Books, 1972), vol. 36, Ars Sacra: 800--1200, p. xvii, plate 180. Christ, ascending(?) into
heaven, which the hand of God extending out of heaven to grip, with the right hand, the right wrist of
Christ. From the altar frontal from Broddetorp. 1150. Stockholm, Statens Historiska Museet.
413. Eve Borsook, Messages In Mosaic, The Royal Programmes of Norman Sicily (1130--1187),
(Oxford: Claredon Press, 1990), p. 34, plate 18. Palermo, Cappella Palatina: view of apse and sanctuary
from nave looking east. 12th century, the Hand of God extending from the celestial regions.
414. Peter Lasko; Editors: Nikolaus Pevsner and Judy Nairn, The Pelican History of Art, (Australia, etc.:
Penguin Books, 1972), vol. 36, Ars Sacra: 800--1200, p. xviii, plate 204. The Cleansing of Naaman in
the River Jordan. Enamelled plaque from Saint-Denis Abbey(?), c. 1145--1147. London, British
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Museum. The hand of God extends out of heave to bless the scene below.
415. Sir Herbert Read, Dr. Donald E. Strong, Professors David Talbot Rice and Giuseppe Bovini, and G.
Zarnecki, Peter Lasko, Dr. George Henderson, The Book of Art, A Pictorial Encyclopedia of Painting,
Drawing, and Sculpture, (Grolier Inc., 1965), vol. 1, Origins of Western Art, pp. 132--33, C: The
Dormition of the Virgin: from the Winchester Psalter, about 1160. London, B.M., (MS. Cotton Nero C
IV, f. 2Ir.) Angels descending with garments or robes to cloth the soul of the Virgin Mary. Christ appears
with his apostles, at the moment of her death. The hand of God extends out of heaven to bless the
moment.
416. Jennifer O'Reilly, Oct. 1972, A Garland Series, Outstanding Theses In The Fine Arts From British
Universities, Studies in the Iconography of the Virtues and Vices in the Middle Ages, (New York &
London: Garland Pub., Inc., 1988, Thesis submitted to the Un. of Nottingham for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy, Oct. 1972), pp. 240--43, figures 18a and 18b. F.186v of the Bible Moralis�e, c. 1240,
showing God or the pre-existing Christ, grasping the wrist of Eve to raise her out of Adam's side.
Inasmuch as this is also under the crucifixion scene, it is also a type of the hand and wrist grasping that
takes place during the harrowing of hell, where Christ raises Adam and Eve out of their graves or out of
hades, limbo, & purgatory, etc., with different types of hand and wrist grasps. There is also a part of a
manuscript, fig. 18a, that shows God, or the pre-existing Christ, grasping, with his left hand, the right
wrist of Eve, who has both hands up in praise or the prayer gesture, as she is being pulled out of Adam's
side. Below this, is the type of the first, for a small figure, perhaps Eve, is being pulled out of the side of
the crucified Christ through hand grasping. Below this, is a marriage scene in which God, like the priests,
grasps the wrists of Adam,and Eve as if to bring them together in the hand clasp of marriage.
417. John Beckwith, The Art of Constantinople, An Introduction to Byzantine Art 330--1453, (Greenwich
- Connecticut: Phaidon Publishers Inc., Distributed by New York Graphic Society, 1961), p. 136, fig.
178. Early 14th century, Mosaic. Constantinople. Washington, D.C., The Dumbarton Oaks Collection.
The hand of God extends over 40 martyrs.
418. Andrew Martindale, 1967, Gothic Art, From the 12th to 15th Century, (New York: Praegar, 1967),
p. 132 & 133, fig. 98. Belleville Breviary from the workshop of Jean Pucelle. About 1323--1326, in a
Gothic art piece, lower right corner, the arm of God extends to grasp the hands of those reaching up to
this extending arm's right hand.
419. The Encyclopedia of Visual Art, (London, England: Encyclopaedia Britannica International, LTD.),
vol. 6, see: Bartolo di Fredi: The Presentation of Christ in the Temple, A.D., 1390, Louvre, Paris. The
Christ-child's hands are about to be clasped by Mary in a similar manner as rites of homage hand clasp
done between Christian kings, nobles, and knights. The hands are placed together and placed in side the
hands of the one clasping.
420. Gertrude Hartman, The World We Live In and How It Came To Be, (New York: The Macmillan
Company, 1961), pp. 128--129; Fay-Cooper Cole, Ph.D., Sc.D., LL.D., and Harris Gaylord Warren,
Ph.D., An Illustrated Outline History of MANKIND, (Chicago: Consolidated Book Publishers, CR 1965
by Processing and Books, Inc., CR 1963, 1959, 1955, 1951 by Book Production Industries, Inc.), vol. 1,
pp. 215, see art work of Act of Fealty. Both hands are being clasped differently, for they're both
separated. See also the art work of the visit of Richard II to his uncle, John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster,
at his castle at Pleshy. It is a right hand clasp, similar to how Christ raises Adam out of hades, limbo, &
purgatory. See page 287 of vol. 1.
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421. Horton and Marie-H�l�ne Davies, Holy Days and Holidays, The Medieval Pilgrimage of
Compostela, (London and Toronto: Associated University Press, Lewisburg Bucknell University Press,
1982), art work before title page. From the illuminated manuscript, 13th century, MS. Latin 11560 of
Biblioth�que Nationale, Paris. Hand of God extending down out of heaven.
422. Mit Beitr�gen von, Gabriele Atanassiu, Mariano d' Alatri, Stanislao da Campagnola, Servus Gieben,
Engelbert Grau OFM, Raoul Manselli, Raymond Oursel, Clemente Schmitt, Franz von Assisi, (Italy;
Stuttgart, Z�rich: Belser Verlag, 1990), 88, Kruzifix von S. Damiano, 12 Jahrh. Assisi, Santa Chiara.
Ascension, showing the moments before the clasp, and the hand of God extending out of heaven. See
also pp. 88--89.
423. Perlie P. Fallon in Art and Archaeology, The Arts Throughout the Ages, vol. 32, October, 1931, #4,
art work before page 121, article: What Somebody Whitewashed. The art work shows people giving John
helping hands, during his ascension.
424. Mit Beitr�gen von, Gabriele Atanassiu, Mariano d' Alatri, Stanislao da Campagnola, Servus Gieben,
Engelbert Grau OFM, Raoul Manselli, Raymond Oursel, Clemente Schmitt, Franz von Assisi, (Italy;
Stuttgart, Z�rich: Belser Verlag, 1990), figures 236--246.
425. Mit Beitr�gen von, Gabriele Atanassiu, Mariano d' Alatri, Stanislao da Campagnola, Servus Gieben,
Engelbert Grau OFM, Raoul Manselli, Raymond Oursel, Clemente Schmitt, Franz von Assisi, (Italy;
Stuttgart, Z�rich: Belser Verlag, 1990), 176--177, Meister der Stichkappen: Allegorie der Armut, um
1320. Assisi, Unterkirche, Gew�lbe �ber dem Hauptaltar. The arms of God extend out of heaven over a
wrist grasping marriage ceremony, above which an angel holds a vest or garment.
426. Horton and Marie-H�l�ne Davies, Holy Days and Holidays, The Medieval Pilgrimage of
Compostela, (London and Toronto: Associated University Press, Lewisburg Bucknell University Press,
1982), p. 142. Roland H. Bainton, The Horizon History of Christianity, (New York: American Publishing
Co., Inc., & Harper and Row, Publishers, 1964), pp. 214--15.
427. Robert Hughes, Heaven and Hell in Western Art, (New York, New York: Stein and Day/Publishers,
1968), pp. 236--237.
428. F. E. Halliday, An Illustrated Cultural History Of England, (New York: A Studio Book, The Viking
Press, 1967-68), p.72, Sedilia paintings, Westminster Abbey, early 14th century.
429. Jennifer O'Reilly, A Garland Series, Outstanding Theses In The Fine Arts From British
Universities, Studies in the Iconography of the Virtues and Vices in the Middle Ages, (New York &
London: Garland Pub., Inc., 1988, Thesis submitted to the University of Nottingham for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy, Oct. 1972), pp.177 & 179.
430. Valentin Denis, Professeur � l' Universit� de Louvain, Des Catacomes A La Fin Du Xve Si�cle,
(Editions Meddens in 1965), II-Fra Angelico, (Giovanni da Fiesole), vers 1400--1455. La Vierge � l'
Enfant avec les saints Jean-Baptiste, Dominique, Francois et Paul (Parme, Galerie Nationale). Bottom
portion of art work. 1400--1455, Two monks clasps both of each others' right and left hands, perhaps in
respect and greeting(?), or even a ritualistic greeting. Their thumbs rest on each others' pointer fingers'
knuckles.
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431. The Encyclopedia of Visual Art, (London, England: Encyclopaedia Britannica International, LTD.),
vol. 9, p. 695, A.D. 1446--9, Vecchietta: The Virgin Receives the Souls of Foundlings. In this work
illustrating a ladder of Paradise, the virgin, helps, by clasping the wrists of infants climbing a ladder to
paradise. Fresco in S. Maria della Scala, Siena.
432. Albrecht Durer, Lucas Cranach, Hans Holbein, & Pieter Bruegel, Great Artists Of The Western
World, The Northern Renaissance, (New York and London: Marshall Cavendish, 1985, Sydney,
Reference Ed., pub. in 1988).
433. Treasures From The Kremlin, An Exhibition from the State of Museums of the Moscow Kremlin at
the Metropolitan Musesum of Art, New York, May 19-Sept.1979, and Grand Palais, Paris, Oct. 12, 1979
& Jan. 7, 1980, (Published by Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Distributed by Harry N.
Abrams, Inc.), pp.45-46 & 143, pl.13. St. Theodore Stratilates. A.D. 1676. This work was painted for the
iconostasis of the Cathedral of the Annunciation in the Moscow Kremlin as the patron-saint icon of Czar
Fedor (Theodore) Alexeevich. In 1683, after the czar had died, this work was transferred to the Cathedral
of the Archangel Michael. Inv. no. 70, Moscow School, Kremlin workshops, 1676, the artist was Simon
Ushakov.
434. A Garland Series, Outstanding Dissertations in the Fine Arts, Craig Harbison, The Last Judgment in
Sixteenth Century Northern Europe: A Study of the Relation Between Art and the Reformation, (New
York & London: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1976), p. 375, fig. 64. Juan de Vald�s Leal's work Finis
Gloriae Mundi, canvas, 1670--72, Seville, Church of the Caridad. The wounded hand of Christ extends
out of heaven with judgment scales.
435. Andr� Maurois, An Illustrated History of Germany, (London: The Bodley Head, 1965, 1966,
English translation, translated from French by Stephen Hardman), p. 164. The hand of God extending
from out of a cloud in heave, holding a crown. Franze Leopold Schmittner: Maria Theresa, Apostolic
'King' of Hungary. The sovereign is depicted before Pressburg (Hungarian: Posony; Czech: Bratislava).
The kings of Hungry were consecrated and crowned there in St. Martin's cathedral, after which they
would go on horseback to a hill where they would brandish a sword in the four directions of space,
perhaps symbolic of their right to rule under God.
436. Jahrbuch Der Berliner Museen, Jahrbuch der Preuischen Kunstsammlungen, Neue Folge, (Berlin,
Germany: Gebr. Mann Verlag, 1977), Neunzehnter Band, 1977, p. 45, fig. 13. Masaccio, Triptych of
1422, (detail), S. Giovenale a Cascia. Hand symbol in the middle of the glove.
437. John Coulson, Editor, Introduction by C. C. Martindale, S. J., The Saints, A Concise Biographical
Dictionary, (New York: Hawthorn Books, Inc., 1958, 1960), p. 65, Barnabas, painted by Botticelle,
1444--1510, middle religious leader with glove symbol in middle of the hand, shaped like the mandorla.
438. Jahrbuch Der Berliner Museen,Jahrbuch der Preu�ischen Kunstsammlungen Neue Folge, Zehnter
Band - 1968, (Verlagsort, Berlin: Im Gemeinschaftsverlag G. Grote'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung KG -
Gebr. Mann, 1968), page 126, Abb. 1. Donatello, Johannes d. T. Venedig, S. Maria dei Frari. Symbol in
the middle of the right hand of a religious leader's gloved hand.
439. Gaalyahu Cornfeld, Editor, Assisted by Bible Scholars, Historians and Archaeologists, Daniel To
Paul, Jews In Conflict With Graeco-Roman Civilization: Historical & Religious Background to the
Hasmoneans, Dead Sea Scrolls, The New Testament World, Early Christianity, And the Bar-Kochba
War. (New York & London: The Macmillan Company; Collier-Macmillan, Limited, 1962), page 200.
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Rule of the Community, 1 QS V, 8ff.
440. Marjorie Rowling, Drawings by John Mansbridge, Text B.T. Batsford, Everyday Life of Medieval
Travelers, (Dorset Press, Limited, 1971, & 1989), pp.136-7, see also p.147.
441. Leonard W. Cowie, The March Of The Cross, (Great Britain: Weidenfeld & Nicolson LTD., 1962;
U.S.A., New York, Toronto & London: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1962), pp. 59, & 75, fig.82, pp. 80,
82, 85, 96-7, & 98.
442. Horton and Marie-H�l�ne Davies, Holy Days and Holidays, The Medieval Pilgrimage of
Compostela, (London and Toronto: Associated University Press, Lewisburg Bucknell University Press,
1982), pp.26, 27, 28, 36--37, 38, 189.
443. Horton and Marie-H�l�ne Davies, Holy Days and Holidays, The Medieval Pilgrimage of
Compostela, p.189.
444. Ex.17:8-14; 1 Kings 8:22; Psa.28:2, 141:2, Isa.1:15-18; etc. Also: Fireside Edition of The Holy
Bible, King James Version = KJV, (Phil. Penn.: The Family & Home Press, 1965); William Smith,
LL.D., Complete & Practical Household Dictionary of the Bible, pp. 30-1, see Daniel, & p.33, see the
Dedication of the Feast. See also p.39, an Egyptian at Prayer.
445. The Ensign, Oct. 1971, p.62, article entitled: Pre-Columbian Discoveries Link Old & New World by
Cyrus H. Gordan. Article based on an address delivered at the 20th Annual Symposium on the
Archaeology of the Scriptures at BYU. It was published in the Newsletter & Proceedings Archaeology
(July 1971), published in the Ensign by permission of Dr. Gordan & Dr. Ross T. Christensen.
446. Alexander W. Bradford, American Antiquities, And Researches into the Origin & History of the
Red Race, (New York: Dayton & Saxton, 1841), pp. 26-7.
447. Augustus Le Plongeon, Sacred Mysteries, Among the Mayas & the Quiches, (New York, New
York: Macoy Pub. & Masonic Sup. Co., 1886, 3rd Ed. 1909), pp. 34-42, see pages 38-9.
448. Encyclopedia of World Art, (London: McGraw-Hill, 1959; The Instituto per la Collaborazione
Culturale, Rome, 1958), vol. I, pl. 63. Panel. Munich, Pinakothek. The Birth of the Virgin, shows small
children angels clasping hands and forming a circle in the air.
449. The Rev. Alexander Roberts, D.D., and James Donaldson, LL.D., Editors, The Ante-Nicene
Fathers, Translations of The Writings of the Fathers down to A.D. 325, (Grand Rapids, Michigan: WM.
B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, T&T Clark, Edinburgh, reprinted October 1989), in 10 volumes, see
vol. 1, p. 5, Clement of Rome, A.D. 30--100, The First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians, chapter II.
450. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 1, p. 12, Clement of Rome, A.D. 30--100, The First Epistle of
Clement to the Corinthians, chapter 29.
451. Justin Martyr in The Ante-Nicene Fathers, series, (Grand Rapids, Michigan: T&T Clark, Edinburgh,
WM. B. Eerdmans Publishers Company, reprinted October 1989), in 10 volumes, see vol. 1, p. 244, A.D.
110--165, Justin Martyr, Dialogue With Trypho, chapter XC.
452. Jahrbuch Der Berliner Museen,Jahrbuch der Preu�ischen Kunstsammlungen Neue Folge,
Sechster Band - 1964, (Verlagsort, Berlin, Germany: Im Gemeinschaftsverlag, G. Grotes'Sche Verlag
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Buchhandlung KG - Gebr. Mann, 1964), page 26, Abb. 2. Kreuz des Kaisers Justinus, R�ckseite. Rom
(Vatikan), Schatz der Peterskirche. Cross with persons depicted on each arm of the cross, making the
traditional prayer gesture with up-lifted hands. See also page 28, Abb. 3, Kreuz des Kaisers Justinus,
�lterer Zustand. Nach S. Borgia. Showing two persons on each side of the arms of the cross, making the
prayer gesture with up-lifted hands.
453. The Library of Christian Classics, volume 2, Alexandrian Christianity, Selected Translations of
Clement & Origen with Introductions and Notes by John Ernest Leonard Oulton, D.D., Regius Professor
of Divinity in the University of Dublin; Chancellor of St. Patrick's and Henry Chadwick, B.D., Fellow &
Dean of Queens' College, Cambridge. (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press). vol. 2, p. 117, Clement of
Alexandria, On Spiritual Perfection, chapter 7, see also note 37 on p. 117: Cf. Origen, de Orat., 31,
below, p. 322 ff.
454. Clement of Alexandria, 2nd century, Cohortation ad gentes, xxi, in Migne, PG 8:241.
455. Marion P. Ireland, Textile Art in the Church, Vestments, Paraments, and Hangings in
Contemporary Worship, Art, and Architecture, (Nashville and New York: Abingdon Press, 1966, 1967,
1971), pp. 56--57, illustration 30: Fresco in the Catacombs of St. Callistus, Rome. Praying figure with
up-lifted hands, wearing a see through veil on her head.
456. Yves Christe, Tania Velmans, Hanna Losowska and Roland Recht, Art of the Christian World, A.D.
200--1500, A Handbook of Styles and Forms, (New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., 1982
CR Office du Livre), p. 38, fig. 4. Second half of the third century, in the painted ceilings of the
catacomb of SS. Pietro e Marcellino, Rome, Christ, represented as being the Good Shepherd, is encircled
by praying figures with up lifted hands in four directions, and one showing Jonah, with up-lifted hands,
being swallowed by a great fish. See also p. 39, fig. 10.
457. Yves Christe, Tania Velmans, Hanna Losowska and Roland Recht, Art of the Christian World, A.D.
200--1500, A Handbook of Styles and Forms, (New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., 1982
CR Office du Livre), p. 42, fig. 19. Christian sarcophagus, c. 240-70, S. Maria Antica, Rome. Praying
female, with hands held head high.
458. Yves Christe, Tania Velmans, Hanna Losowska and Roland Recht, Art of the Christian World, A.D.
200--1500, A Handbook of Styles and Forms, (New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., 1982
CR Office du Livre), p. 39. Praying figure, catacomb of Vigna Massimo, Rome, 4th c.
459. Yves Christe, Tania Velmans, Hanna Losowska and Roland Recht, Art of the Christian World, A.D.
200--1500, A Handbook of Styles and Forms, (New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., 1982
CR Office du Livre), p. 39, fig. 7. Praying female figure, hands at head level, in the catacomb of
Domitilla, Rome, 4th c.
460. Yves Christe, Tania Velmans, Hanna Losowska and Roland Recht, Art of the Christian World, A.D.
200--1500, A Handbook of Styles and Forms, (New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., 1982
CR Office du Livre), p. 43, fig. 23. Female praying figure with hands held at neck level or shoulder level.
C. 330, Nat. Mus. Rome.
461. John Ferguson, An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Mysticism and the Mystery Religions, (New York,
New York: A Continuum Book; The Seabury Press, 1977), p. 44, see D. Dance.
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462. Yves Christe, Tania Velmans, Hanna Losowska and Roland Recht, Art of the Christian World, A.D.
200--1500, A Handbook of Styles and Forms, (New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., 1982
CR Office du Livre), p. 42, fig. 21. First half of 4th century, praying female holding hands at neck level.
Christian sarcophagus, Mus. Pio Cristiano, Vatican.
463. Klaus Wessel, Coptic Art, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1965), pp.18-19, figs. 12-13, &
p.69, fig.61, p.70, fig.62.
464. John McManners, Editor, The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, (Oxford; New York:
Oxford University Press, 1990), p. 77, ivory from North Africa. Daniel praying, with up lifted hands,
among the lions.
465. Andr� Grabar, Early Christian Art, From the Rise of Christianity to the Death of Theodosius, (New
York: Odyssey Press, 1968), pp. 102--03, 130, fig. 131, Rome. Sarcophagus, detail: Orant with up-lifted
hands. Santa Maria Antiqua, Rome. Page 142, fig. 146. Rome. Sarcophagus, detail: Orant with up-lifted
hands. Museo delle Terme, Rome. Page 135, fig. 138. Fragment of a Sarcophagus: Story of Jonah. Santa
Maria in Trastevere, Rome. Orants with up-lifted hands. The three youths in the furnace praying for
protection from the fire. Page 318, fig. 58. Page 320, figures 96 & 104, 116, 119, 120. Page 321, figures
131, 138, 140, 142, 145, 146. Page 324, see explanation for figures or plates 232 & 242.
466. Ilona Berkovits, Illuminated Manuscripts From The Library Of Matthias Corvinus, (Budapest:
Corvina Press, 1964), p.72, fig.20.
467. Berkovits, Illuminated Manuscripts From The Library Of Matthias Corvinus, 37a, fig.20.
468. Leonard W. Cowie, The March Of The Cross, (Great Britain: Weidenfeld & Nicolson LTD., 1962;
first published in the USA, in New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., (Toronto, & London), 1962),
pp.27-29, fig.33.
469. George Holmes, Editor, The Oxford Illustrated History of Medieval Europe, (Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1988). 7th century, Frank Agilbert, trained in Ireland, became the bishop of Wessex,
and was present at the Synod of Whitby, and died bishop of Paris. His tomb, now at Jouarre, east of
Paris, shows souls in a last Judgment scene, with up-lifted hands in prayer. Another parallel tomb is
found in Northumbria.
470. George Holmes, Editor, The Oxford Illustrated History of Medieval Europe, (Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1988). Early 9th century Rome, in the mosaics of the vault chapel of San Zeno, Christ is
depicted in a circle, while four angels, with up-lifted hands, touch the circle. See also: C. R. Dodwell;
Editors: Nikolaus Pevsner and Judy Nairn, The Pelican History of Art, (Harmondsworth, Middlesex;
Baltimore, Md.; Ringwood, Victoria, Australia: Penguin Books, 1971), vol. 34, Painting in Europe 800
to 1200, p. xi, plate 5.
471. David and Tamara Talbot Rice, Icons, And Their History, (Woodstock, New York: The Overlook
Press, 1974), pp. 100--101, 11th -- 13th century, is the date given for an icon that shows the Virgin Mary,
praying with up-lifted hands.
472. Tristram Potter Coffin, The Book of Christmas Folklore, 1973, (New York: A Continuum Book,
The Seabury Press), p. 97.
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473. David Talbot Rice, Byzantine Painting, The Last Phase, (New York: The Dial Press, Inc., 1968), p.
133. Fig. 97. Monastery Church, Lesnovo, Serbia. Wall painting of Psalm 150, dated 1341-9. Round
dance, where those who take part in it clasp each others' hands and wrists. Possible fragment of the
prayer circle traditions.
474. Michael Batterberry, Art of the Early Renaissance, (Milan, Italy: Fratelli Fabbri, 1968), pp. 78,
80--81, 184, fig. 79. 1420's, Fra Angelico's Last Judgment depicts the round dance of the angels in
paradise, in which saints clasp hands with the angels when they enter the circle that is being formed.
Museum of San Marco, Florence.
475. John Ferguson, An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Mysticism and the Mystery Religions, (New York,
New York: A Continuum Book; The Seabury Press, 1977), p. 44, see D. Dance. See also: Colleen
McDannell & Berhard Lang, Heaven A History, (New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 1988),
pp. 128--31, plates 19--21. Fra Angelico, The Last Judgment, 1421, Museo di San Marco, Florence, Italy.
Later fragment of the prayer circle.
476. Andreas Stylianou and Judith A. Stylianou, The Painted Churches Of Cyprus, Treasures of
Byzantine Art, (London: Trigraph for the A.G. Leventis Foundation, 1985), p.318, fig. 189. "Moses and
the Vision of the Burning Bush, ca. 1500, "Latin chapel", monastery of St. John Lampadistis,
Kalopanayiotis." See also p.212, fig. 122. "The Virgin Mary attended by the Archangels Michael and
Gabriel, 1494, church of the Holy Cross of Agiasmati, near Platanistasa." And p.213, fig. 123. "The
Communion of the Apostles (detail), 1494, church of the Holy Cross of Agiasmati, near Platanistasa."
And p. 282, fig. 168. The Virgin Mary, Mother of God, "the Mistress of the Angels", second decade of the
16th c., church of the Transfiguration of the Saviour, Palaeochorio. And p.342, fig. 205. "The Virgin
Mary Orans, Blachernitissa, attended by the Archangels Michael and Gabriel, 1474, church of the
Archangel Michael, Pedoulas." And p. 494, fig. 299. "The Virgin Mary Orans) Blachernitissa, attended
by the Archangels Michael and Gabriel, 14th c., church of St. Euphemianus, Lysi."
477. Treasures From The Kremlin, An Exhibition from the State of Museums of the Moscow Kremlin at
the Metropolitan Museum of Art, (New York, May 19-Sept.1979, and Grand Palais, Paris, Oct. 12, 1979
& Jan. 7, 1980), (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Distributed by Harry N. Abrams, Inc.), pp.55,
145, & 156, pl.20. Altar Gospels in silver-gilt cover, 1568 A.D. Presented by Ivan the Terrible to the
Cathedral of the Annunciation in the Moscow Kremlin in 1568 (Inv. no. 711), Provenance: Cathedral of
the Annunciation, Moscow Kremlin.
478. Norman Russell (Translator), Introduction by Benedicta Ward SLG, The Lives of the Desert
Fathers, The Historia Monachorum in Aegypto, (Mowbray: London & Oxford: Cistercian Publications:
USA, 1980), p. 30.
479. Clifford Davidson, Editor, The Iconography of Heaven, Early Drama, Art, and Music, Monograph
Series, 21, (Kalamazoo, Michigan: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1994),
p. 44.
480. John McManners, The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, (Oxford; New York: Oxford
University Press, 1990), see "PRAYER OF THE HEART" Praying saint, Serafim of Sarov, Russian icon,
late 19th century.
481. John McManners, The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, (Oxford; New York: Oxford
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University Press, 1990), pp. 586--87.
482. J.J.G. Alexander, Italian Renaissance Illuminations,(New York: George Braziller, 1977), pp.76-77,
plates 19-20. "BIBLE OF BORSO D'ESTE. VOLUME I fol. 5v & fol. 6 Book of Genesis, Volume I".
483. Fran�oise Robin, Docteur �s lettres, La Cour d' Anjou-Provence, La vie artistique sous le r�gne de
Ren�, (Picard Editeur, 1985), fig, 124. Ibidem fol. 182: Mariage d'Emilie et de Palamon. Shows the
religious leader grasping the wrist of the couple to bring their right hands together to make the clasp. See
also: Margaret M. Manion & Vera F. Vines, Medieval and Renaissance Illuminated Manuscript, In
Australian Collections, (London and New York: Thames and Hudson, Melbourne, 1984), pp. 144 & 173,
plate 36, Marriage of Joseph and Mary, No. 70, f.7r. The bishop depicted with them is grasping their
right wrists to bring their hands together. In this case, the artist shows the moments before they grip each
others' right hands. Other examples, show them clasping.
484. Walter Cahn, Romanesque Bible Illumination, (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1982
CR by Office du Livre, SA, Fribourg, Switzerland), p. 90, fig. 56. Wedding of Joseph: Millstatt Genesis
(Klagenfurt, K�rntner Landesarchiv, Cod. VI. 19, fol. 60v. The bride's right hand rest in the right hand of
the groom.
485. The George A. Hearn Collection of Carved Ivories, 1908, p. 125, fig. 97. Triptych. The Marriage of
Joseph & Mary. In this ivory carving, the religious leader grasps the wrist of the bride to bring her right
hand together with the right hand of the groom.
486. Jahrbuch Der Berliner Museen,Jahrbuch der Preu�ischen Kunstsammlungen Neue Folge, Elfter
Band 1969, (Verlagsort, Berlin: Im Gemeinschaftsverlag G. Grote'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung KG - Gebr.
Mann), page 129, Abb. 49--50. Bible moralis�e; Oxford, Bodl, 270 b. fol. 152 und 154. Marriage
ceremony, with the one performing it grasping, with both hands, the right wrists of the couple in order to
bring them together for the right hand clasp of marriage.
487. Ignace Vandevivere, Professor at the Catholic University of Louvain, and Catheline Perier-d'
Ieteren, Photos by Hugues Boucher, Renaissance Art In Belgium, Architecture, Monumental Art,
(Brussels: Marc Vokaer Publishers, 1973), pp. 81, 86-87. Hal, Church of St. Martin, reredos of Jean
Mone. Part of a depiction of the 7 sacraments. Refined Italian style. Right hands in marriage clasp. Kurt
Weitzmann, William C. Loerke, Ernst Kitzinger, Hugo Buchthal, The Place of Book Illumination in
Byzantine Art, (Princeton: The Art Museum, Princeton University, 1975), pp. 130--131, fig. 22. Marriage
of Moses, right hands clasping.
488. Roland H. Bainton, The Horizon History of Christianity, (New York: American Publishing Co.,
Inc., & Harper and Row, Publishers, 1964), pp. 70--71.
489. J. Boudet, Editor, Jerusalem A History, (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1965, Editions Robert
Laffont, & 1967, Paul Hamlyn Ltd.), pp.116-117.
490. Kurt Weitzmann, Editor, Age of Spirituality, Late Antique and Early Christian Art, 3rd to 7th
Century, (New York: The New York Metropolitan Museum of Art, exhibited November 19, 1977--
February 12, 1978), p. 413, no. 371. Place of origin, unknown, about 300-310 marble depiction, among
other things, of Adam and Eve clasping right hands in marriage, the official marriage gesture. Velletri,
Museo Civico, 171. (Reekmans, 1958, p. 65. L'union dans le p�ch�).
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491. Kurt Weitzmann, Editor, Age of Spirituality, Late Antique and Early Christian Art, 3rd to 7th
Century, (New York: The New York Metropolitan Museum of Art, exhibited Nov. 19, 1977-- Feb. 12,
1978), p. 283, fig. 261. 4th century, on a circular work, a couple grasps each others' right wrists in
marriage. Above the joined hands is a large wreathed crown, and there is also an inscription that reads
VIVATIS IN DEO, a formula used since the days of Clement of Alexandria in Christian wedding
ceremonies. See bibliography in Age of Spirituality: Morey, 1959, p. 72, pl. 36, fig. 447; Craven, 1975, p.
234, fig. 11.
492. David Talbot Rice, The Art of Byzantium, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1959), pp. 306,
number 73. 610--629, on a silver dish, is a Byzantium work that shows a couple clasping each others'
right hand in marriage. Leningrad. The Hermitage Museum. The marriage of David. A.D. 610-629.
Nicosia. The Archaeological Museum.
493. Andr� Grabar, The Golden age of JUSTINIAN, From the Death of Theodosius to the Rise of Islam,
(New York: Odyssey Press, 1967; Translated by Stuart Gilbert and James Emmons), p. 306, fig. 352.
Constantinople. Sliver Plate showing the Marriage of David to his bride, making the right hand grip.
Museum of Antiquities, Nicosia. Seventh or eighth century A.D.
494. Jennifer O'Reilly, Oct. 1972, A Garland Series, Outstanding Theses In The Fine Arts From British
Universities, Studies in the Iconography of the Virtues and Vices in the Middle Ages, (New York &
London: Garland Pub., Inc., 1988, Thesis submitted to the Un. of Nottingham for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy, Oct. 1972), pp. 240--43, figures 18a and 18b. F.186v of the Bible Moralis�e, c. 1240,
showing God or the pre-existing Christ, grasping the wrist of Eve to raise her out of Adam's side.
Inasmuch as this is also under the crucifixion scene, it is also a type of the hand and wrist grasping that
takes place during the harrowing of hell, where Christ raises Adam and Eve out of their graves or out of
hades, limbo, & purgatory, etc., with different types of hand and wrist grasps. There is also a part of a
manuscript, fig. 18a, that shows God, or the pre-existing Christ, grasping, with his left hand, the right
wrist of Eve, who has both hands up in praise or the prayer gesture, as she is being pulled out of Adam's
side. Below this, is the type of the first, for a small figure, perhaps Eve, is being pulled out of the side of
the crucified Christ through hand grasping. Below this, is a marriage scene in which God, like the priests,
grasps the wrists of Adam,and Eve as if to bring them together in the hand clasp of marriage.
495. Jennifer O'Reilly, Oct. 1972, Studies in the Iconography of the Virtues and Vices in the Middle
Ages, graphics before p. 241, fig. 18b, 256, art works after p. 348, figures 26, 27, p. 356--57, art works
after p. 370, fig. 31a & 31b, & p. 391.
496. Jennifer O'Reilly, Oct. 1972, Studies in the Iconography of the Virtues and Vices in the Middle
Ages, art work before p. 369, fig. 30b, see also p. 369.
497. Jennifer O'Reilly, Oct. 1972, Studies in the Iconography of the Virtues and Vices in the Middle
Ages, graphics after p. 226, fig. 17.
498. Esmond Wright, General Editor, The Medieval and Renaissance World, (Hamlyn Publishing Groups
Limited, 1969, revised 1979), p. 39. The religious leader grasps the wrist of the bride to bring the
couple's right hands together in marriage.
499. British Library Series No. 3: The Benedictines in Britain, (Great Russell Street, London: The British
Library, 1980), pp. 56--57; Muriel Clayton, M.A., Brass Rubbings, Victoria and Albert Museum,
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Catalogue of Rubbings of Brasses and Incised Slabs, (London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1968),
plate 6, c. 1380. Sir J. de la Pole and wife, gripping each others' right hands. With the wife's thumb
resting on the ring finger's knuckle Chrishall, Essex. Plate 9, Sir J. Harsick and wife, same grip, except
this time, the husband's thumb is resting on the wife's knuckle. Southacre, Norfolk. A.D. 1384. Plate 12.
R. de Frevile and wife, Little Shelford, Cambs. A.D. 1410. In this one, the couple grips each others right
hands. Plate 14. J. Hauley and two wives, St. Saviour, Dartmouth. A. D. 1408. Grip made with each
others' right hands. Plate 15. Baron Camoys and wife, Troteon, Susser. A.D. 1419. Right hands gripping.
Plate 16. P. Halle and wife, Herne, Kent. A.D. 1430. Right hands grasping. Plate 25. Sir W. Mauntell and
wife, Nether Heyford, Northants. A.D. 1487. Right hands clasping. Plate 40. R. Torryngton and wife, Gt.
Berkhampstead, Herts. A.D. 1356. Right gripping right. Plate 48. G. Coles and two wives, St. Sepulchre,
Northampton. The Husband grips each of the two wives' hands with both of his. The one on his right, the
grasp is made with the right hands. The one on his left, he grips her left with his left, in a different way
than the others mentioned.
500. Jennifer O'Reilly, Oct. 1972, Studies in the Iconography of the Virtues and Vices in the Middle
Ages, graphics after p. 240, figure or plate 18, see both 18a & 18b & p. 391.
501. Mikl�s Boskovits, The Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, Early Italian painting 1290--1470,
(London: Sotheby's Publications, 1990, translated from Italian by Fran�oise Pouncey Chiarini, General
Editor, Irene Martin), p. 110, fig. 6, b. The grasping hand marriage scene of St. Catherine.
502. The Toledo Museum Of Art European Paintings, (The Toledo Mus. of Art, Tol. Ohio., Dist. by
Penn. State Un., Press, 1st printing 1976, Designed by Harvey Retzloff, pp.59, & 231, pl.77. "Flemish,
Anonymous, Marriage of a Saint". The Marriage of Henry VI. Ca. 1475-1500.
503. Marjorie & C. H. B. Quennell, Everyday Life In Roman And Anglo-Saxon Times, (Including Viking
And Norman Times), (New York: Dorset Press, 1959), pp.83-4, fig.68.
504. Nigel Morgan, Early Gothic Manuscripts (II) 1250--1285, (London: Harvey Miller, 1988), fig. 107.
A.D. 1250--1285, in early Gothic Manuscripts, from Hereford, Cathedral Library, o. 7. VII, f. 109 and f.
156 (cat. 119). A lettered art work shows a Bishop grasping the wrists of a couple to join their right
hands in marriage. In this case, the groom's middle finger looks as though it is touching the middle part
of the bride's right hand.
505. Jaroslav Folda, Crusader Manuscript Illumination at Saint-Jean d'Acre, 1275--1291, (New Jersey:
Princeton University Press, 1976), fig. 137. Fol. 264v, Book 22, chapter 1. A.D. 1275--1291, in a
depiction of Baldwin IV, he gives Sibylle in marriage to Guy de Lusignan by grasping them both by their
right wrists to bring their right hands together.
506. Gabriel Bise, Translated by G. Ivans and D. MacRae, The Illuminated Napels Bible, Old Testament,
14th Century Manuscript, (Crescent Books), p. 60. #8, The Book of Ruth, Elimelech with his wife Naomi
and his two sons, Mahlon and Chilion. 14th century, in the Illuminated Napels Bible, showing the Book
of Ruth, two marriage scenes show two religious leaders grasping the right wrist of the couples, two
bring the grooms' right hands to grip the right hands of the brides.
507. Mit Beitr�gen von, Gabriele Atanassiu, Mariano d' Alatri, Stanislao da Campagnola, Servus Gieben,
Engelbert Grau OFM, Raoul Manselli, Raymond Oursel, Clemente Schmitt, Franz von Assisi, (Italy;
Stuttgart, Z�rich: Belser Verlag, 1990), 176--177, Meister der Stichkappen: Allegorie der Armut, um
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1320. Assisi, Unterkirche, Gew�lbe �ber dem Hauptaltar. The arms of God extend out of heaven over a
wrist grasping marriage ceremony, above which an angel holds a vest or garment.
508. Nikolaus Pevsner, Editor, The Pelican History of Art, (Penguin Books, 1955), vol. 9: Lawrence
Stone, Sculpture In Britain, The Middle Ages, p. 183, fig. 5. Brass of Sir John and Lady de la Pole, c.
1380. Chrishall, Essex. Sir John and Lady de la Pole, shows them united together, symbolic of their right
hands clasped, with the thumb of lady's right hand resting on the third finger's knuckle.
509. Brian Murphy, The World of Weddings, (New York; London: Paddington Press, LTD, 1978), p. 99.
Early 15th century, in a composition of the wedding ceremony of Philippe d' Artois, Comte d' Eu, and
Marie, daughter of Duc de Berry, the couple are joined together by their right hands by a religious leader
who holds the right wrist of the groom. In this case, the ceremony take place outside the church.
510. Geoffrey Barraclough, The Christian World, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, CR
1981 Thames and Hudson Ltd., London), p. 144. A.D. 1420, in a drawing of a wedding ceremony, the
couple is joined together by their right hands, with the help of a man who brings them together by
grasping the groom's arm.
511. Pompeo Molmenti, Venice, Its Individual Growth From the Earliest to the Fall of the Republic,
(Chicago: A. C. McClurg and Co.; London: John Murry; Istituto, Italiano: Bergamo, 1906, translated by
Horatio F. Brown), vol. 2, part 1, The Middle Ages, p.42.
512. John Barton, Joy Law, The Hollow Crown, The Follies, foibles and faces of the Kings and Queens
of England, (New York: The Dial Press, CR Barton, 1962), pp. 88, 89, 96 & 97. In a manuscript drawing,
perhaps 15th century, the marriage of Henry V to Catherine of France, shows them shaking each others'
right hand. In a 15th century Illumination manuscript, a portion shows the marriage of Henry VI to
Margaret of Anjou, in this case, the King sets his left hand on the Queen's right, while her left is on a
book, perhaps the bible, as if she is making an oath or vow on the holy book.
513. The Secular Spirit: Life and Art at the End of the Middle Ages, (New York: A Dutton Visual Book
E. P. Dutton & Company, Inc., with The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1975), p. 243. A.D. 1448, a scene
depicting the Marriage of Count Girart de Roussillon to the daughter of the count of Sens, shows the
bishop grasping the right wrist groom, and gently, with his left, the right wrist of the bride, to join the
couples right hands together. It is unclear if he is also grasping the wrist of the bride too, but it is
possible. Illuminated page in the Roman de Girart de Roussillon, Mons, the south Netherlands, 1448
(�sterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna, Ms. 2549); Georges Dogaer, Flemish Miniature Painting in
the 15th and 16th Centuries, (Amsterdam: B. M. Isra�l B. V., 1987, translated by Anna E. C. Simoni and
others), p. 78, fig. 39. Master of the Girart de Roussillon.
514. Frederick Hartt, Art, A History of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, (New York: Harry N.
Abrams, Inc., 1976), p. 115, fig. 118. A.D. 1452--1456, in Jean Fouquet's depiction of the Marriage of
the Virgin, from the Book of Hours of �tienne Chevalier, the religious leader joins the right hands of the
couple, by grasping their wrists. Illumination, Mus�e Cond�, Chantilly, France.
515. Lynn Thorndike, The History of Medieval Europe, (Boston; New York; Chicago; Dallas; Atlanta;
San Francisco: Houghton Mifflin Company, The Riverside Press Cambridge, 1917, 1928, 1945, 1949),
pp. 603 & 604, fig. 89.
516. Madeleine Jarry, 1969, World Tapestry, From Its Origins to the Present, (New York: G. P. Putnam's
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Sons, 1968 & 1969; France: Librairie Hachette, 1968, 1969, original entitled: La Tapisserie), pp. 78--79.
1475, or third quarter of the 15th century, Tournai. On a tapestry, one of the seven sacraments shown is
that of the marriage. In this case, the religious leader grasps, with his left hand, the right wrist of the
groom, as the bride grips, with her right, the right hand of the groom. Fragments are in the Metropolitan
Museum of Art, the Victoria and Albert Museum & in the collection of William Burnell in England. The
tapestry may have been made by Pasquier Grenier, 1475, who then offered it to the church of
Saint-Quentin in Tournai. Metropolitan Museum of Art, gift by J. Pierpont Morgan. See also: New
Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 21, p. 809, fig. 2-b.
517. New Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 21, p. 809, figures 2-a & 2-b. Flemish silk work of the seven
sacraments, work by Pasquier Grenier, Tournai. A.D. 1475, see fig. 2-b. In some cases, the marriage
ceremony is intended to reflect Old Testament types, for there are depictions of God the Father, grasping
the wrists of Adam and Eve, before their right hands are brought together to make the marriage clasp (see
fig. 2-a).
518. History of the English Speaking Peoples, vol. 3, p. 780. A.D. 1487, on brass, from a
Northamptonshire church, is a depiction of an English rite of marriage, showing Sir Maunteel gripping,
with his right hand, the right hand of his wife, while she holds up her left hand to perhaps indicate their
wedding vows. A rubbing of this brass work is also found in the Victoria and Albert Museum.
519. Richard I. Abrams & Warner A. Hutchinson, An Illustrated Life of Jesus, From the National
Gallery of Art Collection, (Nashville: Abingdon, 1982), pp. 16--17, A.D. 1488--1541, Bernaert van
Orley's Flemish work of the marriage of the Virgin, shows the couple joining each others' right hands.
Samuel H. Kress Collection, 1952.
520. Jan Bialostocki, The Art of the Renaissance in Eastern Europe, (Hungary, Bohemia, and Poland),
The Wrightsman Lectures delivered under the auspices of the New York Un., Institute of Fine Arts,
(New York: Cornell University Press, C/R 1976, Phaidon Press Lim., Oxford), vol. 8, p.12 & 91, fig. 25.
521. Ernst & Johanna Lehner, Devils, Demons, Death and Damnation, (New York: Dover Pictorial
Archive Series, Dover Pub., Inc., 1971), p.158, fig.224.
522. Clive Gregory LLB., Sue Lyon BA, Editors, Marshall Cavendish, The Northern Renaissance,
(Marshall Cavindish Publishing & Company, CR MCMLXXXV, MCMLXXXVIII), p. 106, A.D. 1533,
a depiction of the Scala/Vasari wedding of Catherine de'Medici to Henry 2nd/Palazzo Vecchio, Florence
show the religious leader grasping, with his right hand, the right wrist of the groom. In this case the artist
decided to show the moments before the clasp, for the religious leader's left hand is about to grasp the left
wrist of the bride to bring them both together. In 1533 Catherine was wed to the Duke of Orleans, who in
A.D. 1547 became Henry the 2nd of France.
523. Pompeo Molmenti, Venice, Its Individual Growth From the Earliest to the Fall of the Republic,
(Chicago: A. C. McClurg and Co.; London: John Murry; Istituto, Italiano: Bergamo, 1907, translated by
Horatio F. Brown), vol. 2, part 1, part 2, The Golden Age, p. 197.
524. Louis Herbert Gray, A.M., Ph.D., Editor, George Foot Moore, A.M., D.D., LL.D., Consulting
Editor, The Mythology of All Races, (Boston: Marshall Jones Company, 1917), in 13 volumes, see vol. 6,
in between pages 118--119, plate 10. Right hand clasp in Asian Marriage scene in old stone carving of
their deities.
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525. Encyclopedia of World Art, vol. 5, plate 226. In an imitation of contemporary artists from the
Renaissance to Baroque styles, imitating Durer's style, with his monogram, is another depiction of a
marriage ceremony. In this case, the religious leader grips gently the arm of the bride with one hand, and
the wrist of the groom with the other hand to bring their right hands together. The couples' right hand
thumbs rest on each others' second fingers' knuckles.
526. Lillian Eichler, The Customs of Mankind, With Notes on Modern Etiquette and the Newest Trend
in Entertainment, (Garden City, New York: Nelson Doubleday, Inc., 1924), p. 33. An early 19th century
interpretation of the Creation, by Thomas Blake, God is grasping, with his right hand, the right hand of
Adam, while his left grasps Eve's wrist. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
527. Andr� Maurois, An Illustrated History of Germany, (London: The Bodley Head, 1965, 1966,
English translation, translated from French by Stephen Hardman), pp. 200-- 201, Olaf Raren,
1787--1839, in 1820, on the Island of F�hr, Germany, painted a marriage ceremony, in which the groom
and the bride grasp each others' right hands, while the one performing the ceremony rest his right hand
on the groom's right hand. Hamburg, Staatliche Hochschule f�r bildende K�nste.
528. Diane Warner, Complete Book of Wedding Vows, (Franklin Lakes, New Jersey: Career Press, 1996),
p. 28.
529. Jacques Legrand, S.A., Chronicle of the World, (Paris: International, 1989), p.256.
530. Lucinda Hawksley, Essential Pre-Raphaelites, (UK, Queen Street House: Demspey Parr Book,
2000; Parragon CR 1999), introduction: Dr. Juliet Hacking. See pp. 48-49 & 186. Walter Howell
Deverell, 1827--54, painting entitled: As You Like It, of "marriage" clasp done with right hands, thumbs
resting on second knuckle down on each right hand. Celia in the guise of a boy, pretending to Officiate at
the "marriage" of Orlando and Rosalind in guise of boy.
531. W.G. Thomson, (3rd edition revised and edited by F.P. & E.S. Thomson), A History of Tapestry,
From the Earliest Times until the Present Day, (E P Publishing Limited, First edition 1906, this edition
1973), p. 201. The marriage of Tobit. Thumb rests on the second knuckle in this marriage clasp. While
the one performing the marriage has brought the couples' right hands together by holding brides' wrist.
532. Richard H. Randall Jr., and Diana Buitron, Jeanny Vorys Canby, William R. Johnston, Andrew
Oliver, Jr. and Christian Theuerkauff, Masterpieces of Ivory, From the Walters Art Gallery, (New York:
Christian Theuerkauff, Publishing, Hudson Hills Press, with W. A. G. Baltimore, 1985), p. 318, #483, A.
D. 1890's, a Spanish work, carved bone and ivory on wood, shows the marriage of the Virgin, with a
right hand grip. Pseudo-Gothic Triptych, ascribed to Francisco Pallas y Puig, A.D. 1859--1926.
533. Lillian Eichler, The Customs of Mankind, With Notes on Modern Etiquette and the Newest Trend
in Entertainment, (Garden City, New York: Nelson Doubleday, Inc., 1924), p. 228.
534. Eugene Seaich, Ancient Text and Mormonism, (Murray, Utah: Sounds of Zion, 1983), pp. 78 & 79;
The Gospel of Philip, an early Christian work, 68:22-26; 70:9-21.
535. Lillian Eichler, The Customs of Mankind, With Notes on Modern Etiquette and the Newest Trend
in Entertainment, (Garden City, New York: Nelson Doubleday, Inc., 1924), pp. 228 & 231.
536. Lillian Eichler, The Customs of Mankind, With Notes on Modern Etiquette and the Newest Trend
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in Entertainment, (Garden City, New York: Nelson Doubleday, Inc., 1924), p. 231.
537. Mary L. Davis & Greta Pack, Mexican Jewelry, (Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press, 1963),
pp. 20--21, plate 12. Showing hand clasping rings.
538. Margaret Baker, Wedding Customs And Folklore, (Tor., New Jersey: David and Charles, & R & L.,
1977), p. 33. A gimmal ring is made up of three sections, and includes two right hands, when put
together, forms the hand clasp. It is from the "Courting Days."
539. Fay-Cooper Cole, Ph.D., Sc.D., LL.D., and Harris Gaylord Warren, Ph.D., An Illustrated Outline
History of Mankind, (Chicago: Consolidated Book Publishers, 1951, 1955, 1959, 1963), vol. 1, pp. 288,
see illustration of the visit of Richard II to his uncle, John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, at his castle at
Pleshy. In traditions among the Asian peoples, the clasp and kiss on the hand of the civil leader is seen
too (see: Oliver Beaupr� Miller, assisted by Harry Neal Baum, The Story of Mankind, A Picturesque Tale
of Progress, (Lake Bluff, Illinois: The Book House for Children, Tangley Oaks Educational System,
1933, 1935, 1949, 1952, 1957, 1963), vol. 4, Explorations, Part !, p. 47, illustration of the court of the
lordly Genghis Khan, Emperor of All Men, now luxurious with the spoils of Northern China. The long
arm of the Emperor is being clasp on his wrist area, while "a conquered foe is kissing his mater's hand in
submission. (Miniature in Bibliotheque National, Paris). See also page 62, illustration of the court scene
of Genghis, in which a noble is bowed down before the tyrant to clasp the right hand of the Emperor with
his right, while kissing the top of his the Emperor's hand too. See also: Pamela B. De Vinne,
Coordinating Editor, with other Editors, Webster's Illustrated Encyclopedic Dictionary, (Montreal,
Canada: Tormont Publications, Inc., 1990), p. 929, see "kiss of peace" n. "A ceremonial gesture, as a kiss
or handshake, used as a sign of unity and brotherhood among those celebrating and attending the
Eucharist." See also: James Harvey Robinson, Ph.D., Medieval and Modern Times, (Boston; New York;
Chicago; London; Atlanta; Dallas; Columbus; San Francisco: Ginn and Company, 1916, 1918, 1919), pp.
103--105, fig. 35, ceremony of homage hand grasp. The kiss upon the hand and the clasp have been
dramatized in such movies as Lady Hawk, one about Joan of Arc and others about the Medieval times
too.
540. Pamela B. De Vinne, Coordinating Editor, with other Editors, Webster's Illustrated Encyclopedic
Dictionary, (Montreal, Canada: Tormont Publications, Inc., 1990), p. 929, see "kiss of peace" n.
541. George Frederick Kunz, Ph.D., Sc.D., A.M., Rings For The Finger, FROM THE EARLIEST
KNOWN TIMES TO THE PRESENT, WITH FULL DESCRIPTIONS OF THE ORIGIN, EARLY
MAKING, MATERIALS, THE ARCH�OLOGY, HISTORY, FOR AFFECTION, FOR LOVE, FOR
ENGAGEMENT, FOR WEDDING, COMMEMORATIVE, MOURNING, ETC. (New York, New York:
Dover Publications, Inc., 1973, originally published in East Washington Square, Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1917), p. 268.
542. George Frederick Kunz, Ph.D., Sc.D., A.M., Rings For The Finger, FROM THE EARLIEST
KNOWN TIMES TO THE PRESENT, WITH FULL DESCRIPTIONS OF THE ORIGIN, EARLY
MAKING, MATERIALS, THE ARCH�OLOGY, HISTORY, FOR AFFECTION, FOR LOVE, FOR
ENGAGEMENT, FOR WEDDING, COMMEMORATIVE, MOURNING, ETC. (New York, New York:
Dover Publications, Inc., 1973, originally published in East Washington Square, Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1917), p. 267.
543. Alice K. Turner, The History of Hell, (New York; San Diego; London: Harcourt Brace & Company,
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1993), pp. 66--67, 72--73, 75, 87, 95, 96, 117, 130; The Lost Books of the Bible, (Newfoundland: USA:
Alpha House, 1926), pp. 63--90, chapters XII--XIX, especially note chapter xix, verses 1--8, 11--12,
chapter xx, verses 1, 11--14; The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 8, pp. 416--58.
544. George Frederick Kunz, Ph.D., Sc.D., A.M., Rings For The Finger, FROM THE EARLIEST
KNOWN TIMES TO THE PRESENT, WITH FULL DESCRIPTIONS OF THE ORIGIN, EARLY
MAKING, MATERIALS, THE ARCH�OLOGY, HISTORY, FOR AFFECTION, FOR LOVE, FOR
ENGAGEMENT, FOR WEDDING, COMMEMORATIVE, MOURNING, ETC. (New York, New York:
Dover Publications, Inc., 1973, originally published in East Washington Square, Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1917), p. 267.
545. Jennifer O'Reilly, Oct. 1972, Studies in the Iconography of the Virtues and Vices in the Middle
Ages, graphics after p. 240, figure or plate 18, see both 18a & 18b & p. 391.
546. DaRell Don Thorpe, The Ancient And Modern Anti-Christs Against the Early Saints, and The
Latter-day Saints, (Salt Lake City, Utah: R.H.& P.S., 1990 & 1991); Robert L. Wilken, The Christians
As The Romans Saw Them, (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1984); W.H.C. Frend,
Martyrdom & Persecution In the Early Church, (Garden City, New York: Anchor Books Doubleday,
1967); A.S. Garretson, Primitive Christianity and Early Criticisms, (Boston: Sherman, French &
Company, 1912); Francis Legge, Forerunners & Rivals Of Christianity, From 330 B.C. to 330 A.D.,
(University Books, 1964), 2 volumes in 1; R. Joseph Hoffmann, Celsus On The True Doctrine, A
Discourse Against The Christians, (Oxford University Press, 1987); The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 4, pp.
395--669, Origen Against Celsus, 8 books. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 1, pp. 194--270, Justin
Martyr's Dialogue With Trypho.
547. The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 4, pp. 177, 397, 398, 399. The Octavius of Minucius Felix, chapter 9:
Origen Against Celsus, Book 1, chapters 1, 3, 7, etc.
548. Stephen Ernest Benko, Ph. D., Pagan Rome And The Early Christians, (Bloomington: Indiana
University Press, 1984), p. 60.
549. Benko, Pagan Rome And The Early Christians, p. 65; Compton, in By Study And Also By Faith, vol.
1, p. 635, note 48, and p. 633, note 23.
550. Benko, Pagan Rome And The Early Christians, pp. 126--27. John P. Lundy, Monumental
Christianity, Or The Art and Symbolism of the Primitive Church, (New York: J W Bouton 707
Broadway, 1882), p. 27; Leonard W. Cowie, The March of the Cross, (New York, Toronto; London:
McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1962), p. 20, fig. 26; James L. Barker, Apostasy from The Divine Church,
(Salt Lake City, Utah, Deseret News Press, Kate Montgomery Barker, 1960), pp. 123--26, chapter 10,
Persecutions.
551. The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, vol. 7, pp. xxiii-- xxvi, pp. 147--148, S. Cyril of Jerusalem,
Lectures On the Mysteries, Lecture 20:5; The Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers, 5, pp. 518--24, Gregory of
Nyssa, On The Baptism of Christ. DaRell D. Thorpe, The Mystery Behind The Mysteries, Ritualistic
Realm Pilgrims In Early to Later Christian Mysteries, (Salt Lake City, Utah: Religious, Historical
and Polemical Studies, Winter 1997, an unpublished research paper for a college class, HIS 190--01
Special Studies. Instructor: Marianne McKnight. Student: DaRell D. Thorpe, Winter quarter, 1997, Salt
Lake Community College, Utah).
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552. George Frederick Kunz, Ph.D., Sc.D., A.M., Rings For The Finger, FROM THE EARLIEST
KNOWN TIMES TO THE PRESENT, WITH FULL DESCRIPTIONS OF THE ORIGIN, EARLY
MAKING, MATERIALS, THE ARCH�OLOGY, HISTORY, FOR AFFECTION, FOR LOVE, FOR
ENGAGEMENT, FOR WEDDING, COMMEMORATIVE, MOURNING, ETC. (New York, New York:
Dover Publications, Inc., 1973, originally published in East Washington Square, Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1917), p. 267. Notes 29 & 30. Isidori, "De ecclesiasticis
officiis," lib. ii, cap. v, 12; Migne, "Patrologia Latina," vol. lxxxiii, cols. 783, 784.
553. Julia Jones & Kenneth Ames, Love Tokens, (Stamford Ct.: Longmeadow Press, Text 1992 by
Hidden Treasures, Photos 1992 by Derek Harris), see p.14.
554. Diane Warner, Complete Book of Wedding Vows, (Franklin Lakes, New Jersey: Career Press, 1996),
p. 20.
555. The Walter Art Gallery, Early Christian and Byzantine Art, An Exhibition held at The Baltimore
Museum of Art, April 25--June 22, (Organized by The Walter Art Gallery), (Baltimore: The Trustees of
the Walters Art Gallery, 1947), p. 105, Plate LXV, fig. 508, hand clasping ring, marriage, Byzantine, 6th
century.
556. Kurt Weitzmann, Editor, Age of Spirituality, Late Antique and Early Christian Art, 3rd to 7th
Century, (New York: The New York Metropolitan Museum of Art, exhibited Nov. 19, 1977-- Feb. 12,
1978), p. 285, fig. 263. Marriage ring, Constaninople (?), 6th-- 7th century. Virginia Museum of Fine
Arts, 66-37-7. See bibliography in Age of Spirituality, Craven, 1975, p. 235, fig. 12; Grabar, 1943, I, p.
222; Kantorowicz, 1960, p. 14; Ross, 1968, p. 23, fig. 27. Possible hand clasp of marriage depicted on
the ring, with Christ officiating the marriage rite.
557. Anna Ward, John Cherry, Charlotte Gere, Barbara Cartlidge, Rings Through the Ages, (Rizzoli
International Publishers, Inc., English Edition, 1981), fig. 7, p. 54. A medieval drawing of a ring shows
two right hand clasped together with lombardic lettering on the band area.
558. Anna Ward, John Cherry, Charlotte Gere, Barbara Cartlidge, Rings Through the Ages, (Rizzoli
International Publishers, Inc., English Edition, 1981), plate 114, p. 60. 12th century, English, a silver ring
has two right hands clasped together, symbolizing a sign of faithfulness, especially in love and marriage.
The ring, along with many others, was deposited about A.D. 1180, and later found at Lark Hill near
Worcester, England, in 1854.
559. Charles Oman, Formerly Keeper of the Department of Metalwork at the Victoria & Albert Museum,
British Rings 800--1914, (Totowa, New Jersey: Rowman & Littlefield, 1973, first printed in the U.S.A.,
1974), fig. A. 13th century Lombardic type, showing two hands which, if together, would clasp.
560. Anna Ward, John Cherry, Charlotte Gere, Barbara Cartlidge, Rings Through the Ages, (Rizzoli
International Publishers, Inc., English Edition, 1981), p. 67, plate 137, A.D. 14th century, a French right
hand clasping ring was found with coins and other things, during a demolition of a house in la rue aux
Juifs at Colmar, France, in 1923. Mus�e de Cluny, Paris, CL 20668.
561. Guido Gregorietti, Jewelry Through The Ages, (Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited, 1969; translated
from Italian into English by Helen Lawrence), p. 166. 14th century, two rings connect together by joining
the hands. National Museum of Art, Bucharest.
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562. Guido Gregorietti, Jewelry Through The Ages, (New York: American Heritage; translated from
Italian into English by Helen Lawrence, CR Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited, 1969), p. 166. 14th
century hand clasping ring is made up of two rings that connect together to into one when the hands on
them are joined together.
563. D. P. Simpson, M.A., In Cassel's Latin Dictionary, (Cassell & Company, 1959), p. 187; Charlton T.
Lewis Ph.D., & Charles Short LL.D., Professor of Latin, Columbia College, Harper's Latin Dictionary,
A New Latin Dictionary Translation of Freund's Latin-German Lexicon, (New York: Columbia College,
1879), pp. 567 & 568, 1017.
564. Millard Meiss, assisted by Sharon Off Dunlap Smith, Elizabeth Home Beatson, The Limbourgs and
Their Contemporaries, (The Pierpont Morgan Library, 1974), plate volume, pl. 167. Harvard Hannibal
Master, ca. 1420, Paris, Bibl. nat., fr. 247, fol.3. In text volume, p. 44. See fig. 196, with footnote 184 of
p. 44. French painting, during the time of Jean De Berry, the Father grasps the wrists of Adam and Eve to
bring their right hands together to make the grip, know as junctio dextrarum," while two angels hold the
mantle of the Father.
565. Charles Oman, Formerly Keeper of the Department of Metalwork at the Victoria & Albert Museum,
British Rings 800--1914, (Totowa, New Jersey: Rowman & Littlefield, 1973, first printed in the U.S.A.,
1974), see 54 Love Rings. 15th century, a number of British rings show different types of hand grips on
them, one shows right hands clasping; another, the thumb rests on the knuckle of the 4th finger; a third
ring, two right hands clasp; another, the thumb rests on the third finger's knuckle; & the fifth is two right
hands making the clasp. These rings are called "love rings."
566. George Frederick Kunz, Ph.D., Sc. D., A.M., Rings For the Finger, p. 220, see also hand clasping
ring drawings.
567. George Frederick Kunz, Ph.D., Sc. D., A.M., Rings For the Finger, in between pp. 218 & 219.
568. George Frederick Kunz, Ph.D., Sc. D., A.M., Rings For the Finger, p. 219.
569. George Frederick Kunz, Ph.D., Sc. D., A.M., Rings For the Finger, graphic page after p. 272.
570. George Frederick Kunz, Ph.D., Sc. D., A.M., Rings For the Finger, in between pp. 218 and 219.
571. Anne Ward, John Cherry, Charlotte Gere, Barbara Cartlidge, Rings Through the Ages, (English
edition, Rizzoli International Publishing Inc., 1981), pp. 59, 101, fig. PL. 211. Gold right hand clasping
ring. French or German. Mid 16th century. Reubell Bequest, 1933. Mus�e des Arts Decoratifs, Paris
31096.
572. Ernst A. and Jean Heiniger, and others, The Great Book Of Jewels, (Edita Lausanne, 1974), p. 77.
Right hand clasping ring. 1586, German, two engagement rings with right hands on them, connect
together to become one ring, symbolic of the union of marriage. Engraved on the gold are the words:
WGZSFH bzw. DSDMNS, a variation of the inscription which is sometimes on these types of rings
reads: "What God has joined together, let no man cut asunder."
573. Guido Gregorietti, Jewelry Through The Ages, (New York: American Heritage, CR Arnoldo
Mondadori, 1969), p. 198. Late 16th century right hand clasping rings, consisting of two separate rings
that clasp together.
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574. Anne Ward, John Cherry, Charlotte Gere, Barbara Cartlidge, Rings Through the Ages, (English
edition, Rizzoli International Publishing Inc., 1981), p. 107, plate 221. Early 17th century, Flemish, a
multiple band, sometimes used in betrothal rings, shows two separate clasps, both made with right hands.
Waddesdon Bequest, cat. no. 197, British Museum, London.
575. George Frederick Kunz, Ph.D., Sc. D., A.M., Rings For the Finger, graphic page before p. 233.
576. Hugh Tait, Editor, Jewelry 7000 years, An International History and Illustrated Survey from the
Collection of the British Museum, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1986), p. 238, figures 614 and
615, A.D. 18th century love ring that shows right hands that clasp over a heart.
577. Anne Ward, John Cherry, Charlotte Gere, Barbara Cartlidge, Rings Through the Ages, (English
edition, Rizzoli International Publishing Inc., 1981), p. 114, plate 245. Gold & a carnelian intaglio.
French 1761, from the collection of J. Leturcq. Bt. 1873. Biblioth�que Nationale, Paris, Cabinet des
Medailles, K1111 25024C.
578. Carolyn Mordecai, You are cordially invited to Weddings, Dating & Love Customs of Cultures
Worldwide, Including Royalty, (Phoenix, Arizona: Nittany Publishers, 1999), p. 133.
579. Diane Warner, Complete Book of Wedding Vows, (Franklin Lakes, New Jersey: Career Press, 1996),
p. 22.
580. Encyclopedia of World Art, vol. 5, pl. 279. Master of Fl�malle, Marriage of the Virgin. Panel in
Madrid, Prado. Showing the couple's right hands joined together by the religious leader, who is about to
wrap a sash around their hands.
581. George Frederick Kunz, Ph.D., Sc. D., A.M., Rings For the Finger, From the Earliest Known
Times to the Present, With Full Descriptions of the Origin, Early Making, Materials, The Arch�ology,
History, For Affection, For Love, For Engagement, For Weddings, Commemorative, Mourning, Etc.,
(New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1973, originally published in 1917 by J. B. Lippincott), p. 218.
582. George Frederick Kunz, Ph.D., Sc. D., A.M., Rings For the Finger, p. 218.
583. George Frederick Kunz, Ph.D., Sc. D., A.M., Rings For the Finger, p. 218.
584. George Frederick Kunz, Ph.D., Sc. D., A.M., Rings For the Finger, graphic page before 221, see
top ring and explanation.
585. George Frederick Kunz, Ph.D., Sc. D., A.M., Rings For the Finger, graphic page before 221.
586. William Tegg, The "Knot Tied," (Singing Tree Press, 1877, 1970), pp. 97--129.
587. Warwick Bray, Everyday Life of The Aztecs, (New York: B.T. Batsford Ltd., Dorset Press, 1968), p.
67, fig. 19. The marriage ceremony (Codex Mendoza).
588. Margaret Baker, Wedding Customs And Folklore, (Tor., New Jersey: David and Charles, & R & L.,
1977), p. 33.
589. Paolo Muratoff, La Pittura Bizantina, (Casa Ed. D' arte Valori Plastici, Roma), see CXII, Dio
Rimprovera Adamo Arte Romanico-Bizantina (Prima met� del XII Sec.) Mosaico. S. Marco, Venezia
Fot. Alinari. 13th century.
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590. Jaroslav Folda, Crusader Manuscript Illumination at Saint-Jean d'Acre, 1275--1291, (New Jersey:
Princeton University Press, 1976), fig. 252. Fol. 12v, the marriage of Abraham and Sara, right wrist
being grasp, the moments before they clasp right hands. Sara's left hand is raised up as if making a
wedding vow.
591. Fredinand Seibt, Erich Bachmann, Hilde Bachmann, Gerhard Schmidt, G�tz Fehr, Christian Salm,
Editor: Erich Bachmann, Gothic Art in Bohemia, (Phaidon Press Limited, 1977, originally published as
Gotik in B�hmen, Phaidon Press Limited, 1969), fig. 80. A.D. 1340, in Gothic art in Bohemia, two
marriage scenes those of Joseph to Mary and Sarah and Tobias. In one, a bishop is grasping the wrists of
the couple to bring their right hands together. The artist picked the moments before the clasp. In the
other. In the other, the religious leader grasps the wrist of the bride with his right, while his other hand
holds a rod or rolled up document, perhaps the marriage certificate(?). The groom's right hand is clasping
the bride's right in this case. Each of the brides have their left hands raised as if to signify their wedding
vows. Speculum humanae salvationis from Weissenau near Lake Constance. Kremsm�nster, Monastery
Library.
592. History of the English Speaking Peoples, vol. 3, p. 778. 13th-- 15th centuries, in some cases, English
speaking peoples had their Priests bring couples together to perform the wedding rites outside the church
doors. In a depiction of this, the priest's right hand is raised up, as if showing them the gestural oath of
fidelity, as the couple grasps each other by their right hands. Bodleian Library Filmstrip: Vestments.
13th-- 15th centuries.
593. G. H. Gombrich, The Story of Art, (Phaidon Press Limited, 1950,1972), pp. 180-81, fig. 159. A.D.
1434, Jan van Eyck's painting of the bethrothal of the Arnolfini, show the groom with his left hand
holding the bride's right hand, while his right hand is raised up to signify the solemn vow. "The young
woman has just put her right hand in Arnolfini's left and his is about to put his own right hand into hers
as a solemn token of their union." London, National Gallery.
594. Rosa Maria Letts, The Renaissance, (Cambridge University Press, 1981), pp. 36--37.
595. Peter & Linda Murray, The Art of the Renaissance, (Thames and Hudson, 1983), p. 82
596. Malcom Warner, Portrait Painting, (Phaidon Press, 1979), p. 19.
597. Frederick Hartt, Art, A History of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture, (New York: Harry N.
Abrams, 1976), vol. 2, pp. 100--102.
598. Robert Branner, Manuscript Painting In Paris During the Reign of Saint Louis, A Study of Styles,
(Berkleley; Los Angeles; London, England: University of California Press, CR 1977 by Shirley Prager
Branner), fig. 192. Initial for Codex, Book 5 (Lyon, Palais des Arts 43, f. 112. Wedding ceremony, in
which the priest's left hand grasps the right clasped hands of the couple. Each couples left hands are
raised up as if performing their wedding vows or oaths. According to Frederick Hartt, Art, a history of
painting, sculpture, and architecture, vol. 2, p. 102. While the couple grasps each others' hand, their
other free hands are raised up to make "an oath of fidelity." See also: E. H. Gombrich, The Story of Art,
(First published in 1950), pp. 180-81, fig. 159.
599. Diane Warner, Complete Book of Wedding Vows, (Franklin Lakes, New Jersey: Career Press, 1996),
pp. 29, 30, 32 & 34.
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600. Carolyn Mordecai, You are cordially invited to Weddings, Dating & Love Customs of Cultures
Worldwide, Including Royalty, (Phoenix, Arizona: Nittany Publishers, 1999), p. 48.
601. Lillian Eichler, The Customs of Mankind, With Notes on Modern Etiquette and the Newest Trend
in Entertainment, (Garden City, New York: Nelson Doubleday, Inc., 1924), p. 230.
602. Lillian Eichler, The Customs of Mankind, With Notes on Modern Etiquette and the Newest Trend
in Entertainment, (Garden City, New York: Nelson Doubleday, Inc., 1924), p. 230.
603. William Tegg, The "Knot Tied," (Singing Tree Press, 1877, 1970), pp. 92--96.
604. William Tegg, The "Knot Tied," (Singing Tree Press, 1877, 1970), pp. 92--96.
605. Marcus von Wellnitz, The Catholic Liturgy and the Mormon Temple, article published in Brigham
Young University Studies, (Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press, 1979), vol. 21, Winter 1981,
Number 1, p. 28. See also notes 135 & 136. Eisenhofer & Lechner, Liturgy of the Roman Rite, p. 126;
Dalmais, Eastern Liturgies, pp. 117 & 120. Mentioning the hand clasp in marriage, and altars, plus the
wedding vows or oaths and the hand clasp over the Gospel book.
606. William Tegg, The "Knot Tied," (Singing Tree Press, 1877, 1970), p. 130.
607. Margaret Baker, Wedding Customs And Folklore, (Tor., New Jersey: David and Charles, & R & L.,
1977), p. 33.
608. H. Clay Trumbull, D.D., The Blood Covenant, A Primitive Rite and its bearings on Scripture, (New
York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1885), pp. 65--71, 74 & 75.
New Temple Evidence
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